iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Assessment of timber extraction distance and skid road network in steep karst terrain

Andreja Duka (1)   , Stefano Grigolato (2), Ivica Papa (1), Tibor Pentek (1), Tomislav Poršinsky (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 6, Pages 886-894 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2471-010
Published: Nov 06, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Research Articles

This study aims to define a simple and effective method to calculate skidding distances on steep karst terrain, rich in ground obstacles (stoniness and rockiness) to support decision planning of secondary and primary forest infrastructure network for timber extraction in productive selective cut forests. Variations between geometrical extraction distances and actual distances were highlighted on the operational planning level (i.e., compartment level) through GIS-related calculation models, focusing on cable skidder timber extraction. Automation in defining geometrical and real extraction distances, as well as relative forest openness were achieved by geo-processing workflows in GIS environment. Due to variation of extraction correction factors at the compartment level from a minimum of 1.19 to a maximum of 5.05 in the same management unit, it can be concluded that planning harvesting operations (timber extraction) at operational level should not include the use of correction factors previously obtained for entire terrain (topographical) categories, sub-categories or even management units.


Real Extraction Distance, Steep Terrain, Skid Road Network, GIS Environment, Karst Terrain

Authors’ address

Andreja Duka
Ivica Papa
Tibor Pentek
Tomislav Poršinsky
Department of Forest Engineering, Faculty of Forestry, University of Zagreb, Svetošimunska 25, Zagreb (Croatia)
Stefano Grigolato
Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, v.le Dell’Università 16, Legnaro, PD (Italy)

Corresponding author

Andreja Duka


Duka A, Grigolato S, Papa I, Pentek T, Poršinsky T (2017). Assessment of timber extraction distance and skid road network in steep karst terrain. iForest 10: 886-894. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2471-010

Academic Editor

Rodolfo Picchio

Paper history

Received: Apr 24, 2017
Accepted: Aug 13, 2017

First online: Nov 06, 2017
Publication Date: Dec 31, 2017
Publication Time: 2.83 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 41980
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 34994
Abstract Page Views: 2690
PDF Downloads: 3410
Citation/Reference Downloads: 16
XML Downloads: 870

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2443
Overall contacts: 41980
Avg. contacts per week: 120.29

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 19
Average cites per year: 2.71


