*

Acoustic evaluation of wood quality with a non-destructive method in standing trees: a first survey in Italy

Andrea R Proto (1)   , Giorgio Macrì (1), Vincenzo Bernardini (2), Diego Russo (1), Giuseppe Zimbalatti (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 4, Pages 700-706 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2065-010
Published: Jul 17, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Research Articles


Research and development efforts are currently underway worldwide to examine the potential use of a wide range of non-destructive technologies (NDT) for evaluating wood and wood-based materials, from the assessment of standing trees to in-place structures. For this purpose, acoustic velocity by the Fakopp time of flight (TOF) tool was used to estimate the influence of four thinning treatments performed in Southern Italy. The objective of the study was to determine if the effects of silvicultural practices on wood quality can be identified using acoustic measurement to assess the MOEd of standing trees with non-destructive method in Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. calabrica). Four hundred and fifty standing trees from four sites were non-destructively tested using a time-of-flight acoustic wave technique. The thinning trials were conducted on 60-year-old plantations of Calabrian pine in four plots under different treatments: Control (T), light thinning (A), intermediate thinning (B) and heavy thinning (C). Statistical analysis demonstrated significant stress wave time differences between the stands with moderate thinning (A and B) and those with heavy thinning (C). The results showed that tree diameter has significant influence on acoustic wave measurements and a valid relationship exists between diameter at breast height and tree velocity. The results of these studies proved that the stress wave technique can be successfully applied on standing trees.

  Keywords


Modulus of Elasticity, Wood Density, Thinning, Calabrian Pine

Authors’ address

(1)
Andrea R Proto
Giorgio Macrì
Diego Russo
Giuseppe Zimbalatti
Department of Agriculture, Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, Feo di Vito 89122, Reggio Calabria (Italy)
(2)
Vincenzo Bernardini
Italian Council for Agricultural Research and Economics - Mediterranean Forestry Research Unit (CREA - SAM) - C.da Li Rocchi, Vermicelli, 87036 Rende, CS (Italy)

Corresponding author

 
Andrea R Proto
andrea.proto@unirc.it

Citation

Proto AR, Macrì G, Bernardini V, Russo D, Zimbalatti G (2017). Acoustic evaluation of wood quality with a non-destructive method in standing trees: a first survey in Italy. iForest 10: 700-706. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2065-010

Academic Editor

Giacomo Goli

Paper history

Received: Mar 23, 2016
Accepted: Apr 18, 2017

First online: Jul 17, 2017
Publication Date: Aug 31, 2017
Publication Time: 3.00 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 7790
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 5676
Abstract Page Views: 228
PDF Downloads: 1547
Citation/Reference Downloads: 37
XML Downloads: 302

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 855
Overall contacts: 7790
Avg. contacts per week: 63.78

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 10
Average cites per year: 3.33

