iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Germination and seedling growth of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.): effects of provenance, temperature, and radicle pruning

Servet Caliskan   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 103-109 (2014)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0967-007
Published: Dec 18, 2013 - Copyright © 2014 SISEF

Research Articles

This study tested acorn characteristics and the germination behavior of different provenances of Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) and the effects of radicle clipping of germinated acorns on 1-0 year-old seedling morphology and their field performances. The results revealed that all acorn characteristics among different provenances were significant. Quercus ilex acorns germinated well at alternating temperatures of 20/10 ºC compared to a constant 20 ºC temperature. Radicle clipping of Q. ilex significantly increased the shoot height and root collar diameter. The average number of main roots resulting from radicle clipping was 2.8 times more than unclipped treatment. The results can contribute to nursery practices and artificial regeneration of this species.


Holm Oak, Seed Germination, Radicle Pruning, Quercus ilex, Sowing, Artificial Regeneration

Authors’ address

Servet Caliskan
Department of Silviculture, Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University, TR-34473, Bahcekoy, Istanbul (Turkey)

Corresponding author

Servet Caliskan


Caliskan S (2014). Germination and seedling growth of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.): effects of provenance, temperature, and radicle pruning. iForest 7: 103-109. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0967-007

Academic Editor

Giustino Tonon

Paper history

Received: Feb 05, 2013
Accepted: Jul 31, 2013

First online: Dec 18, 2013
Publication Date: Apr 02, 2014
Publication Time: 4.67 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 55113
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 46127
Abstract Page Views: 2561
PDF Downloads: 4993
Citation/Reference Downloads: 30
XML Downloads: 1402

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 3836
Overall contacts: 55113
Avg. contacts per week: 100.57

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2014): 10
Average cites per year: 0.91


