iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Use of terrestrial laser scanning to evaluate the spatial distribution of soil disturbance by skidding operations

Milan Koren (1)   , Martin Slančík (2), Jozef Suchomel (2), Juraj Dubina (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 386-393 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1165-007
Published: Oct 08, 2014 - Copyright © 2015 SISEF

Research Articles

We investigated the disturbance to the surface of a skid trail caused by removing cut timber from inside the forest to the roadside by dragging using terrestrial laser scanning technology. We scanned the study site prior to taking any action, after skidding and after implementing post-harvesting reinstatement to the surface of the skid trail. From the point cloud obtained, we derived an irregular point field. We generated a triangulated irregular network which we then interpolated into a raster digital terrain model with a resolution of 1cm. By comparing the digital terrain models, we analysed the influence of skidding the timber and the influence of post-harvesting reinstatement upon the surface of the skid trail. The surface of the skid trail was most significantly affected in the area where the harvested logs were extracted and stacked for hauling. In the centre section of the trail, where the logs were dragged by a tractor, quite deep tracks were created and the intensity of soil disturbance was comparable to the handling section. The lowest intensity of soil disturbance was found in the area where the skid trail met the roadside. The post-harvesting reinstatement of the working area resulted in levelling the surface of the skid trail and the deepest tracks were filled in. The post-harvesting reinstatement caused a 12% increase of the volume of ruts, a 49% decrease of the volume of mounds of soil and a 6% increase of total soil volume change.


Terrestrial Laser Scanning, Skidding Operation, Soil Disturbance, Precision Forestry

Authors’ address

Milan Koren
Department of Forest Management and Geodesy, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, T. G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen (Slovakia)
Martin Slančík
Jozef Suchomel
Department of Forest Harvesting, Logistics and Amelioration, Faculty of Forestry, Technical University in Zvolen, T. G. Masaryka 24, 960 53 Zvolen (Slovakia)
Juraj Dubina
Forests of the Slovak Republic, Námestie SNP 8, 975 66 Banská Bystrica (Slovakia)

Corresponding author

Milan Koren


Koren M, Slančík M, Suchomel J, Dubina J (2015). Use of terrestrial laser scanning to evaluate the spatial distribution of soil disturbance by skidding operations. iForest 8: 386-393. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1165-007

Academic Editor

Enrico Marchi

Paper history

Received: Oct 26, 2013
Accepted: Aug 15, 2014

First online: Oct 08, 2014
Publication Date: Jun 01, 2015
Publication Time: 1.80 months

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