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Booker R, Ridoutt BG (1997)
Stiffness testing of standing trees. In: Proceedings of the “2nd New Zealand Wood Quality Workshop” (Ridoutt BG ed). New Zealand Forest Research Institute Ltd, FRI Bulletin, vol. 202, pp. 5-6.
Gscholar
(2)
Brashaw BK, Bucur V, Divos F, Goncalves R, Lu J, Meder R, Yin Y (2009)
Nondestructive testing and evaluation of wood: a worldwide research update. Forest Products Journal 59 (3): 7-14.
Gscholar
(3)
Chauhan SS, Walker JCF (2006)
Variations in acoustic velocity and density with age, and their interrelationships in radiata pine. Forest Ecology and Management 229: 388-394.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Chauhan SS, Entwistle KM, Walker JCF (2005)
Differences in acoustic velocity by resonance and transit-time methods in an anisotropic laminated wood medium. Holzforschung 59: 428-434.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Clark A, Daniels RF (2002)
Modeling the effect of physiographic region on wood properties of planted loblolly pine in southeastern United States. In: Proceedings of the 4th Workshop IUFRO S5.01.045. Harrison, Hot Springs (BC, Canada) 8-14 Sept 2012. Working Party S5.01-04, INRA - Centre de Researches de Nancy, France, pp. 54-60.
Gscholar
(6)
Divos F (2010)
Acoustic tools for seedling, tree and log selection. In: Proceedings of the Final Conference of COST Action E53 “The Future of Quality Control for Wood and Wood Products”. Edinburgh (Scotland) 4-7 May 2010. Napier University, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 5.
Online | Gscholar
(7)
Eriksson D, Lindberg H, Bergsten U (2006)
Influence of silvicultural regime on wood structure characteristics and mechanical properties of clear wood in Pinus sylvestris. Silva Fennica 40 (4): 743-762. org.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Fioravanti M (1999)
Valutazione tecnologica dell’influenza delle pratiche selvicolturali sulla qualità del legno [Technical evaluation of the effect of silviculture on timber quality]. In: “Il Legno di Castagno e di Douglasia della Toscana. Qualità del Legno e Selvicoltura, Classificazione e Valori Caratteristici del Legname Strutturale”. ARSIA, Quaderno 9/99, Firenze, Italy, pp. 23-37. [in Italian]
Gscholar
(9)
Huang CL (2000)
Predicting lumber stiffness of standing trees. In: Proceedings of the “12th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood”. Sopron (Hungary) 13-15 Sept 2000. University of Western Hungary, Sopron, Hungary, pp. 173-179.
Gscholar
(10)
Huang CL (2005)
System and method for measuring stiffness in standing trees. United States Patent no. 20050005699, Weyerhaeuser Company, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 11.
Gscholar
(11)
Huang CL, Lambeth CC (2006)
Methods for determining potential characteristics of a specimen based on stress wave velocity measurements. United States Patent no. 20060288784, Weyerhaeuser Company, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 10.
Gscholar
(12)
Ikeda K, Kino N (2000)
Quality evaluation of standing trees by a stress-wave propagation method and its application I. Seasonal changes of moisture contents of sugi standing trees and evaluation with stress-wave propagation velocity. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 46 (3): 181-188.
Gscholar
(13)
Ikeda K, Arima T (2000)
Quality evaluation of standing trees by a stress-wave propagation method and its application II. Evaluation of sugi stands and application to production of sugi structural square sawn timber. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 46 (3): 189-196.
Gscholar
(14)
Koubaa A, Zhang SY, Isabel N, Beaulieu J, Bousquet J (2000)
Phenotypic correlations between juvenile-mature wood density and growth in black spruce. Wood and Fiber Science 32 (1): 61-71.
Gscholar
(15)
Lasserre JP, Mason EG, Watt MS (2007)
Assessing corewood acoustic velocity and modulus of elasticity with two impact based instruments in 11-year-old trees from a clonal-spacing experiment of Pinus radiata D. Don. Forest Ecology and Management 239: 217-221.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Lindstrom H, Harris P, Nakada R (2002)
Methods for measuring stiffness of young trees. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 60: 165-174.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
Lindstrom H, Reale M, Grekin M (2009)
Using non-destructive testing to assess modulus of elasticity of Pinus sylvestris trees. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 24: 247-257.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Macdonald H, Hubert J (2002)
A review of the effect of silviculture on timber quality of Sitka spruce. Forestry 2: 107-138.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Marziliano PA, Menguzzato G, Scuderi A, Corona P (2012)
Simplified methods to inventory the current annual increment of forest standing volume. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 5: 276-282.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Marziliano PA, Lafortezza R, Mendicamento U, Lorusso L, Giannico V, Colangelo C, Sanesi G (2015)
Estimating belowground biomass and root/short ratio of Phillyrea latifolia L. in the Mediterranean forest landscapes. Annals of Forest Science 72 (5): 585-593.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
Nakamura N (1996)
Measurement of the properties of standing trees with ultrasonics and mapping of the properties. University Forest Research Rep. 96, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 125-135.
Gscholar
(22)
Nanami N, Nakamura N, Arima T, Okuma M (1992)
Measuring the properties of standing trees with stress waves I. The method of measurement and the propagation path of the waves. Mokuzai Gakkaishi 38 (8): 739-746.
