iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Effects of nitrogen loading under low and high phosphorus conditions on above- and below-ground growth of hybrid larch F1 seedlings

Saki Fujita (1), Xiaona Wang (2), Kazuhito Kita (3), Takayoshi Koike (4)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 32-40 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2395-010
Published: Jan 09, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

Under present environmental conditions, hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) is a promising afforestation species as it has a high growth rate and tolerance against grazing damage, disease and cold. However, the input of nitrogen (N) to forests due to the increase of anthropogenic N is causing imbalances of N compared to other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), thus affecting the root growth of healthy seedlings. However, knowledge on how different N and P conditions affect F1 root growth is still limited. In this study, various N (3 levels) and P (no addition and addition) conditions were imposed to investigate the effect of N loading on larch F1 seedlings under different P conditions. Needle N: P ratio, aboveground growth, belowground growth as well as fine root production were measured. The results showed that needle N: P ratio was higher under low P loading, and aboveground growth of seedlings increased with N loading at both low and high P conditions. Relative fine root production was decreased by N loading. On the other hand, fine root to total dry proportion was increased by N loading at no P addition, suggesting that limited P availability could increase fine root production. Total root proportion to total dry mass was decreased by N loading at both P conditions. We concluded that N loading has different effects on above- and below-ground growth of larch F1 and its effects may also differ according to P conditions, indicating that both N and P conditions should be carefully considered when planting hybrid larch F1.


Nitrogen Deposition, Phosphorus, Fine Root Production, N: P Ratio, Hybrid Larch F1

Authors’ address

Saki Fujita
Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)
Xiaona Wang
Agricultural University of Hebei, Baoding 071-000 (China)
Kazuhito Kita
Forestry Research Institute, Hokkaido Research Organization, Bibai 079-0198 (Japan)
Takayoshi Koike
Research faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8589 (Japan)

Corresponding author



Fujita S, Wang X, Kita K, Koike T (2018). Effects of nitrogen loading under low and high phosphorus conditions on above- and below-ground growth of hybrid larch F1 seedlings. iForest 11: 32-40. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2395-010

Academic Editor

Giustino Tonon

Paper history

Received: Feb 07, 2017
Accepted: Nov 18, 2017

First online: Jan 09, 2018
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2018
Publication Time: 1.73 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 41102
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 35514
Abstract Page Views: 2091
PDF Downloads: 2687
Citation/Reference Downloads: 26
XML Downloads: 784

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2379
Overall contacts: 41102
Avg. contacts per week: 120.94

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2018): 5
Average cites per year: 0.83


