iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Fine root morphological traits and production in coniferous- and deciduous-tree forests with drained and naturally wet nutrient-rich organic soils in hemiboreal Latvia

Arta Bardule, Kaspars Polmanis, Linards Ludis Krumšteds, Andis Bardulis, Andis Lazdinš   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 16, Issue 3, Pages 165-173 (2023)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4186-016
Published: Jun 08, 2023 - Copyright © 2023 SISEF

Research Articles

Fine root production is one of the key elements of carbon (C) turnover in soil in afforested peatlands and forest lands with organic soils. We estimated variability in fine root morphology traits and annual production in hemiboreal forests dominated by coniferous trees (Norway spruce) and deciduous trees (silver birch and black alder) with nutrient-rich organic soils in Latvia. In total, 23 research sites were established in drained and naturally wet forests of different ages, and ingrowth core techniques were used to sample fine roots and subsequently determine fine root morphology traits and annual production, and calculate C input through fine root litter. Significant differences in several fine root morphological traits between coniferous- and deciduous-trees-dominated stands were found. Fine root production tended to be higher in coniferous-trees-dominated stands and positively correlated with several forest stand characteristics: stand age, average tree diameter at breast height, basal area and average tree height, but negatively correlated with nitrogen and phosphorus content in soil. C input through fine root litter ranged up to 0.46 ± 0.16 t ha-1 yr-1. It is necessary to conduct further research, including multi-annual estimates in a wider set of forest stands with diverse dominant tree species and growing conditions, to improve estimates, patterns and understanding of C flows through fine root litter in drained and naturally wet organic soils.


Fine Roots, Hemiboreal Forests, Drained Organic Soil, Naturally Wet Organic Soil, Fine Root Production, Morphology

Authors’ address

Arta Bardule 0000-0003-0961-5119
Kaspars Polmanis 0000-0003-2579-353X
Linards Ludis Krumšteds
Andis Bardulis
Andis Lazdinš 0000-0002-7169-2011
Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, Rigas str. 111, Salaspils, LV-2169 (Latvia)

Corresponding author

Andis Lazdinš


Bardule A, Polmanis K, Krumšteds LL, Bardulis A, Lazdinš A (2023). Fine root morphological traits and production in coniferous- and deciduous-tree forests with drained and naturally wet nutrient-rich organic soils in hemiboreal Latvia. iForest 16: 165-173. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4186-016

Academic Editor

Maurizio Ventura

Paper history

Received: Jul 18, 2022
Accepted: Mar 07, 2023

First online: Jun 08, 2023
Publication Date: Jun 30, 2023
Publication Time: 3.10 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 12390
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 10441
Abstract Page Views: 880
PDF Downloads: 953
Citation/Reference Downloads: 0
XML Downloads: 116

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 407
Overall contacts: 12390
Avg. contacts per week: 213.10

