iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Genetic analysis of Latvian Salix alba L. and hybrid populations using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers

Dainis Rungis   , Maris Laivins, Agnese Gailite, Anna Korica, Dagnija Lazdina, Vilnis Skipars, Ilze Veinberga

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 422-429 (2017)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2004-009
Published: Mar 24, 2017 - Copyright © 2017 SISEF

Research Articles

Latvia is at the northern border of the species range of S. alba L. in Europe, and there has been some debate whether the Latvian populations of S. alba are autochthonous, as this species has long been planted in Latvia as an ornamental tree in gardens, parks and roadsides. In addition, there is increasing interest in the use of several Salix species (including S. alba) as bioenergy crops. Natural S. alba stands throughout Latvia, as well as stands of possibly hybrid origin were analysed using nuclear and chloroplast markers. Our results showed that S. alba populations are probably natural, and that the rate of vegetative reproduction is low, supporting the evidence that Latvia is within the natural range of S. alba. These results provide the basis for the identification of possibly introduced or artificially regenerated stands of S.alba in Latvia. In addition, our results confirm that S. alba hybridises with S. fragilis, and that natural stands including hybrid individuals can be established. The analysis of chloroplast markers indicated that the predominant hybridisation occurs by fertilisation of S. fragilis by S. alba pollen; however, the extent of haplotype sharing between these two species should be further investigated.


Willow, Population Structure, Autochthonous, Provenance

Authors’ address

Dainis Rungis
Maris Laivins
Agnese Gailite
Anna Korica
Dagnija Lazdina
Vilnis Skipars
Ilze Veinberga
Latvian State Forest Research Institute “Silava”, 111 Rigas st, Salaspils, LV-2169 (Latvia)

Corresponding author

Dainis Rungis


Rungis D, Laivins M, Gailite A, Korica A, Lazdina D, Skipars V, Veinberga I (2017). Genetic analysis of Latvian Salix alba L. and hybrid populations using nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers. iForest 10: 422-429. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2004-009

Academic Editor

Fikret Isik

Paper history

Received: Feb 05, 2016
Accepted: Nov 27, 2016

First online: Mar 24, 2017
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2017
Publication Time: 3.90 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 41311
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 35315
Abstract Page Views: 2072
PDF Downloads: 3047
Citation/Reference Downloads: 22
XML Downloads: 855

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2671
Overall contacts: 41311
Avg. contacts per week: 108.27

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 3
Average cites per year: 0.43