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Abaimov AP, Zyryanova O, Prokushkin SG (2002)
Long-term investigations of larch forests in cryolithic zone of Siberia: brief history, recent results and possible changes under global warming. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 5: 95-106.
Aber JD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Steudler P, Melillo JM (1989)
Nitrogen saturation in northern forest ecosystems. BioScience 39: 378-386.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Aber JD, Goodale CL, Ollinger SV, Smith M-L, Magill AH, Martin ME, Hallett RA, Stoddard JL (2003)
Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests? BioScience 53: 375-389.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Braun S, Thomas VFD, Quiring R, Flückiger W (2010)
Does nitrogen deposition increase forest production? The role of phosphorus. Environmental Pollution 158: 2043-2052.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Burton AJ, Pregitzer KS, Hendrick RL (2000)
Relationships between fine root dynamics and nitrogen availability in Michigan northern hardwood forests. Oecologia 125: 389-399.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Chapin FS, Kedrowski RA (1983)
Seasonal changes in nitrogen and phosphorus fractions and autumn retranslocation in evergreen and deciduous taiga trees. Ecology 64: 376-391.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dong-Gyu K, Shi C, Watanabe M, Kita K, Satoh F, Koike T (2015)
Growth of Japanese and hybrid larch seedlings grown under free-air O3 fumigationâan initial assessment of the effects of adequate and excessive nitrogen. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 71: 239-244.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Elser JJ, Fagan WF, Kerkhoff AJ, Swenson NG, Enquist BJ (2010)
Biological stoichiometry of plant production: metabolism, scaling and ecological response to global change. New Phytologist 186: 593-608.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Erisman JW, Draaijers GPJ, Steingröver E, Dijk H, Boxman A, De Vries W (1998)
Assessment of the exposure and loads of acidifying and eutrophying pollutants and ozone, as well as their harmful influence on the vitality of the trees and the speulder forest ecosystem as a whole. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 105: 539-571.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Galloway JN, Aber JD, Erisman JW, Seitzinger SP, Howarth RW, Cowling EB, Cosby BJ (2003)
The nitrogen cascade. American Institute of Biological Sciences 53: 341-356.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Galloway JN, Dentener FJ, Capone DG, Boyer EW, Howarth RW, Seitzinger SP, Asner GP, Cleveland CC, Green PA, Holland EA, Karl DM, Michaels AF, Porter JH, Townsend AR, Vörösmarty CJ (2004)
Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochemistry 70: 153-226.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Galloway JN, Townsend AR, Erisman JW, Bekunda M, Cai Z, Freney JR, Martinelli LA, Seitzinger SP, Sutton MA (2008)
Transformation of the nitrogen cycle: Recent trends, questions, and potential solutions. Science 320: 889-892.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gilroy S, Jones DL (2000)
Through form to function: root hair development and nutrient uptake. Trends in Plant Science 5: 56-60.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gower ST, Richards JH (1990)
Larches: deciduous conifers in an evergreen world. BioScience 40: 818-826.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Güsewell S (2004)
N: P ratios in terrestrial plants: variation and functional significance. New Phytologist 164: 243-266.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hodge A, Berta G, Doussan C, Merchan F, Crespi M (2009)
Plant root growth, architecture and function. Plant and Soil 321: 153-187.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kaneyasu N, Yamamoto S, Sato K, Takami A, Hayashi M, Hara K, Kawamoto K, Okuda T, Hatakeyama S (2014)
Impact of long-range transport of aerosols on the PM2.5 composition at a major metropolitan area in the northern Kyushu area of Japan. Atmospheric Environment 97: 416-425.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kita K, Fujimoto T, Uchiyama K, Kuromaru M, Akutsu H (2009)
Estimated amount of carbon accumulation of hybrid larch in three 31-year-old progeny test plantations. Journal of Wood Science 55: 425-434.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Koike T, Kuromaru M, Qu LY, Choi D, Takagi K, Masyagina OV, Wang WJ, Sasa K (2004)
Process of larch plantation in northern Japan and development of hybrid larch (F1) for overcoming biological stresses. In: Proceedings of the “International Congress on Forest Bio-Resources”. Khabarovsk (Russia) 21-24 Sept 2004. Forest Research Institute of Far East, Khabarovsk, Russia, pp. 57-63.
Koike T, Yazaki K, Funada R, Maruyama Y, Mori S, Sasa K (2000)
Forest heath and vitality in northern Japan - A case study on larch plantation. Research Note of Faculty of Forestry, The University of Joensuu, vol. 92, pp. 49-60.
Li J, Guo Q, Zhang J, Korpelainen H, Li C (2016)
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on growth and physiological traits of two Larix species. Environmental and Experimental Botany 130: 206-215.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lynch (1995)
Plant architecture and plant productivity. Plant Physiology 109: 7-13.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lynch JP, Brown KM (1998)
Topsoil foraging - an architectural adaption of plants to low phosphorus availability. Plant and Soil 237: 225-237.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Magill AH, Aber JD, Currie WS, Nadelhoffer KJ, Martin ME, McDowell WH, Melillo JM, Steudler P (2004)
Ecosystem response to 15 years of chronic nitrogen additions at the Harvard Forest LTER, Massachusetts, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 196: 7-28.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mao Q (2013)
Ecophysiological study on the growth responses of larch species to changing environments - Effects of elevated CO2, O3, and high nitrogen loading. PhD thesis, Graduate School of Agriculture, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan, pp. 118.