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Bardule A, Petaja G, Butlers A, Purvina D, Lazdinš A (2021)
Estimation of litter input in hemiboreal forests with drained organic soils for improvement of GHG inventories. Baltic Forestry 27 (2): 534.
Brunner I, Bakker MR, Björk RG, Hirano Y, Lukac M, Aranda X, Borja I, Eldhuset TD, Helmisaari HS, Jourdan C, Konôpka B, Lopez BC, Pérez MC, Persson H, Ostonen I (2012)
Fine-root turnover rates of European forests revisited: an analysis of data from sequential coring and ingrowth cores. Plant and Soil 362 (1-2): 357-372.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Borja I, De Wit HA, Steffenrem A, Majdi H (2008)
Stand age and fine root biomass, distribution and morphology in a Norway spruce chronosequence in southeast Norway. Tree Physiology 28 (5): 773-784.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bušs K (1981)
Forest ecology and typology. Zinatne, Riga, Latvia, pp. 68.
Claus A, George E (2005)
Effect of stand age on fine-root biomass and biomass distribution in three European forest chronosequences. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35 (7): 1617-1625.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ding Y (2021)
Fine root dynamics and below- and above-ground carbon inputs into soil in boreal forests. PhD thesis, Department of Forest Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Helsinki, Finland, pp. 52.
Online | Gscholar
Ding Y, Leppälammi-Kujansuu J, Salemaa M, Schiestl-Aalto P, Kulmala L, Ukonmaanaho L, Ukonmaanaho L, Nojd P, Minkkinen K, Makita N, Zeleznik P, Merila P, Helmisaari HS (2021)
Distinct patterns of below- and aboveground growth phenology and litter carbon inputs along a boreal site type gradient. Forest Ecology and Management 489: 119081.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Eissenstat DM, Wells CE, Yanai RD (2000)
Building roots in a changing environment: implications for root longevity. New Phytologist 147 (1): 33-42.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Finér L, Laine J (1998)
Root dynamics at drained peatland sites of different fertility in southern Finland. Plant and Soil 201: 27-36.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Finér L, Laine J (2000)
The ingrowth bag method in measuring root production on peatland sites. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 15 (1): 75-80.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Finér L, Ohashi M, Noguchi K, Hirano Y (2011)
Fine root production and turnover in forest ecosystems in relation to stand and environmental characteristics. Forest Ecology and Management 262 (11): 2008-2023.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Fortier J, Truax B, Gagnon D, Lambert F (2019)
Abiotic and biotic factors controlling fine root biomass, carbon and nutrients in closed-canopy hybrid poplar stands on post-agricultural land. Scientific Reports 9 (1): 342.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Fuchs S, Hertel D, Schuldt B, Leuschner C (2020)
Effects of summer drought on the fine root system of five broadleaf tree species along a precipitation gradient. Forests 11 (3): 289.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hansson K, Olsson BA, Olsson M, Johansson U, Kleja DB (2011)
Differences in soil properties in adjacent stands of Scots pine, Norway spruce and Silver birch in SW Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management 262 (3): 522-530.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hansson K, Helmisaari H, Sah S, Lange H (2013)
Fine root production and turnover of tree and understorey vegetation in Scots pine, silver birch and Norway spruce stands in SW Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management 309: 58-65.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Helmisaari HS, Derome J, Nojd P, Kukkola M (2007)
Fine root biomass in relation to site and stand characteristics in Norway spruce and Scots pine stands. Tree Physiology 27 (10): 1493-1504.
CrossRef | Gscholar
IPCC (2006)
2006 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Iversen CM, Childs J, Norby RJ, Ontl TA, Kolka RK, Brice DJ, McFarlane KJ, Hanson PJ (2018)
Fine root growth in a forested bog is seasonally dynamic, but shallowly distributed in nutrient-poor peat. Plant and Soil 424 (1-2): 123-143.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Jackson RB, Mooney HA, Schulze ED (1997)
A global budget for fine root biomass, surface area, and nutrient contents. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 94 (14): 7362-7366.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Johnson MG, Tingey DT, Phillips DL, Storm MJ (2001)
Advancing fine root research with minirhizotrons. Environmental and Experimental Botany 45 (3): 263-289.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Jones DL, Hodge A, Kuzyakov Y (2004)
Plant and mycorrhizal regulation of rhizodeposition. New Phytologist 163 (3): 459-480.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Keel SG, Campbell CD, Högberg MN, Richter A, Wild B, Zhou X, Hurry V, Linder S, Näsholm T, Högberg P (2012)
