*

Earlywood vessel features in Quercus faginea: relationship between ring width and wood density at two sites in Portugal

Vicelina B Sousa (1)   , José Luís Louzada (2), Helena Pereira (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 6, Pages 866-873 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1346-008
Published: Apr 27, 2015 - Copyright © 2015 SISEF

Research Articles


Wood anatomy holds relevant information for tree development and timber quality (e.g., wood density), which is important for the sustainability of the species. Quercus faginea Lam. (Portuguese or Lusitanian oak) is an autochthonous Mediterranean oak species characterized by a shrinking natural distribution area and use abandonment. We studied the variation of several wood properties and their relationships with the aim of determining and possibly increasing the wood economic value of this species. The anatomical features of earlywood vessels (area, number, frequency and proportion) were investigated in twenty Q. faginea trees sampled at two locations within the natural distribution of the species in Portugal. Moreover, we analyzed the variation of vessel features from pith to bark, the radial growth and the wood density to search for patterns and relationships among the analyzed parameters. Mean earlywood vessel area increased with cambial age up to 60-70 years and then leveled off. An inverse pattern was found for the number of vessels per ring beyond that age. Similar radial patterns of all vessel features were found at both sites, and no significant differences in earlywood vessel area were found between sites. The within-tree development of earlywood vessels was age-related, though not influenced by growth. Earlywood vessel features explained the variation of wood density, i.e., wood density of Q. faginea was strongly negatively correlated with both mean vessel area and proportion.

  Keywords


Quercus faginea, Earlywood Vessels, Wood Density, Ring Width, Variation

Authors’ address

(1)
Vicelina B Sousa
Helena Pereira
Centro de Estudos Florestais, Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Universidade de Lisboa, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisboa (Portugal)
(2)
José Luís Louzada
Departamento Florestal/CITAB, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Quinta de Prados Apartado 202, 5000-911 Vila Real (Portugal)

Corresponding author

 
Vicelina B Sousa
vsousa@isa.ulisboa.pt

Citation

Sousa VB, Louzada JL, Pereira H (2015). Earlywood vessel features in Quercus faginea: relationship between ring width and wood density at two sites in Portugal. iForest 8: 866-873. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1346-008

Academic Editor

Francesco Ripullone

Paper history

Received: May 08, 2014
Accepted: Dec 31, 2014

First online: Apr 27, 2015
Publication Date: Dec 01, 2015
Publication Time: 3.90 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 9686
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 6849
Abstract Page Views: 197
PDF Downloads: 2069
Citation/Reference Downloads: 22
XML Downloads: 549

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1640
Overall contacts: 9686
Avg. contacts per week: 41.34

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2015): 3
Average cites per year: 0.60

