*
 

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry

*

Open top chamber and free air CO2 enrichment - approaches to investigate tree responses to elevated CO2

K Macháčová   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 3, Issue 4, Pages 102-105 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0544-003
Published: Jul 15, 2010 - Copyright © 2010 SISEF

Review Papers

Collection/Special Issue: NFZ Summer School 2009 - Birmensdorf (Switzerland)
Long-term ecosystem research: understanding the present to shape the future
Guest Editors: Marcus Schaub (WSL, Switzerland)


Open Top Chamber (OTC) and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) are currently the prevailing approaches to study plant responses to elevated carbon dioxide. Method-inherent characteristics of either method distinctively influence results. Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are reviewed here, leading to the conclusion that Open Top Chambers seem to be more suitable for investigating the physiological responses of single trees to high levels of carbon dioxide, while Free Air CO2 Enrichment systems are more useful for studying the effects of elevated carbon dioxide on whole forest ecosystems since they have a large diameter, thus allowing to work with larger trees. Free Air CO2 Enrichment systems also provide a natural microclimate, thus leading to ecologically more meaningful results. Methods involving Screen-Aided CO2 Control (SACC) are proposed as a compromise eliminating disadvantages and combining advantages of both the Open Top Chamber and the Free Air CO2 Enrichment methods. Considering the wide variety of experiments under a range of additional environmental factors it is difficult to identify a typical bias that may be inherent in the data generated by the Open Top Chamber and the Free Air CO2 Enrichment. Meta analysis of large number of past studies revealed that Open Top Chamber experiments produce a stronger growth enhancing effect of carbon dioxide than Free Air CO2 Enrichment experiments. Future comparative discussion of Open Top Chamber and Free Air CO2 Enrichment data needs to take into account this potential bias to yield biologically meaningful interpretations.

  Keywords


Open Top Chamber (OTC), Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE), Tree response to elevated CO2, Screen-Aided CO2 Control, Chamber effect, Experimental bias, Elevated CO2 treatment

Authors’ address

(1)
K Macháčová
Chair of Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Georges-Köhler Allee, Geb. 53/54, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany)

Corresponding author

Citation

Macháčová K (2010). Open top chamber and free air CO2 enrichment - approaches to investigate tree responses to elevated CO2. iForest 3: 102-105. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0544-003

Paper history

Received: May 25, 2010
Accepted: May 31, 2010

First online: Jul 15, 2010
Publication Date: Jul 15, 2010
Publication Time: 1.50 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 25867
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 20081
Abstract Page Views: 1049
PDF Downloads: 4320
Citation/Reference Downloads: 38
XML Downloads: 379

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 3718
Overall contacts: 25867
Avg. contacts per week: 48.70

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Jun 2020)

