iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Gas exchange, biomass allocation and water-use efficiency in response to elevated CO2 and drought in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis, Meliaceae)

Marcilia Freitas de Oliveira (1), Ricardo Antonio Marenco (2)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 61-68 (2019)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2813-011
Published: Jan 24, 2019 - Copyright © 2019 SISEF

Research Articles

Prolonged droughts are predicted for some parts of the Amazon; however, it is still unclear how Amazonian trees will respond to water stress under the ongoing increase in CO2 concentration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and drought on photosynthetic rates, water-use efficiency, and biomass allocation in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis). The plants were grown in pots at ambient (400 ppm CO2) and eCO2 (700 ppm) at two water regimes, soil at 50% field capacity, FC (drought) and soil at 100% FC for 163 days. We measured light saturated photosynthesis on a mass basis (Asat-mass), stomatal conductance to CO2 on a mass basis (gsCO2-mass), whole-plant water-use efficiency (WUEP), biomass accumulation, specific leaf area (SLA) and total leaf area. At eCO2, Asat-mass increased 28% in well-watered plants and 93% under drought, whereas gsCO2-mass declined 39% in well-watered plants at eCO2, with no effect of drought on gsCO2-mass at eCO2. The total biomass gain improved 73% at eCO2 and over CO2 levels it was reduced (54%) by drought. WUEP improved (188%) at eCO2 in well-watered plants and 262% under drought. SLA declined 23% at eCO2, but the effect of drought on SLA was null. On the contrary, total leaf area was greatly reduced (67%) by drought, but it was not affected by eCO2. The large increase in total biomass and the substantial improvement in WUEP under eCO2, and the sharp decline in leaf area under water stress widen our knowledge on the physiology of this important species for the forest management of large areas in the Amazon region.


Carboxylation Efficiency, Nonstructural Carbohydrates, Specific Leaf Area, Shoot-root Ratio, Tree Growth

Authors’ address

Marcilia Freitas de Oliveira
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Botany Graduate Program, Avenida André Araújo, 2936, 69067-375 Manaus, AM (Brazil)
Ricardo Antonio Marenco
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia -INPA, Coordination of Environmental Dynamic, Tree Ecophysiology Laboratory, 69067-375 Manaus, AM (Brazil)

Corresponding author

Ricardo Antonio Marenco


Oliveira MF, Marenco RA (2019). Gas exchange, biomass allocation and water-use efficiency in response to elevated CO2 and drought in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis, Meliaceae). iForest 12: 61-68. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2813-011

Academic Editor

Rossella Guerrieri

Paper history

Received: Apr 14, 2018
Accepted: Nov 14, 2018

First online: Jan 24, 2019
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2019
Publication Time: 2.37 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 39794
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 33106
Abstract Page Views: 3682
PDF Downloads: 2423
Citation/Reference Downloads: 6
XML Downloads: 577

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1979
Overall contacts: 39794
Avg. contacts per week: 140.76

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2019): 7
Average cites per year: 1.40