Allocation of carbon to fine root compounds and their residence times in a boreal forest depend on root size class and season. New Phytologist 194 (4): 972-981.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kleja DB, Svensson M, Majdi H, Jansson PE, Langvall O, Bergkvist B, Johansson BM, Weslien P, Truusb L, Lindroth A, Agren GI (2008)
Pools and fluxes of carbon in three Norway spruce ecosystems along a climatic gradient in Sweden. Biogeochemistry 89 (1): 7-25.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kwatcho-Kengdo S, Ahrens B, Tian Y, Heinzle J, Wanek W, Schindlbacher A, Borken W (2023)
Increase in carbon input by enhanced fine root turnover in a long-term warmed forest soil. Science of the Total Environment 855: 158800.
Laiho R, Bhuiyan R, Straková P, Mäkiranta P, Badorek T, Penttilä T (2014)
Modified ingrowth core method plus infrared calibration models for estimating fine root production in peatlands. Plant and Soil 385(1-2): 311-327.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lamlom SH, Savidge RA (2003)
A reassessment of carbon content in wood: variation within and between 41 North American species. Biomass and Bioenergy 25 (4): 381-388.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lampela M, Minkkinen K, Straková P, Bhuiyan R, He W, Mäkiranta P, Ojanen P, Penttilä T, Laiho R (2022)
Effects of persistent water-table level drawdown on fine-root biomass and production in different site types of a boreal forested peatland. Research Square 1: 1-31.
Lehtonen A (2005)
Carbon stocks and flows in forest ecosystem based on forest inventory data. PhD thesis, Finnish Forest Research Institute, Finland, pp. 51.
Lehtonen A, Palviainen M, Ojanen P, Kalliokoski T, Nöjd P, Kukkola M, Penttilä T, Mäkipää R, Leppälammi-Kujansuu J, Helmisaari HS (2016)
Modelling fine root biomass of boreal tree stands using site and stand variables. Forest Ecology and Management 359: 361-369.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Leppälammi-Kujansuu J, Salemaa M, Kleja DB, Linder S, Helmisaari HS (2013)
Fine root turnover and litter production of Norway spruce in a long-term temperature and nutrient manipulation experiment. Plant and Soil 374 (1-2): 73-88.
Leppälammi-Kujansuu J, Aro L, Salemaa M, Hansson K, Kleja DB, Helmisaari HS (2014)
Fine root longevity and carbon input into soil from below- and aboveground litter in climatically contrasting forests. Forest Ecology and Management 326: 79-90.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Liu L, Fan Y, Wang Y, Shen X, Janssens I, Guenet B, Xiao C (2019)
Fine-root turnover, litterfall and soil microbial community of three mixed coniferous-deciduous forests dominated by Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) along a latitudinal gradient. Frontiers in Plant Science 10: 317.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lõhmus K, Truu M, Truu J, Ostonen I, Kaar E, Vares A, Uri V, Alama S, Kanal A (2006)
Functional diversity of culturable bacterial communities in the rhizosphere in relation to fine-root and Soil parameters in alder stands on forest, abandoned agricultural, and oil-shale mining areas. Plant and Soil 283: 1-10.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lukac M (2012)
Fine root turnover. In: “Measuring Roots” (Mancuso S eds). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 363-373.
Lukac M, Godbold DL (2021)
A modification of the ingrowth-core method to determine root production in fast growing tree species. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 164: 613-614.
CrossRef | Gscholar
LVGMC Klimata Portals (2023)
Climate portal. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Lyr H, Hoffmann G (1967)
Growth rates and growth periodicity of tree roots. International Review of Forestry Research 2: 181-236.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Majdi H (1996)
Root sampling methods - applications and limitations of the minirhizotron technique. Plant and Soil 185 (2): 255-258.
CrossRef | Gscholar
McCormack M, Dickie I, Eissenstat D, Fahey T, Fernandez C, Guo D, Helmisaari HS, Hobbie E, Iversen C, Jackson R, Leppälammi-Kujansuu J, Norby R, Phillips R, Pregitzer K, Pritchard S, Rewald B, Zadworny M (2015)
Redefining fine roots improves understanding of belowground contributions to terrestrial biosphere processes. New Phytologist 207 (3): 505-518.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nadelhoffer KJ (2000)
The potential effects of nitrogen deposition on fine-root production in forest ecosystems. New Phytologist 147 (1): 131-139.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Navrátil T, Nováková T, Shanley JB, Rohovec J (2021)
Distribution and pools of mercury in forest soils near recent and historical mercury emission sources in the central Czech Republic. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 226: 106782.
Norby RJ, Ledford J, Reilly CD, Miller NE, O’Neill EG (2004)