Total number of cites (since 2010): 13
Average cites per year: 1.18

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Ainsworth EA, Long SP (2005)
What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses of photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytologist 165: 351-372.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
Bowes G (1993)
Facing the inevitable: plants and increasing atmospheric CO2. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 44: 309-332.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Carnol M, Hogenboom L, Jach ME, Remacle J, Ceulemans R (2002)
Elevated atmospheric CO2 in open top chambers increases net nitrification and potential denitrification. Global Change Biology 8: 590-598.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Curtis PS, Wang X (1998)
A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form, and physiology. Oecologia 113: 299-313.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
De Graaff MA, van Groenigen KJ, Six J, Hungate B, van Kessel C (2006)
Interactions between plant growth and soil nutrient cycling under elevated CO2: a meta-analysis. Global Change Biology 12: 2077-2091.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Denman KL, Brasseur G, Chidthaisong A, Ciais P, Cox PM, Dickinson RE, Hauglustaine D, Heinze C, Holland E, Jacob D, Lohmann U, Ramachandran S, da Silva Dias PL, Wofsy SC, Zhang X (2007)
Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. In: “Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change” (Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL eds). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, USA, pp. 511-539.
Gscholar
(7)
Drake BG, Leadley PW, Arp WJ, Nassiry D, Curtis PS (1989)
An open top chamber for field studies of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on salt marsh vegetation. Functional Ecology 3: 363-371.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Graf Pannatier E (2006)
Wälder, die der Gesellschaft nutzen. In: “Wie steht`s um unseren Wald?” (Graf Pannatier E ed). Haupt, Bern, Switzerland, pp. 13-30.
Gscholar
(9)
Groninger JW, Johnsen KH, Seiler JR, Will RE, Ellsworth S, Maier CA (1997)
Elevated carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. What might it mean for loblolly pine plantation forestry? Journal of Forestry 97 (7): 4-10.
Online | Gscholar
(10)
Handa T, Körner C, Hättenschwiler S (2006)
Conifer stem growth at the altitudinal treeline in response to four years of CO2 enrichment. Global Change Biology 12: 2417-2430.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Hättenschwiler S, Handa T, Egli L, Asshoff R, Ammann W, Körner C (2002)
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment of alpine treeline conifers. New Phytologist 156: 363-375.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Hättenschwiler S, Handa T, Hagedorn F (2005)
Treeline trees in a CO2-enriched world.
Online | Gscholar
(13)
Hendrey GR, Ellsworth DS, Lewin KF, Nagy J (1999)
A free-air enrichment system for exposing tall forest vegetation to elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology 5: 293-306.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Jach ME, Ceulemans R (1999)
Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on phenology, growth and crown structure of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings after two years of exposure in the field. Tree Physiology 19: 289-300.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Karnosky DF, Gielen B, Ceulemans R, Schlesinger WH, Norby RJ, Oksanen E, Matyssek R, Hendrey GR (2001)
FACE systems for studying the impacts of greenhouse gases on forest ecosystems. In: “The impact of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases on forest ecosystems” (Karnosky DF, Ceulemans R, ScarasciaMugnozza GE, Innes JL eds). CABI Publishing, Oxon, UK, pp. 310-311.
Gscholar
(16)
Kellomäki S, Wang KY, Lemettinen M (2000)
Controlled environment chambers for investigating tree response to elevated CO2 and temperature under boreal conditions. Photosynthetica 38 (1): 69-81.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
Leadley PW, Niklaus P, Stocker R, Körner C (1997)
Screen-aided CO2 control (SACC): middle ground between FACE and open-top chambers. Acta Ecologica 18 (3): 207-219.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Liu X, Kozovits AR, Grams TEE, Blaschke H, Renneberg H, Matyssek R (2004)
Competition modifies effects of enhanced ozone/carbon dioxide concentrations on carbohydrate and biomass accumulation in juvenile Norway spruce and European beech. Tree Physiology 24: 1045-1055.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Luyssaert S, Detlef Schulze E, Börner A, Knohl A, Hessenmöller D, Law BE, Ciais P, Grace J (2008)
Old-growth forests as global carbon sinks. Nature 455: 213-215.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Pritchard SG, Rogers HH, Prior SA, Peterson CM (1999)
Elevated CO2 and plant structure: a review. Global Change Biology 5: 807-837.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
Rogers A, Ellsworth DS (2002)
Photosynthetic acclimation of Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) to long-term growth in elevated pCO2 (FACE). Plant, Cell and Environment 25: 851-858.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Sisler EC, Wood C (1988)
Interaction of ethylene and CO2. Physiologia Plantarum 73: 440-444.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
Spahni R, Chappellaz J, Stocker TF, Loulergue L, Hausammann G, Kawamura K, Flückiger J, Schwander J, Raynaud D, Masson-Delmotte V, Jouzel J (2005)
Atmospheric methane and nitrous oxide of the late Pleistocene from Antarctic ice cores. Science 310: 1317-1321.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Taylor G, Ceulemans R, Ferris R, Gardner SDL, Shao BY (2001)
Increased leaf area expansion of hybrid poplar in elevated CO2. From controlled environments to open-top chambers and to FACE. Environmental Pollution 115: 463-472.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Teskey RO (1997)
Combined effects of elevated CO2 and air temperature on carbon assimilation of Pinus taeda trees. Plant Cell and Environment 20: 373-380.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(26)
Tissue DT, Thomas RB, Strain BR (1996)
Growth and photosynthesis of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) after exposure to elevated CO2 for 19 months in the field. Tree Physiology 16: 49-59.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Uprety DC, Garg SC, Bisht BS, Maini HK, Dwivedi N, Paswan G, Raj A, Saxena DC (2006)
Carbon dioxide enrichment technologies for crop response studies. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 65: 859-866.
Gscholar
(28)
Vanaja M, Maheswari M, Ratnakumar P, Ramakrishna YS (2006)
Monitoring and controlling of CO2 concentrations in open top chambers for better understanding of plants response to elevated CO2 levels. Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics 35: 193-197.
Gscholar
(29)
von Felten S, Hättenschwiler S, Saurer M, Siegwolf R (2007)
Carbon allocation in shoots of alpine treeline conifers in a CO2 enriched environment. Trees 21: 283-294.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info