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Afzal-Rafii Z, Dodd RS, Pelleau Y (1992)
Mediterranean evergreen oak diversity: morphological and chemical variation of acorns. Canadian Journal of Botany 70:1459-1466.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Akburak S, Oral HV, Ozdemir E, Makineci E (2013)
Temporal variations of biomass, carbon and nitrogen of roots under different tree species. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 28:8-16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Anonymous (2012)
The state of Turkey’s Forests. General Directorate of Forestry, Ministry of Water Affairs and Forestry, Ankara, Turkey. [in Turkish]
Aschmann H (1973)
Man’s impact on the several regions with Mediterranean climates. In: “Mediterranean type ecosystems, origin and structures” (Di Castri F, Mooney HA eds). Ecological Studies vol. 7, Springler-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 363-371.
Balci AN, Özyuvaci N, Özhan S (1986)
Sediment and nutrient discharge through streamflow from two experimental watershed in natural oak-beech forest ecosytems near Istanbul, Turkey. Journal of Hydrology 85: 31-47.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barden C, Bowersox TW (1989)
The effect of root pruning treatments on red oak seedling root growth capacity. In: Proceedings of the “Central hardwood forest conference” (Rink G, Budelsky CA eds). Carbondale (Illinois - USA), 5-8 Mar 1989, no. 132, pp. 115-119.
Bonner FT (1982)
The effect of damaged radicles of presprouted red oak acorns on seedling production. Tree Planter’s notes 33: 13-15.
Boydak M, Dirik H, Calikoglu M (2006)
Biology and silviculture of Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.). OGEM-VAK, Ankara, Turkey.
Boydak M, Dogru M (1997)
The exchange of experience and state of the art in sustainable forest managements (SFM) by ecoregion: Mediterrenean Forests. XI. Dünya Ormancilik Kongresi Bildirileri 6: 165-185.
Calikoglu M, Caliskan S, Yilmaz M, Dirik H (2007)
Effects of root clipping on some seedling characteristics of oriental beech (Fagus Orientalis Lipsky). Review of the Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University 57:17-30.
Online | Gscholar
Cicek E, Tilki F (2007)
Seed size effects on germination, survival and seedling growth of Castanea sativa Mill. Journal of Biological Sciences 7 (2): 438-441.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Crescente MF, Gratani L, Larcher W (2002)
Shoot growth efficiency and production of L. in different climates. Flora 197: 2-9.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Devine DW, Harrington AC, Southworth D (2009)
Improving root growth and morphology of containerized Oregon White Oak seedlings. The Tree Planters’s Notes 53: 29-34.
Djavanshir K, Pourbeik H (1976)
Germination value: a new formula. Silvae Genetica 25: 79-83.
Ducousso A, Guyon JP, Krémer A (1996)
Latitudinal and altitudinal variation of bud burst in western populations of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt) Liebl.). Annals of Forest Science 53: 775-782.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ertas A (1996)
A study on silvicultural characteristics of Quercus hartwissiana. PhD Dissertation, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey.
Ertas A (2002)
Effect of radicle clipping on sessile oak (Quercus petraea Lieb.) seedling’s root surface area and number of taproots. In: Proceedings of the Third Balkan Scientific Conference “Study, conservation and utilisation of forest resources”. Sofia (Bulgaria) 2-6 Oct 2001, vol. 2, pp. 159-164
Fox MD (1982)
Vegetation changes in Mediterranean Australia since European settlement. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on “Dynamics and Management of Mediterranean-Type Ecosystems”. San Diego (CA - USA) 22-26 June 1981. General Technical Report PSW-58, USDA Forest Service, pp. 112-117.
Galvàn VJ, Jorrín-Novo J, Gómez C, Ariza D, García-Olmo J, Navarro-Cerrillo RM (2012)
Population variability based on the morphometry and chemical composition of the acorn in Holm oak (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.). European Journal of forest Research.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gea-Izquierdo G, Canellas I, Montero G (2006)
Acorn production in Spanish holm oak woodlands. Investacion Agraria - Sistemas y Recursos Forestales 15 (3): 339-354.
Genc M, Gulcu S, Bilir N (2000)
Kasnak mesesi (Quercus vulcanica Boiss.) ’nde meyve tipi-ekim sekli-fidan morfolojisi etkilesimleri. [Interactions on fruit type-sowing style-seedling morphology of Quercus vulcanica Boiss.]. Orman Mühendisligi 8:21-24. [in Turkish]
Gomez JM (2004)
Bigger is not always better: conflicting selective pressures on seed size in Quercus ilex. Evolution 58 (1): 71-80.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gorissen A, Tietema A, Joosten NN, Estiarte M, Peñuelas J, Sowerby A, Emmett BA, Beier C (2004)
Climate change affects carbon allocation to the soil in shrublands. Ecosystems 7: 650-661.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gratani L (2000)
Leaf temperature effects on gas-exchange in L. growing under field conditions. Plant Biosystems 134: 19-24.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gratani L, Varone L (2004)
Adaptive photosynthetic strategies of the Mediterranean maquis species according to their origin. Photosynthetica 42 (4): 551-558.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gratani L, Varone L, Ricotta C, Catoni R (2012)
Mediterranean shrublands carbon sequestration: environmental and economic benefits. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 18 (8): 1167-1182.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gunderson CA, Norby RJ, Wullschleger SD (1993)
Foliar gas-exchange responses of two deciduous hardwoods during three years of growth in elevated CO2: no loss of photosynthetic enhancement. Plant, Cell & Environment 16: 797-807.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Haase P, Pugnaire FI, Clark SC, Incoll LD (2000)
Photosynthetic rate and canopy development in the drought deciduos shrub L. Journal of Arid Environments 46: 79-91.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hedge ICF, Yaltirik F (1982)
L. In: “Flora of Turkey” (vol. 7). Eduinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, pp. 659-683.
