iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Effect of forwarder multipassing on forest soil parameters changes

Zdravko Pandur, Hrvoje Kopseak, Marijan Šušnjar, Matija Landekić, Mario Šporčić, Marin Bačić   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 15, Issue 6, Pages 476-483 (2022)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4138-015
Published: Nov 24, 2022 - Copyright © 2022 SISEF

Research Articles

In the lowland part of Croatia, heavy machinery such as forwarders is mainly used for the purpose of extracting wood from even-aged forest stands. According to the forest management plan, forwarders are used intensively in the winter period when the soil is mostly saturated with water and when their activity can cause significant damage to the soil. The aim of this study was to determine changes in soil characteristics as a consequence of the repeated passage of a loaded 8-wheel forwarder on silty clay loam type of soil. The research was conducted in an area where the forwarder usually works and in a way that did not significantly disrupt his normal workflow. The results indicate that during the study period the soil had a good bearing capacity and that the observed changes in soil characteristics (bulk density, total soil porosity, soil moisture, particle density, soil water retention capacity etc.) occurred as a result of breaking structural soil aggregates after soil compaction by multiple passes. Characteristic points (T) of equalized penetration curves indicate the compaction of the soil surface layer. Cone penetration index (CI) values did not show a proportional increase as the number of forwarder passes increased, although significant differences in their values with respect to the number of passes were found. Shear strength (τ) did not significantly increase with increasing the number of passes, but a statistically significant difference in the measured values was detected at the soil surface, which was not observed at a depth of 15 cm. Exceeding the rut depth limit of 10 cm occurred only after the 20th pass. Our results indicate that the soil at the harvesting site had a good bearing capacity during the study period.


Silty Clay Loam, Bulk Density, Cone Index, Shear Strength, Ruts Depth

Authors’ address

Zdravko Pandur 0000-0003-4046-1349
Hrvoje Kopseak
Marijan Šušnjar 0000-0003-3644-1396
Matija Landekić 0000-0002-5776-6811
Mario Šporčić 0000-0003-4933-4661
Marin Bačić 0000-0002-1205-4060
Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska cesta 23, Zagreb (Croatia)

Corresponding author

Marin Bačić


Pandur Z, Kopseak H, Šušnjar M, Landekić M, Šporčić M, Bačić M (2022). Effect of forwarder multipassing on forest soil parameters changes. iForest 15: 476-483. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4138-015

Academic Editor

Rodolfo Picchio

Paper history

Received: May 16, 2022
Accepted: Sep 18, 2022

First online: Nov 24, 2022
Publication Date: Dec 31, 2022
Publication Time: 2.23 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 15291
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 13689
Abstract Page Views: 885
PDF Downloads: 562
Citation/Reference Downloads: 5
XML Downloads: 150

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 544
Overall contacts: 15291
Avg. contacts per week: 196.76