Gscholar
(23)
Pellerin RF, Ross RJ (2002)
Nondestructive evaluation of wood. Pub. no. 7250, Forest Products Society, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 210.
Gscholar
(24)
Proto AR, Zimbalatti G (2016)
Firewood cable extraction in the southern Mediterranean area of Italy. Forest Science and Technology 16: 16-23.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Proto AR, Zimbalatti G, Bernardi B (2014)
Nuovi strumenti al servizio delle utilizzazioni forestali [New tools for forest utilization]. In: Proceedings of the “II International Congress of Silviculture”. Florence (Italy) 26-29 Nov 2014. Italian Academy of Forest Sciences, Florence, Italy, pp. 1107-1112. [in Italian]
Gscholar
(26)
Sanesi G, Lafortezza R, Colangelo G, Marziliano PA, Davies C (2013)
Root system investigation in sclerophyllous vetgetation: an overview. Italian Journal of Agronomy 8: 121-126.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Searles G, Moore J (2009)
Measurement of wood stiffness in standing trees and logs: implications for end-product quality. In: Proceedings of the COST E53 Meeting “Quality Control for Wood and Wood Products”. Bled (Slovenia) 21-23 Apr 2009. Holyrood, Edinburgh, UK, pp. 1-5.
Gscholar
(28)
Sell J, Kropf F (1990)
Propriétés et caractéristiques des essences de bois [Properties and characteristics of wood species]. Lignum, Le Mont-sur-Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 93. [in French]
Gscholar
(29)
Todaro L, Macchioni N (2011)
Wood properties of young Douglas-fir in Southern Italy: results over a 12-year post-thinning period. European Journal of Forest Research 130: 251-261.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Todaro L (2002)
Influenza delle tecniche colturali sulle qualità del legno di alcune conifere con particolare riferimento alla Douglasia [Influence of silvicultural treatments on wood quality on Douglas-fir trees]. Monti e Boschi 3/4: 38-44. [in Italian]
Gscholar
(31)
Tseheye A, Buchanan AH, Walker JCF (2000)
Sorting of logs using acoustics. Wood Science and Technology 34: 337-344.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
UNI-ISO-3130 (1985)
Legno. Determinazione dell’umidità per le prove fisiche e meccaniche [Wood. Determination of moisture content for physical and mechanical tests]. Ente Nazionale Italiano di Unificazione, Milan, Italy, pp. 2. [in Italian]
Gscholar
(33)
Urhan OS, Kolpak SE, Jayawickrama KJS, Howe GT (2014)
Early genetic selection for wood stiffness in juvenile Douglas-fir and western hemlock. Forest Ecology and Management 320 (1): 104-117.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(34)
Walker JCF, Nakada R (1999)
Understanding corewood in some softwoods: a selective review on stiffness and acoustics. International Forestry Review 1 (4): 251-259.
Gscholar
(35)
Wang X, Ross RJ (2008)
Acoustic evaluation of Alaskan young-growth wood. In: Proceedings of the “15th International Symposium on Nondestructive Testing of Wood”. Duluth (MN, USA) 10-12 Sept 2008. Forest Products Society, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 97-107.
Gscholar
(36)
Wang X (1999)
Stress wave-based nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods for wood quality of standing trees. PhD dissertation, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA. pp. 187.
Gscholar
(37)
Wang X, Ross RJ, Mcclellan M, Barbour JR, Erickson JR, Forsman JW, McGinnis GD (2001)
Nondestructive evaluation of standing trees with a stress wave method. Wood and Fiber Science 33: 522-533.
Gscholar
(38)
Wang X, Ross RJ, Punches J, Barbour RJ, Forsman JW, Erickson JR (2003)
Evaluation of small-diameter timber for valued-added manufacturing - a stress wave approach. In: Proceedings of the “II International Precision Forestry Symposium”. Seattle (WA, USA) 15-17 Jun 2003. Institute of Forest Resources, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA, pp. 91-96.
Gscholar
(39)
Wang X, Ross RJ, Green DW, Brashaw BK, Englund K, Wolcott M (2004)
Stress wave sorting of red maple logs for structural quality. Wood Science and Technology 37: 531-537.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
Wang X, Carter P, Ross RJ, Brashaw BK (2007a)
Acoustic assessment of wood quality of raw forest materials - a path to increased profitability. Forest Products Journal 57 (5): 6-14.
Gscholar
(41)
Wang X, Ross RJ, Carter P (2007b)
Acoustic evaluation of wood quality in standing trees. Part I. Acoustic wave behavior. Wood and Fiber Science 39 (1): 28-38.
Gscholar
(42)
Wang X (2011)
Fundamentals of acoustic measurements on trees and logs and their implication to field application. In: Proceedings of the “17th lnternational Symposium on Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood”. Sopron (Hungary) 14-16 Sept 2011. University of Western Hungary, Sopron, Hungary, pp. 25-33.
Gscholar
(43)
Wang X (2012)
Advanced sorting technologies for optimal wood products and woody biomass utilization. In: Proceedings of “International Conference on Biobase Material Science and Engineering”. Changsha (China) 21-23 Oct 2012. IEEE Catalog Number CFP1240T-ART, Harbin Heilongjiang, China, pp. 175-179.
Gscholar
(44)
Wang X (2013)
Acoustic measurements on trees and logs: a review and analysis. Wood Science and Technology 47 (5): 965-975.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(45)
Zhang SY (1995)
Effect of growth rate on wood specific gravity and selected mechanical properties in individual species from distinct wood categories. Wood Science and Technology 29 (6): 451-466.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(46)
Zimbalatti G, Proto AR (2009)
Cable logging opportunities for firewood in Calabrian forest. Biosystems Engineering 102: 63-68.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website