iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Temporal development of collar necroses and butt rot in association with ash dieback

Rasmus Enderle   , Felicitas Sander, Berthold Metzler

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 3, Pages 529-536 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2407-010
Published: May 05, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Research Articles

In recent years collar necroses and butt rot associated with the ash dieback disease occurred with alarming frequency in Fraxinus excelsior. We analysed tree ring structures to identify the year of necrosis initiation on a set of 507 necroses on 155 stem discs from nine severely diseased south-western German stands. The number of first-time infections of trees was highest from 2010 to 2012 and slightly decreased in 2013 and 2014, whereas the total number of newly emerging individual necroses remained high. Logistic modelling of disease progression suggests that collar rot infection has almost reached its maximum incidence and that a fraction of trees will remain healthy at the root collar. On average, Hymenoscyphus fraxineus was isolated more frequently from younger collar necroses, whereas older necroses were more often colonized by Armillaria spp. Advanced stages of rot that may pose a risk to forest workers, visitors and traffic were observed already in two years-old necroses infected by Armillaria spp.


Ash Dieback, Collar Necrosis, Disease Progression, Armillaria, Butt Rot, Epidemiology

Authors’ address

Rasmus Enderle
Felicitas Sander
Berthold Metzler
Department of Forest Health, Forest Research Institute of Baden-Württemberg, Wonnhaldestrasse 4, 79100 Freiburg (Germany)

Corresponding author



Enderle R, Sander F, Metzler B (2017). Temporal development of collar necroses and butt rot in association with ash dieback. iForest 10: 529-536. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2407-010

Academic Editor

Alberto Santini

Paper history

Received: Feb 13, 2017
Accepted: Apr 14, 2017

First online: May 05, 2017
Publication Date: Jun 30, 2017
Publication Time: 0.70 months

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