iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Kinetic analysis of poplar wood properties by thermal modification in conventional oven

Bertrand Marcon (1-2-3)   , Giacomo Goli (2), Miyuki Matsuo-Ueda (4), Louis Denaud (1), Kenji Umemura (3), Joseph Gril (5), Shuichi Kawai (6)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 131-139 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2422-010
Published: Feb 07, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: COST action FP1407
Understanding wood modification through an integrated scientific and environmental impact approach
Guest Editors: Giacomo Goli, Andreja Kutnar, Dennis Jones, Dick Sandberg

The kinetics of several poplar (Populus alba L.) wood properties during thermal modification conducted in conventional oven with air recirculation were analysed and modelled in this paper. A wide range of properties was assessed, such as: equilibrium moisture content, sorption diagram, shrinkage coefficients, specific shrinkage coefficients, mass loss, modulus of elasticity, strength and colour. The tests were executed at different temperatures ranging from 90 °C to 180 °C and with different durations. The time-temperature equivalency was checked and property modifications over time analysed through master curves in order to obtain a general model connecting together properties, treatment temperature and duration. Different activation energies arising from each property evolution with treatment temperature and duration are provided showing that every modification could occur with different kinetics.


Poplar Wood Modification, Heat Treatment, Time-temperature Equivalency, Energy of Activation, Kinetic Analysis, Mechanical Properties, Hygroscopicity, Wood Colour

Authors’ address

Bertrand Marcon
Louis Denaud
LaBoMaP, Arts et Métiers ParisTech, Cluny (France)
Bertrand Marcon
Giacomo Goli
GESAAF, University of Florence, Florence (Italy)
Bertrand Marcon
Kenji Umemura
Laboratory of Sustainable Materials, University of Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan)
Miyuki Matsuo-Ueda
Laboratory of Bio-Material Physics, University of Nagoya, Nagoya (Japan)
Joseph Gril
CNRS, University of Clermont Auvergne, Institut Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France)
Shuichi Kawai
Graduate School of Advanced Integrated Studies in Human Survivability, University of Kyoto, Kyoto (Japan)

Corresponding author

Bertrand Marcon


Marcon B, Goli G, Matsuo-Ueda M, Denaud L, Umemura K, Gril J, Kawai S (2018). Kinetic analysis of poplar wood properties by thermal modification in conventional oven. iForest 11: 131-139. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2422-010

Academic Editor

Giacomo Goli

Paper history

Received: Mar 09, 2017
Accepted: Nov 23, 2017

First online: Feb 07, 2018
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2018
Publication Time: 2.53 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 43678
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 37000
Abstract Page Views: 2797
PDF Downloads: 3055
Citation/Reference Downloads: 16
XML Downloads: 810

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2350
Overall contacts: 43678
Avg. contacts per week: 130.10

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2018): 17
Average cites per year: 2.83