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Barcaccia G, Meneghetti S, Albertini E, Triest L, Lucchin M (2003)
Linkage mapping in tetraploid willows: segregation of molecular markers and estimation of linkage phases support an allotetraploid structure for Salix alba × Salix fragilis interspecific hybrids. Heredity 90: 169-180.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barcaccia G, Meneghetti S, Lucchin M, De Jong H (2014)
Genetic segregation and genomic hybridization patterns support an allotetraploid structure and disomic inheritance for Salix species. Diversity 6: 633-651.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barker JHA, Pahlich A, Trybush S, Edwards KJ, Karp A (2003)
Microsatellite markers for diverse Salix species. Molecular Ecology Notes 3: 4-6.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cinovskis R, Janele I, Skujeniece I, Zvirgzds A (1974)
Koki un krumi Latvijas lauku parkos [Trees and shrubs in Latvian countryside parks]. Zinatne, Riga, Latvia, pp. 346. [in Latvian]
Cinovskis R (1996)
Koku un krumu introdukcijas vestures, aklimatizacijas un naturalizacijas iss apskats [Short overview of tree and shrub introduction history, aclimatisation and naturalisation]. In: “Latvijas Geografu Kongresa Tezes” [Proceedings of the congress of Latvian geographers] (Krauklis A, Laivinš M, Gaija G, Škinkis P eds). Latvijas Universitate, Riga, Latvia, pp. 20-24. [in Latvian]
Cinovskis R, Rasinš A, Viljasoo L, Smaliukas D (1993)
Salicaceae Mirbel. In: “Flora of the Baltic countries” (Laasimer L, Kuusk V, Tabaka L, Lekavičius A eds). Estonian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Zoology and Botany, Tartu, Estonia, pp. 158-174.
De Cock K, Lybeer B, Mijnsbrugge KV, Zwaenepoel A, Van Peteghem P, Quataert P, Breyne P, Goetghebeur P, Van Slycken J (2003)
Diversity of the willow complex Salix alba - S. × rubens - S. fragilis. Silvae genetica 52: 148-152.
Online | Gscholar
Dreimanis A, Vulaks J (1974)
Baltais vitols Gaujas vidusteces rajona [White willow in the Gauja River basin]. Mežsaimnieciba un Mežrupnieciba 1: 15-17. [in Latvian]
Evarts-Bunders P (2005)
Vitolu (Salix L.) gints Latvija [Willow (Salix L.) genus in Latvia]. DU BRIPI, Daugavpils, Latvia, pp. 100. [in Latvian]
Fischer JB (1778)
Versuch einer Naturgeschichte von Livland [Attempt at a natural history of Livonia]. Verlag Johann Gottlieb Immanuel Breitkopf, Leipzig, Germany, pp. 390. [in German]
Håkansson A (1955)
Chromosome numbers and meiosis in certain Salices. Hereditas 41: 454-482.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Heuertz M, Hausman JF, Hardy OJ, Vendramin GG, Frascaria-Lacoste N, Vekemans X (2004)
Nuclear microsatellites reveal contrasting patterns of genetic structure between western and southeastern European populations of the common ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Evolution 58: 976-988.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hoshikawa T, Kikuchi S, Nagamitsu T, Tomaru N (2009)
Eighteen microsatellite loci in Salix arbutifolia (Salicaceae) and cross-species amplification in Salix and Populus species. Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 1202-1205.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Houston Durrant T, Rigo D, Caudullo G (2016)
Salix alba in Europe: distribution, habitat, usage and threats. In: “European Atlas of Forest Tree Species” (San-Miguel-Ayanz J, Rigo D, Caudullo G, Houston Durrant T, Mauri A eds). Publ. Off. EU, Luxembourg, pp. 1153.
Online | Gscholar
Jalas J, Suominen J (1976)
Atlas Flora Europaeae. Salicaceae to Balanophoraceae. Committee for mapping the flora of Europe and Societas Biologica Fennica Vanamo, Helsinki, Finland, vol. 3, pp. 128.
King RA, Harris SL, Karp A, Barker JH (2010)
Characterisation and inheritance of nuclear microsatellite loci for use in population studies of the allotetraploid Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex. Tree Genetics and Genomes 6: 247-258.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Klinge J (1883)
Die Holzgewächse von Est-, Liv-, und Curland [The woody plants of Estonia, Livonia and Courland]. Verlag von C. Mattisien, Dorpat, Germany, pp. 290. [in German]
Korchagin AA (1957)
Salix - Salicaceae. In: “Flora of the Leningrad region” (Shishkin BK ed). Publishing House of Leningrad University, Leningrad, Russia, pp. 25-32. [in Russian]
Krüsmann G (1978)
Handbuch der Laubgehölze [Handbook of deciduous shrubs]. Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin and Hamburg, Germany, pp. 496. [in German]
Laivinš M, Bice M, Krampis I, Knape D, Šmite D, Šulcs V (2009)
Latvijas kokaugu atlants [Atlas of Latvian Woody plants]. Mantojums, Riga, Latvia, pp. 606. [in Latvian]
Lange V, Maurinš A, Zvirgzds A (1978)
Dendrologija [Dendrology]. Zvaigzne, Riga, Latvia, pp. 304. [in Latvian]
Maurinš A, Zvirgzds A (2006)
Dendrologija [Dendrology]. LU Akademiskais Apgads, Riga, Latvia, pp. 448. [in Latvian]
Meneghetti S, Barcaccia G, Paiero P, Lucchi M (2007)
Genetic characterization of Salix alba L. and Salix fragilis L. by means of different PCR-derived marker systems. Plant Biosystems 141: 283-291.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Meusel H, Jäger E, Weinert E (1965)
Vergleichende Chorologie der zentraleuropäische Flora [Comparative chorology of central European flora]. VEB Gustav Fischer Verlag, Jena, Germany, pp. 258. [in German]
Navasaitis M, Ozolinčius R, Smaliukas D, Balevičiene J (2003)
Dendroflora. Lutute, Kaunas, Lithuania, pp. 576.
Nei M (1973)
Analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 70: 3321-3323.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Oberprieler C, Dietz L, Harlander C, Heilmann J (2013)
Molecular and phytochemical evidence for the taxonomic integrity of Salix alba, S. fragilis, and their hybrid S. × rubens (Salicaceae) in mixed stands in SE Germany. Plant Systematics and Evolution 299: 1107-1118.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Palmé AE, Semerikov V, Lascoux M (2003)
Absence of geographical structure of chloroplast DNA variation in sallow, Salix caprea L. Heredity 91: 465-474.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Peakall R, Smouse PE (2012)
GenAlEx 6.5: genetic analysis in Excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research - an update. Bioinformatics 28: 2537-2539.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Perdereau AC, Kelleher CT, Douglas GC, Hodkinson TR (2014)
High levels of gene flow and genetic diversity in Irish populations of Salix caprea L. inferred from chloroplast and nuclear SSR markers. BMC Plant Biology: 14: 202.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Perrier X, Jacquemoud-Collet JP (2006)
DARwin - Dissimilarity Analysis and Representation for Windows. CIRAD, France, Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Porebski S, Bailey LG, Baum BR (1997)
Modification of a CTAB DNA extraction protocol for plants containing high polysaccharide and polyphenol components. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 15: 8-15.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pucka I, Lazdina D (2013)
Review about investigations of Salix spp. in Europe. Research for Rural Development 2: 13-19.
Online | Gscholar
Rasinš AP (1959)
Willow (Salix L.) of the Latvian SSR. In: “Vegetation of the Latvian SSR” (Ozols AM ed). Publishing House of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, Riga, Latvia, pp. 81-123. [in Russian]
Skvortsov AK, Svjaseva OA (1977)
Salix - Salicaceae. Willows. In: “Ranges of trees and shrubs in the USSR” (Sokolov SJ, Svjaseva OA, Kubli VA eds). Nauka, Leningrad, Russia, pp. 149-176. [in Russian]
Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011)
MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28: 2731-2739.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Triest L, De Greef B, De Bondt R, Van Slycken J (2000)
RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex. Heredity 84: 555-563.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Triest L (2001)
Hybridization in staminate and pistillate Salix alba and S. fragilis (Salicaceae): morphology versus RAPDs. Plant Systematics and Evolution 226: 143-154.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Wagenitz G (1981)
Gustav Hegi, Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Parey, Berlin, Germany, vol. III (1), pp. 269. [in German]
Webb DA (1985)
What are the criteria for presuming native status? Watsonia 15: 231-236.
Online | Gscholar
Weising K, Gardner RC (1999)
A set of conserved PCR primers for the analysis of simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in chloroplast genomes of dicotyledonous angiosperms. Genome 42: 9-19.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info