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iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry

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Effect of forwarder multipassing on forest soil parameters changes

Zdravko Pandur, Hrvoje Kopseak, Marijan Šušnjar, Matija Landekić, Mario Šporčić, Marin Bačić   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages 476-483 (2022)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4138-015
Published: Nov 24, 2022 - Copyright © 2022 SISEF

Research Articles


In the lowland part of Croatia, heavy machinery such as forwarders is mainly used for the purpose of extracting wood from even-aged forest stands. According to the forest management plan, forwarders are used intensively in the winter period when the soil is mostly saturated with water and when their activity can cause significant damage to the soil. The aim of this study was to determine changes in soil characteristics as a consequence of the repeated passage of a loaded 8-wheel forwarder on silty clay loam type of soil. The research was conducted in an area where the forwarder usually works and in a way that did not significantly disrupt his normal workflow. The results indicate that during the study period the soil had a good bearing capacity and that the observed changes in soil characteristics (bulk density, total soil porosity, soil moisture, particle density, soil water retention capacity etc.) occurred as a result of breaking structural soil aggregates after soil compaction by multiple passes. Characteristic points (T) of equalized penetration curves indicate the compaction of the soil surface layer. Cone penetration index (CI) values did not show a proportional increase as the number of forwarder passes increased, although significant differences in their values with respect to the number of passes were found. Shear strength (τ) did not significantly increase with increasing the number of passes, but a statistically significant difference in the measured values was detected at the soil surface, which was not observed at a depth of 15 cm. Exceeding the rut depth limit of 10 cm occurred only after the 20th pass. Our results indicate that the soil at the harvesting site had a good bearing capacity during the study period.

  Keywords


Silty Clay Loam, Bulk Density, Cone Index, Shear Strength, Ruts Depth

Authors’ address

(1)
Zdravko Pandur 0000-0003-4046-1349
Hrvoje Kopseak
Marijan Šušnjar 0000-0003-3644-1396
Matija Landekić 0000-0002-5776-6811
Mario Šporčić 0000-0003-4933-4661
Marin Bačić 0000-0002-1205-4060
Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 23, Zagreb (Croatia)

Corresponding author

 
Marin Bačić
mbacic1@sumfak.hr

Citation

Pandur Z, Kopseak H, Šušnjar M, Landekić M, Šporčić M, Bačić M (2022). Effect of forwarder multipassing on forest soil parameters changes. iForest 15: 476-483. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4138-015

Academic Editor

Rodolfo Picchio

Paper history

Received: May 16, 2022
Accepted: Sep 18, 2022

First online: Nov 24, 2022
Publication Date: Dec 31, 2022
Publication Time: 2.23 months

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