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Agrawal RK (1985)
On the use of the Arrhenius equation to describe cellulose and wood pyrolysis. Thermochimica Acta 91: 343-349.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barbero EJ, Ford KJ (2004)
Equivalent time temperature model for physical aging and temperature effects on polymer creep and relaxation. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology 126: 413.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Beall FC, Eickner HW (1970)
Thermal degradation of wood components: a review of the literature. United States Forest Products Laboratory, Madison, WI, USA, pp. 26.
Online | Gscholar
Bekhta P, Niemz P (2003)
Effect of high temperature on the change in color, dimensional stability and mechanical properties of Spruce wood. Holzforschung 57: 539-546.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bratasz L, Kozowska A, Kozowski R (2011)
Analysis of water adsorption by wood using the Guggenheim-Anderson-de Boer equation. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 70: 445-451.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Brown DJ (1982)
The questionable use of the Arrhenius equation to describe cellulose and wood pyrolysis. Thermochimica Acta 54: 377-379.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Calvini P, Gorassini A, Merlani AL (2008)
On the kinetics of cellulose degradation: looking beyond the pseudo zero order rate equation. Cellulose 15: 193-203.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Candelier K, Hannouz S, Elaieb M, Collet R, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2015)
Utilization of temperature kinetics as a method to predict treatment intensity and corresponding treated wood quality: durability and mechanical properties of thermally modified wood. Maderas Ciencia y Tecnologia 17: 253-262.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Candelier K, Thevenon M-F, Petrissans A, Dumarçay S, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2016)
Control of wood thermal treatment and its effects on decay resistance: a review. Annals of Forest Science 73: 571-583.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Chaouch M, Dumarçay S, Pétrissans A, Pétrissans M, Gérardin P (2013)
Effect of heat treatment intensity on some conferred properties of different European softwood and hardwood species. Wood Science and Technology 47: 663-673.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dlouhá J, Gril J, Clair B, Alméras T (2008)
Evidence and modelling of physical aging in green wood. Rheologica Acta 48: 333-342.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dlouhá J, Clair B, Arnould O, Horáček P, Gril J (2009)
On the time-temperature equivalency in green wood: characterisation of viscoelastic properties in longitudinal direction. Holzforschung 63: 327-333.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dureisseix D, Marcon B (2011)
A partitioning strategy for the coupled hygromechanical analysis with application to wood structures of cultural heritage. International Journal for Numerical Methods Engineering 88: 228-256.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Emsley AM, Stevens GC (1994)
Kinetics and mechanisms of the low-temperature degradation of cellulose. Cellulose 1: 26-56.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Enayati AA, Taheri F (2012)
Study of dimensional stability and EMC of poplar wood (Populus alba) treated at different heat-temperature and initial moisture content. In. Proceedings of the Cost Action FP0904 Meeting “Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical Wood Behaviour and Processing”. Nancy (France) 26-28 Mar 2012. Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France, pp. 50-51.
Online | Gscholar
Endo K, Obataya E, Zeniya N (2016)
Effects of heating humidity on the physical properties of hydrothermally treated spruce wood. Wood Science and Technology 50: 1161-1179.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Esteves BM, Pereira HM (2009)
Wood modification by heat treatment: a review. BioResources 4: 370-404.
Fengel D, Wegener G (1989)
Wood - chemistry, ultrastructure, reactions. Journal of Polymer Science Part C: Polymer Letters 23 (11): 601-602.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Finnish ThermoWood Association (2003)
ThermoWood handbook. Finnish ThermoWood Association, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 66.
Froidevaux J, Volkmer T, Ganne-Chédeville C, Gril J, Navi P (2012)
Viscoelastic behaviour of aged and non-aged spruce wood in the radial direction. Wood Material Science and Engineering 7: 1-12.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ganne-Chédeville C, Jääskeläinen A-S, Froidevaux J, Hughes M, Navi P (2012)
Natural and artificial ageing of spruce wood as observed by FTIR-ATR and UVRR spectroscopy. Holzforschung 66: 163-170.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gillen KT, Clough RL (1989)
Time-temperature-dose rate superposition: a methodology for extrapolating accelerated radiation aging data to low dose rate conditions. Polymer Degradation and Stability 24: 137-168.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Goli G, Marcon B, Fioravanti M (2014)
Poplar wood heat treatment: effect of air ventilation rate and initial moisture content on reaction kinetics, physical and mechanical properties. Wood Science and Technology 48: 1303-1316.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Guitard D (1987)
Mécanique du matériau bois et composites [Mechanic of wood and composite materials]. Cepadues Editions, France, pp. 238. [In French]
Gérardin P (2016)
New alternatives for wood preservation based on thermal and chemical modification of wood a review. Annals of Forest Science 73: 559-570.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Herrera A, Soria S, Araya C (1986)