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Agroconsultores e Coba (1991)
Carta de solos, Carta de uso actual da terra e Carta de aptidão da terra do Nordeste de Portugal [Soil, actual landuse, and landuse capability maps of Northeast of Portugal]. Vila Real, Portugal. [in Portuguese]
Gscholar
(2)
Alla AQ, Camarero JJ (2012)
Contrasting responses of radial growth and wood anatomy to climate in a Mediterranean ring-porous oak: implications for its future persistence or why the variance matters more than the mean. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1537-1550.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Anfodillo T, Petit G, Crivellaro A (2013)
Axial conduit widening in woody species: a still neglected anatomical pattern. IAWA Journal 34: 352-364.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Baas P, Werker E, Fahn A (1983)
Some ecological trends in vessel characters. IAWA Bulletin 4: 141-159.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Campelo F, Nabais C, Gutierrez E, Freitas H, García-González I (2010)
Vessel features of Quercus ilex L. growing under Mediterranean climate have a better climatic signal than tree-ring width. Trees 24: 463-470.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Capelo J, Catry F (2007)
Capelo J, Catry F (2007) A distribuição do carvalho-português em Portugal [The portuguese oak distribution in Portugal]. In: “Os carvalhais: um património a conservar” (Silva JS ed). Liga para a Protecção da Natureza, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 83-94. [in Portuguese]
Gscholar
(7)
Carlquist S (2001)
Comparative wood anatomy. Systematic ecological and evolutionary aspects of dicotyledon wood. Springer Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 448.
Online | Gscholar
(8)
Carvalho A (1997)
Carvalho A (1997) Madeiras portuguesas - Estrutura anatómica, propriedades, utilizações [Portuguese woods - anatomy, properties, uses] (vol. II). Direcção-Geral das Florestas, Lisbon, Portugal, pp. 415. [in Portuguese]
Gscholar
(9)
Chauhan S, Donnelly R, Huang C-L, Nakada R, Yafang Y, Walker J (2006)
Wood quality: in context. In: “Primary Wood Processing. Principles and practice (2nd edn)” (Walker JFC ed). Springer, The Netherlands, pp. 121-158.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(10)
Cherubini P, Gartner BL, Tognetti R, Braker OU, Schoch W, Innes JL (2003)
Identification, measurement and interpretation of tree rings in woody species from mediterranean climates. Biological Reviews 78: 119-148.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E (2004a)
Effects of a severe drought on growth and anatomical properties of Quercus faginea. IAWA Journal 25: 185-204.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Corcuera L, Camarero JJ, Gil-Pelegrin E (2004b)
Effects of a severe drought on Quercus ilex radial growth and xylem anatomy. Trees 18: 83-92.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Denne MP, Cahalan CM, Aebisher DP (1999)
Influence of growth rate and cambial age on density of Rauli (Nothofagus nervosa) in relation to vessel lumen areas and numbers. Holzforschung 53: 199-203.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Fonti P, Bräker O-U, Giudici F (2002)
Relationship between ring shake incidence and earlywood vessel characteristics in chestnut wood. IAWA Journal 23: 287-298.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Fonti P, Treydet K, Osenstetter S, Frank D, Esper J (2009)
Frequency-dependent signals in multi-centennial oak vessel data. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 275: 92-99.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Fonti P, Arx G, García-González I, Eilmann B, Sass-Klaassen U, Gärtner H, Eckstein D (2010)
Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings. New Phytologist 185 (1): 42-53.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
García-González I, Eckstein D (2003)
Climatic signal of earlywood vessels of oak on a maritime site. Trees Physiology 23: 497-504.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Gasson P (1985)
Automatic measurement of vessel lumen area and diameter with particular reference to pedunculate oak and common beech. IAWA Bulletin 6: 219-237.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
George SS, Nielsen E, Conciatori F, Tardif J (2002)
Trends in Quercus macrocarpa vessel areas and their implications for tree-ring paleoflood studies. Tree-Ring Research 58: 3-10.
Online | Gscholar
(20)
Hamilton JR, Knauss SJ (1986)
Wood factors affecting the variation in specific gravity of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) associated with soil origin. Forest Ecology and Management 17: 129-136.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
IAWA Committee (1989)
IAWA list of microscopic features for hardwood identification. IAWA Bulletin 10: 219-332.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
IHERA (2001)
Carta de solos e capacidade de uso do solo. Formato digital [Soil and land use capability maps. CD-ROM]. Instituto de Hidráulica, Engenharia Rural e Ambiente, Ministério da Agricultura, do Desenvolvimento Rural e das Pescas, Lisboa, Portugal. [in Portuguese]
Gscholar
(23)
Knapic S, Louzada JL, Pereira H (2011)
Variation of wood density components within and between Quercus faginea trees. Canadian Journal and Forest Research 41: 1212-1219.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Leal S, Sousa VB, Pereira H (2007)
Radial variation of vessel size and distribution in cork oak wood (Quercus suber L.). Wood Science of Technology 41: 339-350.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Leal S, Sousa VB, Knapic S, Louzada JL, Pereira H (2011)
Vessel size and number are contributors to define wood density in cork oak. European Journal of Forest Research 130: 1023-1029.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(26)
Lei H, Milota MR, Gartner BL (1996)
Between- and within-tree variation in the anatomy and specific gravity of wood in oregon white oak (Quercus garryana Dougl.). IAWA Journal 17: 445-461.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Paul BH (1963)
The application of silviculture in controlling the specific gravity of wood. Technical Bulletin no. 1288, USDA Forest Service, USA, pp. 97.
Gscholar
(28)
Phelps JE, Workman EC (1994)
Vessel area studies in white oak (Quercus alba L.). Wood and Fiber Science 26: 315-322.
Gscholar
(29)
Pourtahmasi K, Lotfiomaran N, Bräuning A, Parsapajouh D (2011)
Tree-ring width and vessel characteristics of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis) along an altitudinal gradient in the Caspian forests, Northern Iran. IAWA Journal 32: 461-473.
Online | Gscholar
(30)
Preston KA, Cornwell WK, DeNoyer JL (2006)
Wood density and vessel traits as distinct correlates of ecological strategy in 51 California coast range angiosperms. New Phytologist 170: 807-818.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Rao RV, Aebischer DP, Denne MP (1997)
Latewood density in relation to wood fibre diameter, wall thickness, and fibre and vessel percentages in Quercus robur L. IAWA Journal 18: 127-138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Richter HG, Dallwitz MJ (2000)
Commercial timbers: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval (ver. 4th May 2000). Web site.
Online | Gscholar
(33)
Sass U, Eckstein D (1994)
Preparation of large thin sections and surfaces of wood for automatic image analysis. Holzforschung 48: 117-118.
Online | Gscholar
(34)
Savidge RA (2003)
Tree growth and wood quality. In: “Wood quality and its biological basis” (Barnett JR, Jeronimidis G eds). Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp. 1-29.
Gscholar
(35)
Savill PS (1986)
Anatomical characters in the wood of oak (Quercus robur L. and Quercus petraea Liebl.) which predispose trees to shake. Commonweal Forest Revue 65: 109-116.
Online | Gscholar
(36)
Sousa VB, Cardoso S, Pereira H (2009)
Structure and anatomical characterization of Lusitanian oak (Quercus faginea Lam.) wood. In: Proceedings of the “6° Congresso Florestal Nacional - A floresta num mundo globalizado”. Ponta Delgada (Portugal) 6-9 Oct 2009. Sociedade Portuguesa de Ciências Florestais, Lisboa, Portugal, pp. 563-571. [in Portuguese]
Gscholar
(37)
Sousa VB, Cardoso S, Pereira H (2013)
Ring width variation and heartwood development in Quercus faginea. Wood and Fiber Science 45: 1-10.
Gscholar
(38)
Sousa VB, Cardoso S, Pereira H (2014)
Age trends in the wood anatomy of Quercus faginea. IAWA Journal 35: 293-306.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(39)
Stanzl-Tschegg SE (2011)
Wood as a bioinspiring material. Materials Science and Engineering 31: 1174-1183.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
Tsuchiya R, Furukawa I (2009)
Radial variation in the size of axial elements in relation to stem increment in Quercus serrata. IAWA Journal 30: 15-26.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(41)
Villar-Salvador P, Castro-Díez P, Pérez-Rontomé C, Montserrat-Martí G (1997)
Stem xylem features in three Quercus (Fagaceae) species along a climatic gradient in NE Spain. Trees 12: 90-96.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(42)
Zhang SY, Zhong Y (1992)
Structure-property relationship of wood in East-liaoning oak. Wood Science of Technology 26: 139-149.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(43)
Zobel BJ, Van Buijtenen JP (1989)
Wood variation, its causes and control. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 363.
Online | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website