iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Amazon forest biomass: intra- and interspecific variability in wood density drive divergences in Brazil’s far north

Hugo Leonardo Sousa Farias (1), Pedro Aurélio Costa Lima Pequeno (1), Williamar Rodrigues Silva (1), Valdinar Ferreira Melo (2), Lidiany Camila Da Silva Carvalho (3), Ricardo De Oliveira Perdiz (4), Arthur Camurça Citó (5), Philip Martin Fearnside (6), Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa (5)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 95-104 (2023)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4137-016
Published: Mar 21, 2023 - Copyright © 2023 SISEF

Research Articles

Wood density (WD) is an important functional trait of tree species. Understanding spatial WD variability as a function of environmental determinants improves our ability to estimate carbon stocks in the woody biomass of tropical forests. However, the role of each environmental variable affecting the intra- and interspecific variability of WD is not entirely clear for most forest ecosystems. In Amazonia there are recurrent uncertainties in estimates of regional woody biomass. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of environmental conditions on the intra- and interspecific variability of WD for tree assemblages in forests of the northern Brazilian Amazon. A single sample was extracted from each of 680 individuals (108 species, 82 genera, 38 families; stem diameter ≥10 cm) dispersed among 129 plots distributed along a hydro-edaphic gradient. General community-averaged WD (0.703 ± 0.133 g cm-3; range: 0.203 to 1.102 g cm-3) was high in relation to other Amazonian areas because 62% of the species and 69% of the sampled individuals had high WD values (>0.650 g cm-3). Altitude (a proxy for drainage), clay and soil micronutrient content explained 23% of the spatial variation in WD. Partitioning WD variation into species-substitution (turnover) and intraspecific-variation components slightly increased the explanatory power to 26%. The analysis of interspecific variability showed that forests occurring in seasonally flooded areas are characterized by tree assemblages with species tolerant to P-poor soils, where mean WD (0.742 g cm-3) is about 4% higher than the mean (0.713 g cm-3) for tree assemblages on unflooded uplands where soils have less limitations from nutrient poverty. Our results represent an improvement in the estimates of biomass because they promote adjustments (1.4%-16.3%) to the previous estimates of woody biomass in the northern Brazilian Amazon forests considering different environmental conditions.


Basic Density, Maracá, Roraima, Seasonal Forests, Wood Specific Gravity

Authors’ address

Hugo Leonardo Sousa Farias 0000-0002-9881-4007
Pedro Aurélio Costa Lima Pequeno 0000-0001-7350-0485
Williamar Rodrigues Silva 0000-0001-7025-9374
Universidade Federal de Roraima - UFRR, Programa de Pós-graduação em Recursos Naturais - PRONAT, Campus Paricarana, Boa Vista, Roraima (Brazil)
Valdinar Ferreira Melo 0000-0002-7943-9969
Universidade Federal de Roraima - UFRR, Departamento de Solos e Engenharia Agrícola, Campus Cauamé, Boa Vista, Roraima (Brazil)
Lidiany Camila Da Silva Carvalho 0000-0002-8517-7993
University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon, EX4 4SB (UK)
Ricardo De Oliveira Perdiz 0000-0002-2333-6549
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Programa de Pós-graduação em Botnica - PPGBOT, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil)
Arthur Camurça Citó 0000-0001-9963-8167
Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa 0000-0002-7482-346x
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Núcleo de Pesquisas de Roraima -NPRR, Boa Vista, Roraima (Brazil)
Philip Martin Fearnside 0000-0003-3672-9082
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Coordenação de Dinmica Ambiental - CODAM, Manaus, Amazonas (Brazil)

Corresponding author

Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa


Farias HLS, Pequeno PACL, Silva WR, Melo VF, Carvalho LCDS, Perdiz RDO, Citó AC, Fearnside PM, Barbosa RI (2023). Amazon forest biomass: intra- and interspecific variability in wood density drive divergences in Brazil’s far north. iForest 16: 95-104. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4137-016

Academic Editor

Chris Eastaugh

Paper history

Received: May 13, 2022
Accepted: Jan 13, 2023

First online: Mar 21, 2023
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2023
Publication Time: 2.23 months

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