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005)
What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytologist 165: 351-372.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007)
The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant, Cell and Environment 30: 258-270.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bahar NH, Hayes L, Scafaro AP, Atkin OK, Evans JR (2018)
Mesophyll conductance does not contribute to greater photosynthetic rate per unit nitrogen in temperate compared with tropical evergreen wet-forest tree leaves. New Phytologist 218: 492-505.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bellasio C, Quirk J, Beerling DJ (2018)
Stomatal and non-stomatal limitations in savanna trees and C4 grasses grown at low, ambient and high atmospheric CO2. Plant Science 274: 181-192.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bradford KJ, Hsiao TC (1982)
Physiological responses to moderate water stress. In: “Physiological Plant Ecology II - Water Relation and Carbon Assimilation” (Lange OL, Nobel PS, Osmond CB, Ziegler H eds). Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 263-324.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Brazil-MMA (2016)
Nota técnica 01/2016/DEMC/ SMCQ/MMA [Technical note 01/2016/DEMC/ SMCQ-MMA]. Ministério do Meio Ambiente MMA, Brasília, Brazil, pp. 1-6.
Online | Gscholar
Brienza S, Pereira JF, Yared JAG, Mourão M, Gonçalves DA, Galeão RR (2008)
Recuperação de áreas degradadas com base em sistema de produção florestal energético-madeireiro: indicadores de custos, produtividade e renda [Land reclamation based on production forestry system: cost indicators, productivity and incomes]. Amazônia Ciência e Desenvolvimento 4: 197-219. [in Portuguese]
Camargo MAB, Marenco RA (2012)
Growth, leaf and stomatal traits of crabwood (Carapa guianensis Aubl.) in central Amazonia. Revista Árvore 36: 07-16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Camargo MAB, Marenco RA (2017)
Tree growth over three years in response to monthly rainfall in central Amazonia. Dendrobiology 78: 10-17.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cernusak LA, Winter K, Martínez C, Correa E, Aranda J, Garcia M, Jaramillo C, Turner BL (2011)
Responses of legume versus non legume tropical tree seedlings to elevated CO2 concentration. Plant Physiology 157: 372-385.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Córdoba J, Pérez P, Morcuende R, Molina-Cano JL, Martinez-Carrasco R (2017)
Acclimation to elevated CO2 is improved by low Rubisco and carbohydrate content, and enhanced Rubisco transcripts in the G132 barley mutant. Environmental and Experimental Botany 137: 36-48.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cornic G, Ghashghaie GCJ, Genty B, Briantais JM (1992)
Leaf photosynthesis is resistant to a mild drought stress. Photosynthetica 27: 295-309.
Online | Gscholar
Curtis PS, Wang X (1998)
A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299-313.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dias DP, Marenco RA (2016)
Tree growth, wood and bark water content of 28 Amazonian tree species in response to variations in rainfall and wood density. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 9: 445-451.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Duffy PB, Brando P, Asner GP, Field CB (2015)
Projections of future meteorological drought and wet periods in the Amazon. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 112: 13172-13177.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dunisch O, Schwarz T, Neves EJM (2002)
Nutrient fluxes and growth of Carapa guianensis Aubl. in two plantation systems in the Central Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management 166: 55-68.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Evans JR, Seemann JR (1984)
Differences between wheat genotypes in specific activity of ribulose-1.5-bisphosphate carboxylase and the relationship to photosynthesis. Plant Physiology 74: 759-765.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Fatichi S, Leuzinger S, Körner C (2014)
Moving beyond photosynthesis: from carbon source to sink-driven vegetation modeling. New Phytologist 201: 1086-1095.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Flexas J, Gallé A, Galmés J, Ribas-Carbo M, Medrano H (2012)
The response of photosynthesis to soil water stress. In: “Plant Responses to Drought Stress” (Aroca R ed). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 129-144.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Fournier LA (2002)
Species description Carapa guianensis. In: “Tropical tree seed manual” (Vozzo JA ed). Agricultural Handbook 72, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 360-362.
Grace J (2016)
The Amazon carbon balance: an evaluation of methods and results. In: “Interactions between Biosphere, Atmosphere and Human Land Use in the Amazon Basin” (Nagy L, Forsberg BR, Artaxo P eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 79-100.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kauwe MG, Medlyn BE, Zaehle S, Walker AP, Dietze MC, Hickler T, Jain AK, Luo Y, Parton WJ, Prentice IC, Smith B, Thornton PE, Wang S, Wang Y, Warlind D, Weng E, Crous KY, Ellsworth DS, Hanson PJ, Kim H, Warren JM, Oren R, Norby RJ (2013)