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Ackerman P, Pulkki R, Gleasure E (2014)
Modelling of wander ratios, travel speeds and productivity of cable and grapple skidders in softwood sawtimber operations in South Africa. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science 76 (2): 101-110.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ackerman P, Pulkki R, Odhiambo B (2016)
Comparison of cable skidding productivity and cost: pre-choking mainline versus tagline systems. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 37 (2): 261-268.
Online | Gscholar
Allman M, Ferenčík M, Jankovský M, Stanovský M, Messingerová V (2015)
Damage caused by wheeled skidders on Cambisols of central Europe. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 36 (2): 205-215.
Online | Gscholar
Amishev D, Evanson T, Raymond K (2009)
Felling and bunching on steep terrain - a review of the literature. Harvesting Technical Note 1 (7), Future Forests Research Limited, Rotorua, New Zealand, pp. 10.
Online | Gscholar
Anonymous (2014)
Program gospodarenja šumama posebne namjene - nastavno pokusni šumski objekt Zalesina GJ Kupjački vrh 1.1: 2015-31.12.2024 [Management program for special purpose forests - forest training and research center Zalesina, Management unit Kupjački vrh 1.1: 2015-31.12.2024]. Faculty of Forestry University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, pp. 1-75. [in Croatian]
Backmund F (1966)
Kennzahlen für den Grad der Erschließung von Forstbetrieben durch autofahrbare Wege [Key figures for defining the accessibility of forestry enterprises throughout road network]. Forstwissenschaftliches Centralblatt 85(11-12): 342-354. [in German]
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bont LG, Heinimann HR, Church RL (2012)
Concurrent optimization of harvesting and road network layouts under steep terrain. Annals of Operations Research 232 (1): 41-64.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Burrough PA, McDonnell RA (1998)
Principles of GIS. Oxford University Press, London, UK, pp. 333.
Cambi M, Certini G, Neri F, Marchi E (2015)
The impact of heavy traffic on forest soils: a review. Forest Ecology and Management 338: 124-138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cambi M, Grigolato S, Neri F, Picchio R, Marchi E (2016)
Effects of forwarder operation on soil physical characteristics: a case study in the Italian Alps. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 37 (2): 233-239.
Online | Gscholar
Cavalli R, Grigolato S (2010)
Influence of characteristics and extension of a forest road network on the supply cost of forest woodchips. Journal of Forest Research 15 (3): 202-209.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Contreras M, Chung W (2007)
A computer approach to finding an optimal log landing location and analysing influencing factors for ground-based timber harvesting. Canadian journal of forest research 37 (2): 276-292.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Contreras M, Chung W (2011)
A modeling approach to estimating skidding costs of individual trees for thinning operations. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 26 (3): 133-146.
Online | Gscholar
Dietz P, Knigge W, Löffler H (1984)
Walderschlieβung [Forest openness]. Verlag Paul Parey, Hamburg, Germany, pp. 426. [in German]
Duka A, Vusić D, Poršinsky T (2017)
Terrain roughness evaluation for timber extraction by cable skidder. Gozdarski Vestnik 75 (1): 21-35.
Enache A, Kühmaier M, Visser R, Stampfer K (2016)
Forestry operations in the European mountains: a study of current practices and efficiency gaps. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 31 (4): 412-427.
CrossRef | Gscholar
ESRI (2017)
ArcMap. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Fichtinger C (2014)
Analyse der forstlichen Erschließungssituation und Tragfähigkeit von Forststraßen im Bezirk Hermagor (Kärnten) [Analysis of the forestry development and sustainability of forest roads in the district of Hermagor (Carinthia)]. MSc thesis, Department of Forest and Soil Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna, Austria, pp. 54. [in German]
Folegatti B (2010)
The application of precision forestry technologies in logging operations. MSc thesis, Department of Forestry and Wildlife Sciences, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA, pp. 138.
Online | Gscholar
Greulich FE (1997)
An algorithm for optimal centralized landing location: rectilinear yarding operations on flat uniform terrain. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 27 (8): 1192-1197.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Grigolato S, Pellegrini M, Cavalli R (2013)
Temporal analysis of the traffic loads on forest road networks. iForest 6 (5): 255-226.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Grigolato S, Mologni O, Cavalli R (2017)
GIS applications in forest operations and road network planning: An overview over the last two decades. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 38 (2): 175-186.
Online | Gscholar
Halleux ORM, Greene WD (2001)
Setting analyst: a practical harvest planning technique. In: Proceedings of the “24th Annual Council on Forest Engineering Meeting Appalachian hardwoods managing change” (Wang J, Wolford M, McNeel J eds). Snowshoe (WV, USA), 15-19 July 2001. Council on Forest Engineering, Corvallis, OR, USA, pp. 127-132.
Hayati E, Majnounian B, Abdi E (2012)
Qualitative evaluation and optimization of forest road network to minimize total costs and environmental impacts. iForest 5 (3): 121-125.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Heinimann HR (1999)
Ground-based harvesting technologies for steep slopes. In: Proceedings of the “International Mountain Logging and 10th Pacific Northwest Skyline Symposium” (Sessions J, Chung W eds). Oregon State University, Corvallis (OR, USA), 28 Mar - 1 Apr. Department of Forest Engineering, Oregon State and International Union of Forest Research Organization, Corvallis, OR, USA, pp. 1-19.
Herak M, Stringfield VT (1971)
Karst, important karst regions of the northern hemisphere. Elsevier Science Ltd, The Netherlands, pp. 556.
Jourgholami M, Abdi E, Chung W (2013)
Decision making in forest road planning considering both skidding and road costs: a case study in the Hyrcanian forest in Iran. iForest 6 (2): 59-64.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Krč J, Košir B (2008)