Kaya B, Aladag C (2009)
Maki ve Garig Topluluklarinin Türkiye’deki Yayilis Alanlari ve Ekolojik Özelliklerinin Incelenmesi. [Distribution analysis in Turkey and ecologic characteristics of maquis and garriques communities]. Selçuk Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 22: 67-80. [in Turkish]
Ke G, Werger MJA (1999)
Different responses to shade of evergreen and deciduous oak seedlings and the effect of acorn size. Acta Oecologica 20 (6): 579-586.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Khera N, Saxena KA, Singh PR (2004)
Seed size variability and its influence on germination and seedling growth of five multipurpose tree species. Seed Science and Technology 32:319-330.
Linan J, Cantos M, Troncoso J, Garcia LJ, Fernandez A, Troncoso A (2011)
Some propagation methods for cloning holm oak ( L.) plants. Central European Journal of Biology 6 (3): 359-364.
CrossRef | Gscholar
McCreary DD (1996)
The effects of stock type and radicle pruning on blue oak morphology and field performance. Annals of Forest Science 53: 641-648.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Michaud H, Toumi L, Lumaret R, Li TX, Romane F, Di Giust F (1995)
Effect of geographical discontinuity on genetic variation in L. (holm oak). Evidence from enzyme polymorphism. Heredity 74: 590-606.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Naveh Z, Dun J (1973)
The human degradation of Mediterranean lanscape in Israel. In: “Mediterranean type ecosystems, Origin and Structures” (Di Castri F, Mooney H A eds). Ecological Studies vol. 7, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 373-390.
Naveh Z, Lieberman AS (1984)
Lanscape ecology, theory and application, Springer-Verlag New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, Tokyo.
Oldfield S, Eastwood A (2007)
The red list of oaks. Fauna & Flora International, Cambridge, UK.
Ozturk M, Dogan Y, Sakcali MS, Doulis A, Karam F (2010)
Ecophysiological responses of some maquis (Ceratonia siliqua L., Olea oleaster Hoffm. & Link, Pistacia lentiscus and Quercus coccifera L.) plant species to drought in the east Mediterranean ecosystem. Journal of Environmental Biology 31:233-245.
Online | Gscholar
Özalp G (1993)
Datça (Resadiye) yarimadasinin bitki toplumlari [Plant communities of Datca (Resadiye) peninsula]. Review of the Faculty of Forestry, Istanbul University 43: 77-101. [in Turkish]
Özhan S, Gökbulak F, Serengil Y, Özcan M (2010)
Evapotranspiration from a mixed deciduous Forest Ecosystem. Water Resources Management 24: 2353-2363
CrossRef | Gscholar
Palacios G, Cerrillo N M R, Campo A, Toral M (2009)
Site preparation, stock quality and planting date effect on early establishment of Holm oak ( L.) seedlings. Ecological Engineering 35 (1): 38-46.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pasquini S, Braidot E, Petrussa E, Vianello A (2011)
Effect of different storage conditions in recalcitrant seeds of holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) during germination. Seed Science and Technology 39: 165-177.
Pausas J, Blade´l C, Valdecantos A, Seva J, Fuentes D, Alloza J, Vilagrosa A, Bautista S, Cortina J, Vallejo R (2004)
Pines and oaks in the restoration of Mediterranean landscapes of Spain: New perspectives for an old practice-a review. Plant Ecology 171: 209-220
CrossRef | Gscholar
Plieninger T, Pulido JF, Konold W (2003)
Effects of land-use history on size structure of holm oak stands in Spanish dehesas: implications for conservation and restoration. Environmental Conservation 30 (1): 61-70.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ramírez-Valiente JA, Valladares F, Gil L, Aranda I (2009)
Population differences in juvenile survival under increasing drought are mediated by seed size in cork oak (Quercus suber L.). Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1676-1683.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Shakesby AR, Coelho AOC, Schnabel S, Keizer JJ, Clarke AM, Contador LFJ, Walsh DPR, Ferreira DJA, Doerr HS (2002)
A ranking methodology for assessing relative erosion risk and its application to dehesas and montados in Spain and Portugal. Land Degradation and Development 13: 129-140
CrossRef | Gscholar
Singh B, Prakash SK, Bhatt BP (2010)
Provenance variation in seed and seedlings attributes of Quercus glauca Thunb in Garhwal Himalaya. India Indian Dendrobiums 63:59-63.
Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995)
Biometry (3 edn). WH Freeman & Co., New York, USA.
Tilki F (2010)
Influence of acorn size and storage duration on moisture content, germination and survival of Quercus petraea (Mattuschaka). Journal of Environmental Biology 31: 325-328.
Online | Gscholar
Tilki F, Alptekin CU (2005)
Variation in acorn characteristics in provenances of Jaub. et Spach and provenance, temperature and storage effects on acorn germination. Seed Science and Technology 33:441-447.
Tilki F, Alptekin CU (2006)
Germination and seedling growth of Quercus vulcanica: effects of stratification, desiccation, radicle pruning and season of sowing, New Forests 32: 243-251.
Tsakaldimi M, Zagas T, Tsitsoni T, Ganatsas P (2005)
Root morphology, stem growth and field performance of seedlings of two Mediterranean everygreen oak species raised in different container types. Plant and Soil 278: 85-93.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Turkish State Meteorological Service (2013)
Meteorological data. Web Site.
Online | Gscholar
Vallejo VR, Bautista S, Cortina J (2000)
Restoration for soil protection after disturbances. In: "Life and the environment in the Mediterranean" (Trabaud L ed). WIT Press, Southampton, UK.
Wessel WW, Tietema A, Beier C, Emmett BA, Peñuelas J, Riis-Nielson T (2004)
A qualitative ecosystem assessment for different shrublands in western Europe under impact of climate change. Ecosystems 7: 662-671.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Yaltirik F (1984)

Zagas, Th, Hatzistathis A, Tsitsoni T, Gkanatsas P (1998)
Degradation of Mediterrannean forest ecosystems and silvicultural measures for their restoration. In: “European environmental research” (Giannias A ed). Series in Economics, Business and the Environment, East-West vol. 1, Athens, Greece, pp. 53-60.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info