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Allman M, Jankovsky M, Messingerová V, Allmanová Z (2016)
Soil moisture content as a predictor of soil disturbance caused by wheeled forest harvesting machines on soils of the Western Carpathians. Journal of Forestry Research 28 (2): 283-289.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ampoorter E, De Schrijver A, Van Nevel L, Hermy M, Verheyen K (2012)
Impact of mechanized harvesting on compaction of sandy and clayey forest soils: results of a meta-analysis. Annals of Forest Science 69 (5): 533-542.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Arvidsson J (1999)
Nutrient uptake and growth of barley as affected by soil compaction. Plant and Soil 208 (1): 9-19.
CrossRef | Gscholar
ASAE (1999a)
Procedures for using and reporting data obtained with the soil cone penetrometer. ASAE EP542 FEB99, ASAE Standards 2000, St. Joseph, MI, USA, pp. 986-989.
ASAE (1999b)
Soil cone penetrometer. ASAE S313.3 FEB99, ASAE Standards 2000, St. Joseph, MI, USA, pp. 831-833.
Berli M, Kulli B, Attinger W, Keller M, Leuenberger J, Flühler H, Springman SM, Schulin R (2003)
Compaction of agricultural and forest soils by tracked heavy construction machinery. Soil and Tillage Research 75 (1): 37-52.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bygdén G, Eliasson L, Wästerlund I (2003)
Rut depth, soil compaction and rolling resistance when using bogie tracks. Journal of Terramechanics 40 (3): 179-190.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cambi M, Certini G, Neri F, Marchi E (2015)
The impact of heavy traffic on forest soils: a review. Forest Ecology and Management 338: 124-138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cermák J, Nadezdina N, Neruda J, Urlich R (2008)
Mechanical damage to root systems by forwarders and its application for objective derivation of safe width of extraction trails. In: Proceedings of the “3rd Interantional Scientific Conference Fortechenvi”. Prague (Czech Republic) 26-30 May 2008, pp. 389-392.
D’Acqui LP, Certini G, Cambi M, Marchi E (2020)
Machinery’s impact on forest soil porosity. Journal of Terramechanics 91: 65-71.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Edlund J, Bergsten U, Löfgren B (2012)
Effects of two different forwarder steering and transmission drive systems on rut dimensions. Journal of Terramechanics 49 (5): 291-297.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Eliasson L (2005)
Effects of forwarder tyre pressure on rut formation and soil compaction. Silva Fennica 39 (4): 549-557.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Eliasson L, Wästerlund I (2007)
Effect of slash reinforcement of strip roads on rutting and soil compaction on a moist fine-grained soil. Forest Ecology and Management 252: 118-123.
CrossRef | Gscholar
FAO (2006)
Guidelines for soil description. World Soil Resources Report 103, Rome, Italy, pp. 95. [ISBN:92-5-105521-1]
Froelich HA, Miles DWR, Robbins RW (1985)
Soil bulk density, recovery on compacted skid trails in central Idaho. Soil Science Society of America Journal 4: 1015-1017.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gerasimov Y, Katarov V (2010)
Effect of bogie track and slash reinforcement on sinkage and soil compaction in soft terrains. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 31 (1): 35-45.
Online | Gscholar
Haas J, Hagge-Ellhöft K, Schack-Kirchner H, Lang F (2016)
Using photogrammetry to assess rutting caused by a forwarder. A comparison of different tires and bogie tracks. Soil and Tillage Research 163: 14-20.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Han SK, Han HS, Page-Dumroese DS, Johnson LR (2009)
Soil compaction associated with cut-to-length and whole-tree harvesting of a coniferous forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 39 (5): 976-989.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hartmann M, Niklaus PA, Zimmermann S, Schmutz S, Kremer J, Abarenkov K, Lüscher P, Widmer F, Frey B (2014)
Resistance and resilience of the forest soil microbiome to logging-associated compaction. ISME Journal 8 (1): 226-244.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hillel D (1998)
Environmental soil physics: fundamentals, applications, and environmental considerations. Academic Press, Waltham, MS, USA, pp. 130-188.
Holshouser DL (2001)
Soybean production guide. Information Series no. 408, VA Coop. Ext. Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Blacksburg, VA, USA, pp. 96.
Online | Gscholar
Horn R, Vossbrink J, Becker S (2004)
Modern forestry vehicles and their impacts on soil physical properties. Soil and Tillage Research 79 (2): 207-219.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Horvat D (1994)
An exponential correlation model for penetration characteristics of soil and wheel slip curve. In: Proceedings of the ECE/FAO/ILO, IUFRO and EU Concerted action CEET Interactive seminar and workshop “Soil, Tree, Machines Interaction”. Feldafing (Germany), 4-8 July 1994, pp. 1-7.
ISO-11272 (2017)
Soil quality determination of dry bulk density. International Organization for Standardization - ISO, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 1-14.
Jourgholami M, Ahmadi M, Tavankar F, Picchio R (2020)
Effectiveness of three post-harvest rehabilitation treatments for runoff and sediment reduction on skid trails in the Hyrcanian forests. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 41 (2): 1-16.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Krpan APB, Ivanović Z, Petreš S (1993)
Fizičke štete na tlu pri privlačenju drva [Physical soil damage during wood extraction]. Šumarski list 1- 2: 23-32. [in Croatian]
Labelle ER, Jaeger D (2012)
Quantifying the use of brush mats in reducing forwarder peak loads and surface contact pressures. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 33 (2): 249-274.
Online | Gscholar
Liu X, Cheng X, Wang N, Meng M, Jia Z, Wang J, Zhang J (2021)
Effects of vegetation type on soil shear strength in Fengyang Mountain Nature Reserve, China. Forests 12 (4): 490.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lousier JD (1990)
