iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Effects of brassinosteroid application on seed germination of Norway spruce, Scots pine, Douglas fir and English oak

Ivan Kuneš   , Martin Baláš, Rostislav Linda, Josef Gallo, Olga Nováková

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 121-127 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1578-009
Published: Oct 02, 2016 - Copyright © 2016 SISEF

Research Articles

We tested the influence of a synthetically-produced brassinosteroid compound (2α,3α,17βtrihydroxy-5α-androstan-6-one) on seed germination in Norway spruce, Scots pine, Douglas fir and English oak. Before germination, 400 seeds of each species were steeped in a brassinosteroid solution and then placed for germination in a growth chamber under (i) optimal humidity and (ii) temporary drought stress (except for oak). Drought stress significantly reduced the germination capacity and germination rate in the control treatments of Norway spruce, Scots pine and Douglas fir. Nonetheless, the application of brassinosteroid significantly reduced the drought-stress effects in seeds of Norway spruce and Scots pine. The drought-stressed Douglas fir did not respond positively to the brassinosteroid application. English oak was germinated only under the optimal humidity regime and no differences in germination were detected between the control and brassinosteroid-treated acorns.


Plant Hormones, Germination Percentage, Germination Rate, Picea abies, Pseudotsuga menziesii

Authors’ address

Ivan Kuneš
Martin Baláš
Rostislav Linda
Josef Gallo
Olga Nováková
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, Kamýcká 129, 165 21 Praha 6 - Suchdol (Czech Republic)

Corresponding author

Ivan Kuneš


Kuneš I, Baláš M, Linda R, Gallo J, Nováková O (2016). Effects of brassinosteroid application on seed germination of Norway spruce, Scots pine, Douglas fir and English oak. iForest 10: 121-127. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1578-009

Academic Editor

Gianfranco Minotta

Paper history

Received: Jan 28, 2015
Accepted: Jun 05, 2016

First online: Oct 02, 2016
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2017
Publication Time: 3.97 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 44177
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 37075
Abstract Page Views: 2257
PDF Downloads: 3668
Citation/Reference Downloads: 77
XML Downloads: 1100

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2816
Overall contacts: 44177
Avg. contacts per week: 109.81

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 8
Average cites per year: 1.14