A kinetic study on the thermal decomposition of six hardwood species. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 44: 357-360.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hill C (2006)
Wood modification. In: “Chemical, thermal and other processes”. Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK, pp. 260.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hill C, Ramsay J, Keating B, Laine K, Rautkari L, Hughes M, Constant B (2012)
The water vapour sorption properties of thermally modified and densified wood. Journal of Material Science 47: 3191-3197.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hutchinson JM (1995)
Physical aging of polymers. Progress in Polymer Science 20: 703-760.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Johansson D (2005)
Strenght and colour response of solid wood to heat treatment. PhD Thesis, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden, pp. 85.
Kamdem DP, Pizzi A, Jermannaud A (2002)
Durability of heat-treated wood. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 60: 1-6.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kohara J (1952)
Studies on the durability of wood. I: Mechanical properties of old timbers. Bulletin of Kyoto Prefecture University 2: 116-131. [In Japanese]
Laidler KJ (1996)
A glossary of terms used in chemical kinetics, including reaction dynamics. Pure and Applied Chemistry 68: 149-192.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Marcon B (2009)
Hygromécanique des panneaux en bois et conservation du patrimoine: des pathologies aux outils pour la conservation [Hygromechanics of wood panel paintings and cultural heritage conservation]. PhD Thesis, University of Montpellier 2, France, and Unversity of Florence, Italy, pp. 142. [In French]
Matsuo M, Yokoyama M, Umemura K, Sugiyama J, Kawai S, Gril J, Kubodera S, Mitsutani T, Ozaki H, Sakamoto M, Imamura M (2011)
Aging of wood: analysis of color changes during natural aging and heat treatment. Holzforschung 65: 361-368.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Matsuo MU, Mitsui K, Kobayashi I, Kohara M, Yoshida M, Yamamoto H (2016)
Effect of hygrothermal treatment on wood properties: color changes and kinetic analysis using four softwood and seven hardwood species. Wood Science and Technology 50: 1145-1160.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Navi P, Sandberg D (2012)
Thermo-hydro-mechanical processing of wood. EPFL Press, Lausanne, Switzerland, pp. 280.
Online | Gscholar
Nilsson T, Rowell R (2012)
Historical wood - structure and properties. Journal of Cultural Heritage 13: S5-S9.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Obataya E (2007)
Caracteristiques du bois ancien et technique traditionnelle japonaise de revêtement pour la protection du bois [Characteristics of ancient wood and traditional Japanese technique of coating for wood protection]. In: Actes de la journée d’étude “Conserver aujourd’hui: les â vieillissements’ du bois”. Paris, France, pp. 4-25. [in French]
Obataya E, Shibutani S, Hanata K, Doi S (2006)
Effects of high temperature kiln drying on the practical performances of Japanese cedar wood (Cryptomeria japonica). II: Changes in mechanical properties due to heating. Journal of Wood Science 52: 111-114.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pétrissans A, Younsi R, Chaouch M, Gérardin P, Pétrissans M (2014)
Wood thermodegradation: experimental analysis and modeling of mass loss kinetics. Maderas Ciencia y Tecnologia 16: 133-148.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Rapp AO (2001)
Review on heat treatment of wood. In: Proceedings of COST E22 Special Seminar “European Thematic Network for Wood Modification” (Rapp AO ed). Antibes (France) 9 Feb 2001. European Commission - Research Directorate, Belgium and BFH - The Federal Research Centre for Forestry and Forest Products, Hamburg, Germany, pp. 66. [online]:
Online | Gscholar
Repellin V, Guyonnet R (2005)
Evaluation of heat treated wood swelling by differential scanning calorimetry in relation with chemical composition. Holzforschung 59: 28-34.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sandberg D, Haller P, Navi P (2013)
Thermo-hydro and thermo-hydro-mechanical wood processing: an opportunity for future environmentally friendly wood products. Wood Material Science and Engineering 8: 64-88.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Shafizadeh F, Peter PC (1977)
Thermal deterioration of wood. Wood Technology: Chemical Aspects 43: 57-81.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Stamm AJ (1956)
Thermal degradation of wood cellulose. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 48 (3): 413-417.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Struik LCE (1978)
Physical aging in amorphous polymers and other materials. University of Delft, Elsevier, Netherland, pp. 229. -
Online | Gscholar
Struik LCE (1997)
On McCrum’s sequential aging theory. Polymer 38: 5243-5246.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ströfer-Hua E (1990)
Experimental measurement: interpreting extrapolation and prediction by accelerated aging. Restaurator 11: 254-266.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Tjeerdsma BF, Boonstra M, Pizzi A, Tekely P, Militz H (1998)
Characterisation of thermally modified wood: molecular reasons for wood performance improvement. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products 56: 149.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Winandy JE, Lebow PK (2001)
Modeling strength loss in wood by chemical composition. Part I: An individual component model for southern pine. Wood and Fiber Science 33: 239-254.
Young JF (1967)
Humidity control in the laboratory using salt solutions. Journal of Applied Chemistry 17: 241-245.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info