iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Accuracy assessment of different photogrammetric software for processing data from low-cost UAV platforms in forest conditions

Michal Brach (1)   , Jonathan Cheung-Wai Chan (2), Pawel Szymanski (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 12, Issue 5, Pages 435-441 (2019)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2986-012
Published: Sep 01, 2019 - Copyright © 2019 SISEF

Research Articles

To obtain precise cartometric measurements of forests is always a challenge and high-resolution data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is currently the quickest method. Generation of a fine quality orthomosaic of the acquired image series is a pre-requisite for full exploitation of such data. This study examines six of the most frequently used photogrammetric software for popular and inexpensive UAV systems. It is assumed that ground control points (GCPs) are not required. The average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for raw orthophoto was 1.24 m and around 0.2 m precision for both X and Y axes. Additionally, the accuracy of UAV internal GNSS receiver was checked on reference points which slightly exceeds 2 m RMSE. The range of accuracy and precision of orthomosaic are provided as a valuable reference for the use of low-cost UAV in forest inventory.


UAV, GNSS, Orthomosaic, Accuracy, Precision, Forest

Authors’ address

Michal Brach 0000-0003-1172-9115
Pawel Szymanski 0000-0002-1573-6374
Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Geomatics and Land Management, Nowoursynowska 159, 02-776 Warszawa (Poland)
Jonathan Cheung-Wai Chan 0000-0002-3741-1124
Department of Electronics and Informatics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, Brussels 1050 (Belgium)

Corresponding author



Brach M, Chan JC-W, Szymanski P (2019). Accuracy assessment of different photogrammetric software for processing data from low-cost UAV platforms in forest conditions. iForest 12: 435-441. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2986-012

Academic Editor

Luca Salvati

Paper history

Received: Oct 31, 2018
Accepted: Jun 22, 2019

First online: Sep 01, 2019
Publication Date: Oct 31, 2019
Publication Time: 2.37 months

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