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Agresti A, Bini M, Bertaccini B, Ryu E (2008)
Simultaneous confidence intervals for comparing binomial parameters. Biometrics 64: 1270-1275.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ahammed GJ, Zhang S, Shi K, Zhou Y-H, Yu J-Q (2012)
Brassinosteroid improves seed germination and early development of tomato seedling under phenanthrene stress. Plant Growth Regulation 68: 87-96.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ali SS, Kumar GBS, Khan M, Doohan FM (2013)
Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to Fusarium diseases of barley. Phytopathology 103: 1260-1267.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Anuradha S, Rao SSR (2003)
Application of brassinosteroids to rice seeds (Oryza sativa L.) reduced the impact of salt stress on growth, prevented photosynthetic pigment loss and increased nitrate reductase activity. Plant Growth Regulation 40: 29-32.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bajguz A (2007)
Metabolism of brassinosteroids in plants. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 45: 95-107.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bajguz A, Hayat S (2009)
Effects of brassinosteroids on the plant responses to environmental stresses. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 47: 1-8.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bonner FT, Vozzo JA (1987)
Seed biology and technology of Quercus. General Technical Report SO-66, Southern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, New Orleans, USA, pp. 21.
Online | Gscholar
Clouse SD (2002)
Brassinosteroids. The Arabidopsis Book 1: e0009.
CrossRef | Gscholar
CNI (2006)
CSN 48 1211 Lesní semenárství - Sber, kvalita a zkoušky kvality semenného materiálu lesních drevin [Forest Seed Management - Collection, quality and methods for testing forest tree seeds]. CŒeský normalizační institut, Praha, Czech Republic, pp. 60. [in Czech]
Dhaubhadel S, Chaudhary S, Dobinson KF, Krishna P (1999)
Treatment with 24-epibrassinolide, a brassinosteroid, increases the basic thermotolerance of Brassica napus and tomato seedlings. Plant Molecular Biology 40: 333-342.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Divi UK, Rahman T, Krishna P (2010)
Brassinosteroid-mediated stress tolerance in Arabidopsis shows interactions with abscisic acid, ethylene and salicylic acid pathways. BMC Plant Biology 10: 151.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Edwards DGW, El-Kassaby YA (1995)
Douglas-fir genotypic response to seed stratification. Seed Science and Technology 23: 771-778.
Online | Gscholar
Gregory LE (1981)
Acceleration of plant growth through seed treatment with Brassins. American Journal of Botany 68: 586-588 URL.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Grove MD, Spencer GF, Rohwedder WK, Mandava N, Worley JF, Warthen Jr JD, Steffens GL, Flippen-Anderson JL, Cook Jr JC (1979)
Brassinolide, a plant growth-promoting steroid isolated from Brassica napus pollen. Nature 281: 216-217.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gudesblat GE, Russionova E (2011)
Plants grow on brassinosteroids. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 14 (5): 530-537.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Himanen K, Nygren M (2014)
Effects of seed pre-soaking on the emergence and early growth of containerized Norway spruce seedlings. New Forests 45: 71-82.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hoffmann J, Chválová K, Palátová E (2007)
Lesné semenárstvo na Slovensku [Forest seed management in Slovakia] (2nd edn). IRgamma, Sliač, Slovak Republic, pp. 195. [in Slovak]
Houšková K, Martiník A (2015)
Does prolonged stratification of Douglas fir influence the yield of seedlings? Journal of Forest Science 61: 268-273.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Choudhary PS, Yu J-Q, Yamaguchi-Shinozaki K, Kazuo S, Tran L-SP (2012)
Benefits of brassionosteroid crosstalk. Trends in Plant Science 10: 594-605.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ikekawa N, Takatsuto S (1984)
Microanalysis of brassinosteroids in plants by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Mass Spectroscopy 32 (1): 55-70.
CrossRef | Gscholar
ISTA (2015)
International rules for seed testing. International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), Bassersdorf, Switzerland, pp. 276.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kamra SK, Simak M (1968)
Germination studies on Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L.) seed of different provenances under alternating and constant temperatures. Studia Forestalia Suecica 62: 1-14.
Online | Gscholar
Kartal G, Temel A, Arican E, Gozukirmizi N (2009)
Effects of brassinosteroids on barley root growth, antioxidant system and cell division. Plant Growth Regulation 58: 261-267.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kim S-K, Chang SC, Lee EJ, Chung W-S, Kim Y-S, Hwang S, Lee JS (2010)
Involvement of brassinosteroids in the gravitropic response of primary root of Maize. Plant Physiology 123: 997-1004.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kohout L, Kasal A, Chodounská H, Slavíková B, Hniličková J (2003)
The use of 2α, 3α, 17SS-trihydroxy-5α-androstan-6-one as active ingredient for plant development regulation. Patent International Publication no. WO 03/003834 A1, Application Number PCT/CZ2002/000041, World Intellectual Property Organisation, International Bureau, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 17.
Krishna P (2003)
Brassinosteroid-mediated stress responses. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 22: 289-297.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Krugman SL, Jenkinson JL (2008)