Fine-root production dominates response of a deciduous forest to atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101 (26): 9689-9693.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ostonen I, Lõhmus K, Lasn R (1999)
The role of soil conditions in fine root ecomorphology in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). Plant and Soil 208 (2): 283-292.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ostonen I, Lõhmus K, Pajuste K (2005)
Fine root biomass, production and its proportion of NPP in a fertile middle-aged Norway spruce forest: Comparison of soil core and ingrowth core methods. Forest Ecology and Management 212 (1-3): 264-277.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ostonen I, Lõhmus K, Alama S, Truu J, Kaar E, Vares A, Uri V, Kurvits V (2006)
Morphological adaptations of fine roots in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) stands in recultivated oil shale mining and semi-coke areas. Oil Shale 23: 187-202.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ostonen I, Lõhmus K, Helmisaari HS, Truu J, Meel S (2007)
Fine root morphological adaptations in Scots pine, Norway spruce and silver birch along a latitudinal gradient in boreal forests. Tree Physiology 27 (11): 1627-1634.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ostonen I, Helmisaari HS, Borken W, Tedersoo L, Kukumägi M, Bahram M, Lindross JA, Nöjd P, Uri V, Merilä P, Asi E, Lõhmus K (2011)
Fine root foraging strategies in Norway spruce forests across a European climate gradient. Global Change Biology 17 (12): 3620-3632.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Peltoniemi M, Makipaa R, Liski J, Tamminen P (2004)
Changes in soil carbon with stand age - an evaluation of a modelling method with empirical data. Global Change Biology 10 (12): 2078-2091.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Persson H (1983)
The distribution and productivity of fine roots in boreal forests. Plant and Soil 71: 87-101.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Persson H (1992)
Factors affecting fine root dynamics of trees. Suo 43: 163-172.
Online | Gscholar
Pierret A, Maeght JL, Clément C, Montoroi JP, Hartmann C, Gonkhamdee S (2016)
Understanding deep roots and their functions in ecosystems: an advocacy for more unconventional research. Annals of Botany 118 (4): 621-635.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Raich JW, Riley RH, Vitousek PM (1994)
Use of root-ingrowth cores to assess nutrient limitations in forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24 (10): 2135-2138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Schuster W, Knorr HK, Blodau C, Galka M, Borken W, Pancotto AV, Kleinebecker T (2022)
Control of carbon and nitrogen accumulation by vegetation in pristine bogs of southern Patagonia. Science of the Total Environment 810 (1): 151293.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sierra CN, Hertel D, Becker JN, Hemp A, Leuschner C (2020)
Biomass, morphology, and dynamics of the fine root system across a 3.000-m elevation gradient on Mt. Kilimanjaro. Frontiers in Plant Science 11 (13): 1-16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Steele SJ, Gower ST, Vogel JG, Norman JM (1997)
Root mass, net primary production and turnover in aspen, jack pine and black spruce forest in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, Canada. Tree Physiology 17 (8-9): 557-587.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Tryon PR, Chapin III FS (1983)
Temperature control over root growth and root biomass in taiga forest trees. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 13 (5): 827-833.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ugawa S, Miura S, Iwamoto K, Kaneko S, Fukuda K (2010)
Vertical patterns of fine root biomass, morphology and nitrogen concentration in a subalpine fir-wave forest. Plant and Soil 335 (1-2): 469-478.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vogt KA, Vogt DJ, Bloomfield J (1998)
Analysis of some direct and indirect methods for estimating root biomass and production of forests at an ecosystem level. Plant and Soil 200 (1): 71-89.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wang WJ, Mo QF, Han XG, Hui DF, Shen WJ (2019)
Fine root dynamics responses to nitrogen addition depend on root order, soil layer, and experimental duration in a subtropical forest. Biology and Fertility of Soils 55: 723-736.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Yuan ZY, Chen HYH (2010)
Fine root biomass, production, turnover rates, and nutrient contents in boreal forest ecosystems in relation to species, climate, fertility, and stand age: literature review and meta-analyses. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 29 (4): 204-221.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zalitis P (2006)
Prerequisites for forestry. SIA et cetera, Riga, Latvia, pp. 219.
Zhu H, Zhao J, Gong L (2021)
The morphological and chemical properties of fine roots respond to nitrogen addition in a temperate Schrenk’s spruce (Picea schrenkiana) forest. Scientific Reports 11: 3839.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info