Predicting wood skidding direction on steep terrain by DEM and forest road network extension. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 29 (2): 177-188.
Kulak D, Stanczykiewicz A, Szewczyk G (2017)
Productivity and time consumption of timber extraction with a grapple skidder in selected pine stands. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 38 (1): 55-63.
Online | Gscholar
Leucci G, De Giorgi L (2005)
Integrated geophysical surveys to assess the structural conditions of a karstic cave of archaeological importance. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science 5 (1): 17-22.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lopes SE, Fernandes HC, Vieira LB, Machado CC, Rinaldi PCN (2006)
Evaluation of compaction of a forest soil subjected to skidder traffic. Revista Arvore 30 (3): 369-376.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Marchi E, Picchio R, Spinelli R, Verani S, Venanzi R, Certini G (2014)
Environmental impact assessment of different logging methods in pine forests thinning. Ecological Engineering 70: 429-436.
Online | Gscholar
Matthews DM (1942)
Cost control in the logging industry. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York City, NY, USA, pp. 1-374.
Online | Gscholar
Osterreichische Waldinventur (1992)
Instruktion für die Feldarbeit der Österreichischen Waldinventur 1992/96 [Instructions for Austrian Forest Inventory]. Web site. [in German]
Online | Gscholar
Ottaviani Aalmo G, Magagnotti N., Spinelli R (2016)
Forest workers and steep terrain winching: The impact of environmental and anthropometric parameters on performance. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 37 (1): 97-105.
Online | Gscholar
Papa I, Pentek T, Nevečerel H, Lepoglavec K, Ä uka A, Šafran B, Risović S (2015)
Raščlamba tehničkih značajki i sustava odvodnje postojećih šumskih cesta radi utvrdivanja potrebe njihove rekonstrukcije - studija slučaja za GJ Belevine NPSO Zalesina [The analysis of the technical features and drainage system for existing forest roads in order to establish the needs of their reconstruction - a case study of MU Belevine FTRC Zalesina]. Šumarski list 139 (11-12): 497-517. [in Croatian]
Pellegrini M, Grigolato S, Cavalli R (2013)
Spatial multi-criteria decision process to define maintenance priorities of forest road network: an application in the Italian alpine region. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 34(1): 31-42.
Online | Gscholar
Pentek T, Nevečerel H, Dasović K, Poršinsky T, Šušnjar M, Potočnik I (2010)
Analiza sekundarne otvorenosti šuma gorskog područja kao podloga za odabir duljine uža vitla [Analysis of secondary relative openness in hilly areas as a basis for selection of winch rope length]. Šumarski list 134 (5-6): 241-248. [in Croatian]
Pentek T, Nevečerel H, Ecimović T, Lepoglavec K, Papa I, Tomašić Z (2014)
Strategijsko planiranje šumskih prometnica u Republici Hrvatskoj-raščlamba postojećega stanja kao podloga za buduće aktivnosti [Strategic planning of forest road network in Croatia-analysis of present situation as basis for future activities]. Nova mehanizacija Šumarstva 35 (1): 63-78. [in Croatian]
Pentek T, Pičman D, Nevečerel H (2004)
Srednja udaljenost privlačenja drva [Mean wood skidding distance]. Šumarski list 128(9-10): 545-558. [in Croatian]
Rebula E (1983)
Optimalna gustoća traktorskih vlaka [Optimal skid road density]. Mehanizacija šumarstva 8 (3-4): 317-321. [in Croatian]
Rowan AA (1996)
Terrain classification. Forestry Record 114, Forestry Commission, Her Majesty’s Stationery Office (HMSO), Edinburgh, UK, pp. 1-24.
Segebaden G (1964)
Studies of cross-country transport distances and road net extension. Studia Forestalia Suecica 18: 1-70.
Online | Gscholar
Sessions J (2007)
Harvesting operations in the tropics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, Germany, pp. 170.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Silversides CR, Sundberg U (1988)
Operational efficiency in forestry - volume 1. Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers - Forest Sciences, Dordrecht/Boston/Lancaster, Netherlands, pp. 219.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Solgi, A, Naghdi, R, Tsioras, PA, Nikooy, M (2015)
Soil compaction and porosity changes caused during the operation of Timberjack 450C skidder in northern Iran. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 36 (2): 217-225.
Online | Gscholar
Spinelli R, Aalmo GO, Magagnotti N (2015)
The effect of a slack-pulling device in reducing operator physiological workload during log winching operations. Ergonomics 58 (5): 781-790.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Stückelberger J, Heinimann HR, Chung W (2007)
Improved road network design models with the consideration of various link patterns and road design elements. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 37 (11): 2281-2298.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Valeria O, Cea I, Bergeron Y (2011)
A review of skidding distances method under variable retention harvesting considerations. In: Proceedings of the “34th Council on Forest Engineering”. Université Laval, Quebec City (Quebec, Canada) 12-15 June 2011. Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Rouyn-Noranda, Canada, pp. 1-12.
Online | Gscholar
Visser R, Berkett H (2015)
Effect of terrain steepness on machine slope when harvesting. International Journal of Forest Engineering 26 (1): 1-9.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Visser R, Stampfer K (2015)
Expanding ground-based harvesting onto steep terrain - a review. Croatian Journal of Forest Engineering 36 (2): 321-331.
Online | Gscholar
Waltham AC, Fookes PG (2003)
Engineering classification of karst ground conditions. Quarterly Journal of Engineering Geology and Hydrogeology 36 (2): 101-118.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zdjelar M (1990)
Utjecaj metoda gradnje traktorskih vlaka na proizvodnost i ekonomičnost rada, oštećivanje stabala i naprezanje radnika [The impact of skid road construction methods on work productivity and efficiency, tree damage and work load]. Mehanizacija šumarstva 15 (1-2): 3-26. [in Croatian]
Zhang ZH, Hu G, Zhu JD, Luo DH, Ni J (2010)
Spatial patterns and interspecific associations of dominant tree species in two old-growth karst forests, SW China. Ecological research 25 (6): 1151-1160.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info