Mao QZ, Watanabe M, Makoto K, Kita K, Koike T (2014)
High nitrogen deposition may enhance growth of a new hybrid larch F1 growing at two phosphorus levels. Landscape and Ecological Engineering 10: 1-8.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Matyssek R, Schulze ED (1987)
Heterosis in hybrid larch (Larix decidua × leptolepis). Trees 1: 225-231.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Matyssek R, Wieser G, Calfapietra C, De Vries W, Dizengremel P, Ernst D, Jolivet Y, Mikkelsen TN, Mohren GMJ, Le Thiec D, Tuovinen JP, Weatherall A, Paoletti E (2012)
Forests under climate change and air pollution: gaps in understanding and future directions for research. Environmental Pollution 160: 57-65.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Miyaki Y (1990)
Superior characters of the F1 hybrid Larix gmelinii × L. kaempferi and the growth gain in full-sib family selection. Forest Tree Breeding 33: 7-12.
Miyaura T, Hozumi K (1988)
Measurement of litterfall in a Japanese Larch (Larix leptolepis Gordon) plantation by the cloth-trap method. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 70: 11-19.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nadelhoffer KJ (2000)
The potential effects of nitrogen deposition on fine-root production in forest ecosystems. New Phytologist 147: 131-139.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nakaji T, Takenaga S, Kuroha M, Izuta T (2001)
Photosynthetic response of Pinus densiflora seedlings to high nitrogen load. Enviromental Science 9: 296-282.
Ostonen I, Püttsepp U, Biel C, Alberton O, Bakker MR, Lõhmus K, Majdi H, Metcalfe D, Olsthoorn AFM, Pronk A, Vanguelova E, Weih M, Brunner I (2007)
Specific root length as an indicator of environmental change. Plant Biosystems 141: 426-442.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Peñuelas J, Poulter B, Sardans J, Ciais P, Van Der Velde M, Bopp L, Boucher O, Godderis Y, Hinsinger P, Llusia J, Nardin E, Vicca S, Obersteiner M, Janssens IA (2013)
Human-induced nitrogen-phosphorus imbalances alter natural and managed ecosystems across the globe. Nature Communications 4: 2934.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Qu L, Quoreshi AM, Koike T (2003)
Root growth characteristics, biomass and nutrient dynamics of seedlings of two larch species raised under different fertilization regimes. Plant and Soil 255: 293-302.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Qu L (2016)
Ecophysiological study on the natural regeneration of the two larch species with special references to soil environment in larch forests. Eurasian Journal of Forest Research 19 (1): 1-51.
Reich PB, Oleksyn J (2004)
Global patterns of plant leaf N and P in relation to temperature and latitude. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101: 11001-11006.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ryan MG, Hubbard RM, Pongracic S, Raison RJ, Murtrie REMC (1996)
Foliage, fine root, woody-tissue and stand respiration in Pinus radiata in relation to nitrogen status. Tree Physiology 16: 333-343.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ryu K, Watanabe M, Shibata H, Takagi K, Nomura M, Koike T (2009)
Ecophysiological responses of the larch species in northern Japan to environmental changes as a basis for afforestation. Landscape and Ecological Engineering 5: 99-106.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Satoh T (1995)
Fundamental studies on the root growth of trees in Hokkaido. Bulletin of the Hokkaido Forestry Research Institute 31: 1-54.
Szmidt AE, Aldén T, Hällgren JE (1987)
Paternal inheritance of chloroplast DNA in Larix. Plant Molecular Biology 9: 59-64.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Takahashi T, Shoji S (2002)
Distribution and classification of volcanic ash soils. Global Environmental Research 6: 83-97.
Online | Gscholar
Tingey DT, Phillips DL, Johnson MG (2000)
Elevated CO2 and conifer roots: effects on growth, life span and turnover. New Phytologist 147: 87-103.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Uddling J, Karlsson PE, Glorvigen A, Sellden G (2006)
Ozone impairs autumnal resorption of nitrogen from birch (Betula pendula) leaves, causing an increase in whole-tree nitrogen loss through litter fall. Tree Physiology 26: 113-120.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Van Diepen LTA, Frey SD, Sthultz CM, Morrison EW, Minocha R, Pringle A (2015)
Changes in litter quality caused by simulated nitrogen deposition reinforce the N-induced suppression of litter decay. Ecosphere 6: 1-16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vitousek PM, Hättenschwiler S, Olander L, Allison S (2002)
Nitrogen and nature. AMBIO 31: 97-101.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vitousek PM, Porder S, Houlton BZ, Chadwick OA (2010)
Terrestrial phosphorus limitation: mechanisms, implications, and nitrogen-phosphorus interactions. Ecological Applications 20: 5-15.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wang X, Fujita S, Nakaji T, Watanabe M, Satoh F, Koike T (2016)
Fine root turnover of Japanese white birch (Betula platyphylla var. japonica) grown under elevated CO2 in northern Japan. Trees 30: 363-374.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wang X, Agathokleous E, Qu L, Fujita S, Watanabe M, Tamai Y, Mao Q, Koyama A, Koike T (2017)
Effects of simulated nitrogen deposition on ectomycorrhizae community structure in hybrid larch and its parents grown in volcanic ash soil: the role of phosphorous. Science of The Total Envirornment [in press]
CrossRef | Gscholar
Watanabe M, Watanabe Y, Kitaoka S, Utsugi H, Kita K, Koike T (2011)
Growth and photosynthetic traits of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × L. kaempferi) under elevated CO2 concentration with low nutrient availability. Tree Physiology 31: 965-975.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wei H, Xu C, Ma L, Wang W, Duan J, Jiang L (2014)
Short-term nitrogen (N)-retranslocation within Larix olgensis seedlings is driven to increase by N-deposition: evidence from a simulated 15N experiment in northeast China. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 16: 1031-1040.
Online | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info