Pinaceae - Pine family Pinus L. Pine. In: “The Woody Plant Seed Manual” (Bonner FT, Karrfalt RP eds). Agricultural Handbook 727, USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 809-847.
Leinonen K, Rita H (1995)
Interaction of prechilling, temperature, osmotic stress, and light in Picea abies seed germination. Silva Fennica 29: 95-106.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Leubner-Metzger G (2001)
Brassinosteroids and gibberellins promote tobacco seed germination by distinct pathways. Planta 213: 758-763.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Li K-R, Wang HH, Han G, Wang QJ, Fan J (2008)
Effects of brassinolide on the survival, growth and drought resistance of Robinia pseudoacacia seedlings under water-stress. New Forests 35: 255-266.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Li K-R, Zhang S, He X (2002)
Effect of natural brassinolide on germination of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia seeds. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 38: 150-153.
Online | Gscholar
Li K-R, Zhang W-B, Li H-K (2005)
Effect of natural brassinolide on germination of Ailanthus altissima seeds. Forestry Studies in China 7: 12-14.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Liu Y, Kermode A, El-Kassaby YA (2013)
The role of moist-chilling and thermo-priming on the germination characteristics of white spruce (Picea glauca) seed. Seed Science and Technology 41 (3): 321-335.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Maguire JD (1962)
Speed of germination - aid in selection and evaluation for seedling emergence and vigor. Crop Science 2: 176-177.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Müssig C, Lisso J, Coll-Garcia D, Altmann T (2005)
Molecular analysis of brassinosteroid action. Plant Biology 8: 291-296.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nowakowska J, Rakowski K (2002)
Accelerated and natural ageing processes change the properties of plasma membrane in Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) seeds during storage. Dendrobiology 47: 79-82.
Online | Gscholar
O’Reilly C, Doody P (2006)
Reaping what you sow - seeds and plant quality. In: Proceedings of the COFORD Conference “Plant quality: a key to success in forest establishment“ (MacLennan L, Fennessy J eds). Tullow, Co Carlow (Irish Republic), 20-21 Sep 2005, pp. 11-20.
Online | Gscholar
Podrázský V, Zahradník D, Remeš J (2014)
Potential consequences of tree species and age structure changes in the Czech Republic - review of forest inventory data. Wood Research 59: 483-490. URL.
Online | Gscholar
Remeš J, Zeidler A (2014)
Production potential and wood quality of Douglas fir from selected sites in the Czech Republic. Wood Research 59: 509-520.
Online | Gscholar
Rönsch GA, Matschke J, Schachler G (1993)
Influence of (22S,23S)-homobrassinolide on rooting capacity and survival of adult Norway spruce cuttings Tree Physiology 12: 71-80.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sairam RK (1994)
Effects of homobrassinolide application on plant metabolism and grain yield under irrigated and moisture-stress conditions of two wheat varieties. Plant Growth Regulation 14: 173-181.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sasse JM (1997)
Recent progress in brassinosteroid research. Physiologia Plantarum 100: 696-701.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Srivastava K, Raghava N, Shagun B, Raghava P (2011)
Brassinosteroids stimulate seed germination parameters and chlorophyll content in mongobean. Indian Journal of Scientific Research 2: 89-92.
Online | Gscholar
Steber CM, McCourt P (2001)
A role for brassinosteroids in germination in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 125: 763-769.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Suszka B, Muller C, Bonnet-Masimbert M (1996)
Seeds of forest broadleaves-from harvest to sowing. INRA, Paris, France, pp. 294.
Online | Gscholar
Vardhini BV, Rao SSR (2003)
Amelioration of osmotic stress by brassinosteroids on seed germination and seedling growth of three varieties of sorghum. Plant Growth Regulation 41: 25-31.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wang B, Zhang J, Xia X, Zhang W-H (2011)
Ameliorative effect of brassinosteroid and ethylene on germination of cucumber seeds in the presence of sodium chloride. Plant Growth Regulation 65: 407-413.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wang Z-Y (2012)
Brassinosteroids modulate plant immunity at multiple levels. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109: 7-8.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wilen R, Sacco M, Gusta LV, Krishna P (1995)
Effects of 24-epibrassinolide on freezing and thermotolerance of bromegrass (Bromus inermis) cell cultures. Physiologia Plantarum 95: 195-202.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Yamaguchi T, Wakizuka T, Hirai K, Fujii S, Fujita A (1987)
Stimulation of germination in aged rice seeds by pretreatment with brassinolide. Proceeding of Plant Growth Regulation Society of America 14: 26-27.
Yokota T, Arima M, Takahashi N (1982)
Castasterone, a new phytosterol with plant-hormone potency, from chestnut insect gall. Tetrahedron Letters 23: 1275-1278.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Youngblood A, Safford LO (2008)
Pinaceae-Pine family Picea A. Dietr. spruce. In: “The Woody Plant Seed Manual” (Bonner FT, Karrfalt RP eds). USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 793-806.
Zullo MAT, Kohout L (2004)
Semisystematic nomenclature of brassinosteroids. Plant Growth Regulation 42: 15-28.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info