Impacts of forest harvesting and regeneration on forest sites. Land Management Report 67: 22-24.
Lowery B, Schuler RT (1994)
Duration and effects of compaction on soil and plant growth in Wisconsin. Soil and Tillage Research 29: 205-210.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mariotti B, Hoshika Y, Cambi M, Marra E, Feng Z, Paoletti E, Marchi E (2020)
Vehicle-induced compaction of forest soil affects plant morphological and physiological attributes: a meta-analysis. Forest Ecology and Management 462: 118004.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mohieddinne H, Brasseur B, Spicher F, Gallet-Moron E, Buridant J, Kobaissi A, Horen H (2019)
Physical recovery of forest soil after compaction by heavy machines, revealed by penetration resistance over multiple decades. Forest Ecology and Management 449: 117472.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mohsenimanesh A, Ward SM (2010)
Estimation of a three-dimensional tyre footprint using dynamic soil-tyre contact pressures. Journal of Terramechanics 47 (6): 415-421.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Myhrman D (1990)
Factors influencing rut formation from forestry machines. In: Proceedings of the “10th International Conference of the ISTVS”. Kobe (Japan), 20-24 Aug 1990, pp. 1-12.
Owende PMO, Lyons J, Haarlaa R, Peltola A, Spinelli R, Molano J, Ward SM (2002)
Operations protocol for eco-efficient wood harvesting on sensitive sites. Final Report, Project ECOWOOD, EU 5th Framework Project “Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources”, Contract no. QLK5-1999-00991, University College, Dublin, Irleand, pp. 74.
Poltorak BJ, Labelle ER, Jaeger D (2018)
Soil displacement during ground-based mechanized forest operations using mixed-wood brush mats. Soil Tillage Research 179: 96-104.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Poršinsky T (2005)
Djelotvornost i ekološka pogodnost forvardera Timberjack 1710 pri izvoženju oblovine iz nizinskih šuma Hrvatske [Efficiency and environmental suitability of the Timberjack 1710 forwarder when extracting roundwood from the lowland forests of Croatia]. PhD thesis, Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Croatia, pp. 274. [in Croatian]
Powers RF, Andrew-Scott D, Sanchez FG, Voldseth RA, Page-Dumroese D, Elioff JD, Stone DM (2005)
The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research. Forest Ecology and Management 220 (1-3): 31-50.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Riggert R, Fleige H, Horn R (2019)
An assessment scheme for soil degradation caused by forestry machinery on skid trails in Germany. Soil Science Society of America Journal 83: 1-12.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ring E, Andersson M, Hansson L, Jansson G, Högbom L (2021)
Logging mats and logging residue as ground protection during forwarder traffic along till hillslopes. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 42 (3): 445-462.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Saarilahti M (2002a)
Evaluation of the wes-method in assessing the trafficability of terrain and the mobility of forest tractors - Part 2. Comparison of the different wes-models. soil interaction model. Soil interaction model, Appendix Report no. 3, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 28.
Saarilahti M (2002b)
Modelling of the wheel and soil, 4. Forest soil properties - Survey on forest soil properties and soil compaction for studying the mobility of forest tractors. Soil interaction model, Appendix Report no. University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland, 8, pp. 37.
Sakai H, Nordfjell T, Suadicani K, Talbot B, Bllehuus E (2008)
Soil compaction on forest soils from different kinds of tyres and tracks and possibility of accurate estimate. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 29 (1): 15-27.
Online | Gscholar
Schjønning P (2021)
Topsoil shear strength - Measurements and predictions. Soil and Tillage Research 212: 105049.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Shetron SG, Sturos JA, Padley E, Trettin C (1988)
Forest soil compaction: effect of multiple passes and landings on wheel track surface soil bulk density. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 5: 120-123.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sohrabi H, Jourgholami M, Jafari M, Shabanian N, Venanzi R, Tavankar F, Picchio R (2020)
Soil recovery assessment after timber harvesting based on the sustainable forest operation (SFO) perspective in Iranian temperate forests. Sustainability 12 (7): 2874.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sutherland B (2003)
Preventing soil compaction and rutting in the boreal forest of western Canada: a practical guide to operating timber-harvesting equipment. Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada - FERIC, Advantage Report 4 (7): 53.
Online | Gscholar
Tomašić Z (2007)
Istraživanje tehničko-eksploatacijskih značajki skidera za prorede [Research of the technical-operational features of skidder for thinning]. PhD thesis, Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, pp. 354. [in Croatian]
USDA (1987)
Soil mechanics level 1 module 3 USDA soil textural classification study guide. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington DC, USA.
Vennik K, Kukk P, Krebstein K, Reintam E, Keller T (2019)
Measurements and simulations of rut depth due to single and multiple passes of a military vehicle on different soil types. Soil and Tillage Research 186: 120-127.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vossbrink J, Horn R (2004)
Modern forestry vehicles and their impact on soil physical properties. European Journal of Forest Research 123 (4): 259-267.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Williamson JR, Neilsen WA (2000)
The influence of forest site on rate and extent of soil compaction and profile disturbance of skid trails during ground-based harvesting. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 1196-1205.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info