Forest water use and water use efficiency at elevated CO2: a model-data intercomparison at two contrasting temperate forest FACE sites. Global Change Biology 19: 1759-1779.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kelly JW, Duursma RA, Atwell BJ, Tissue DT, Medlyn BE (2016)
Drought x CO2 interactions in trees: a test of the low-intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) mechanism. New Phytologist 209: 1600-1612.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kenfack D (2011)
A synoptic revision of Carapa (Meliaceae). Harvard Papers in Botany 16: 171-231.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kitao M, Yazaki K, Kitaoka S, Fukatsu E, Tobita H, Komatsu M, Maruyama Y, Koike T (2015)
Mesophyll conductance in leaves of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) seedlings grown under elevated CO2 concentration and low N availability. Physiologia Plantarum 155: 435-445.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Klimas CA, Cropper WP, Kainer KA, Wadt LHO (2012)
Viability of combined timber and non-timber harvests for one species: a Carapa guianensis case study. Ecological Modelling 246: 147-156.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lambers H, Chapin FS, Pons TL (2008)
Plant physiological ecology (2nd edn). Springer, New York, USA, pp. 11-254.
Lauteri M, Scartazza A, Guido MC, Brugnoli E (1997)
Genetic variation in photosynthetic capacity, carbon isotope discrimination and mesophyll conductance in provenances of Castanea sativa adapted to different environments. Functional Ecology 11: 675-683.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009)
Elevated Longed CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE. Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 2859-2876.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Zhu X, Long SP, Ort DR (2012)
Photosynthesis in a CO2-rich atmosphere. In: “Photosynthesis: Plastid Biology, Energy Conversion and Carbon Assimilation” (Eaton-Rye JJ, Tripathy BC, Sharkey TD eds). Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, pp. 733-768.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Marenco RA, Camargo MAB, Antezana-Vera AS, Oliveira MF (2017)
Leaf trait plasticity in six forest tree species of central Amazonia. Photosynthetica 55: 679-688.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Marenco RA, Gonçalves JFC, Vieira G (2001)
Photosynthesis and leaf nutrient contents in Ochroma pyramidale (Bombacaceae). Photosynthetica 39: 539-543.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Morison JIL (1998)
Stomatal response to increased CO2 concentration. Journal of Experimental Botany 49: 443-452.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nowak RS, Ellsworth DS, Smith SD (2004)
Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 - do photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions? New Phytologist 162: 253-280.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pan Y, Birdsey RA, Phillips OL, Jackson RB (2013)
The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world’s forests. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 44: 593-622.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Parry MAJ, Andralojc P, Khan S, Lea P, Keys AJ (2002)
Rubisco activity: effects of drought stress. Annals of Botany 89: 833-839.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Poorter H, Nagel O (2000)
The role of biomass allocation in the growth response of plants to different levels of light, CO2, nutrients and water: a quantitative review. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 27: 595-607.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Saatchi SS, Houghton RA, Alvala RCS, Soares JV, Yu Y (2007)
Distribution of aboveground live biomass in the Amazon basin. Global Change Biology 13: 816-837.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Salati E, Vose PB (1984)
Amazon Basin: a system in equilibrium. Science 225: 129-138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Singsaas EL, Ort DR, Delucia EH (2004)
Elevated CO2 effects on mesophyll conductance and its consequences for interpreting photosynthetic physiology. Plant, Cell and Environment 27: 41-50.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Souza CR, Azevedo CP, Rossi L (2008)
Desempenho de espécies florestais para uso múltiplo na Amazônia [Efficiency of forest species for multiple use in Amazonia]. Scientia Forestalis 36: 7-14. [in Portuguese]
Tardieu F, Granier C, Muller B (2011)
Water deficit and growth. Co-ordinating processes without an orchestrator? Current Opinion in Plant Biology 14: 283-289.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Way DA, Oren R, Kroner Y (2015)
The space-time continuum: the effects of elevated CO2 and temperature on trees and the importance of scaling. Plant, Cell and Environment 38: 991-1007.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Yan F, Li X, Liu F (2017)
ABA signaling and stomatal control in tomato plants exposure to progressive soil drying under ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. Environmental and Experimental Botany 139: 99-104.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info