iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


What if Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius would larder acorns instead of scatter them?

Przemyslaw Kurek (1)   , Dorota Dobrowolska (2), Blanka Wiatrowska (3), Lukasz Dylewski (4)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 5, Pages 685-689 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2793-011
Published: Oct 23, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

Jays usually store acorns at separate sites, but in some cases a part of jay’s caches consists of more than one acorn. Storing acorns separately (scatter hoarding) or in clusters (larder hoarding) seems to be an important factor for further survival of seeds and seedlings. Scatter hoarding is favorable for jays, but what would happen if jays prepared caches consisting of more than one acorn? We put a following question: what is the importance and impact of acorn concentration per cache for the seedlings’ mortality and their growth characteristics? In 2013 an experimental plot was established. 1400 acorns of Quercus robur L. were sewed in 600 holes in three combinations called growing mode - singly, in twos and in fours. The mortality of seedlings depended on growing mode (Z = 6.24, P < 0.001) and year (Z = -2.42, P = 0.016). In the third year of the experiment the mortality of seedlings growing from acorns sewed in fours reached almost 90%, while in the case of seedlings growing separately the mortality was stable, reaching no more than 23%. Both growing mode (F = 26.49, P < 0.001) and year (F = 52.59, P < 0.001) had a significant impact on seedling growth increment. Seedlings growing in fours had a significantly higher growth increment than these growing separately and in twos. We concluded that seedlings growing separately had a higher survival rate, but lower growth increment than those coming from acorns sewed in clumps.


Eurasian Jay, Acorns, Scatter Hoarding, Larder Hoarding, Seedlings Survival, Seed Dispersal

Authors’ address

Przemyslaw Kurek
Department of Plant Ecology and Environmental Protection, Adam Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 89, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)
Dorota Dobrowolska
Department of Forest Ecology, Forest Research Institute, Braci Lesnej 3, 05-090 Sekocin Stary (Poland)
Blanka Wiatrowska
Department of Forest Botany, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71D, Poznań 60-625 (Poland)
Lukasz Dylewski
Institute of Zoology, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Wojska Polskiego 71C, Poznan 60-625 (Poland)

Corresponding author

Przemyslaw Kurek


Kurek P, Dobrowolska D, Wiatrowska B, Dylewski L (2018). What if Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius would larder acorns instead of scatter them?. iForest 11: 685-689. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2793-011

Academic Editor

Massimo Faccoli

Paper history

Received: Mar 20, 2018
Accepted: Aug 02, 2018

First online: Oct 23, 2018
Publication Date: Oct 31, 2018
Publication Time: 2.73 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 38713
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 34054
Abstract Page Views: 1764
PDF Downloads: 2289
Citation/Reference Downloads: 5
XML Downloads: 601

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 2062
Overall contacts: 38713
Avg. contacts per week: 131.42

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2018): 4
Average cites per year: 0.67


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Augspurger CK, Kelly CK (1984)
Pathogen mortality of tropical tree seedlings: experimental studies of the effects of dispersal distance, seedling density, and light conditions. Oecologia 61: 211-217.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bartlow AW, Kachmar M, Lichti N, Swihart RK, Stratford JA, Steele MA (2011)
Does multiple seed loading in Blue Jays result in selective dispersal of smaller acorns? Integrative Zoology 6: 235-243.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bossema I (1979)
Jays and oaks: an eco-ethological study of a symbiosis. Behaviour 70: 1-117.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bullock SH (1981)
Aggregation of Prunus ilicifolia (Rosaceae) during dispersal and its effect on survival and growth. Madrono 28: 94-95.
Chettleburgh MR (1952)
Observations on the collection and burial of acorns by jays in Hainault Forest. British Birds 45: 359-364.
Online | Gscholar
Danielewicz W, Kicinski P, Wiatrowska B (2016)
Symptoms of the naturalisation of the Turkey oak (Quercus cerris L.) in Polish forests. Folia Forestalia Polonica, Series A Forestry 58: 147-162.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Davidar P (1983)
Birds and neotropical mistletoes: effects on seedling recruitment. Oecologia 60: 271-273.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Dobrowolska D (2006)
Oak natural regeneration and conversion processes in mixed Scots pine stands. Forestry 79: 503-513.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gómez JM (2003)
Spatial patterns in long-distance dispersal of Quercus ilex acorns by jays in a heterogeneous landscape. Ecography 26: 573-584.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gómez JM (2004)
Importance of microhabitat and acorn burial on Quercus ilex early recruitment: non-additive effects on multiple demographic processes. Plant Ecology 172: 287-297.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Howe HF (1989)
Scatter- and clump-dispersal and seedling demography: hypothesis and implications. Oecologia 79: 417-426.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Janzen DH (1970)
Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. The American Naturalist 104: 501-528.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Jinks R, Mason B (1998)
Effects of seedling density on the growth of Corsican pine (Pinus nigra var. maritima Melv.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Franco) in containers. Annals of Forest Science 55: 407-423.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Johnson PS, Shifley SR, Rogers R (2009)
The ecology and sylviculture of oaks. Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International, Oxfordshire, Cambridge, UK, pp. 81-93.
Kollmann J, Schill H-P (1996)
Spatial patterns of dispersal, seed predation and germination during colonization of abandoned grassland by Quercus petrea and Corylus avellana. Vegetatio 125: 193-205.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kondracki J (2009)
Geografia regionalna Polski [Regional geography of Poland]. PWN Publisher, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 103-107. [in Polish]
Kurek P, Dobrowolska D (2016)
Synzoochoryczne rozsiewanie zoledzi przez sójki Garrulus glandarius na powierzchniach zrebowych oraz pod drzewostanem [Acorns dispersal by jays Garrulus glandarius onto clear-cuts and under the forest canopy]. Sylwan 160: 512-518. [in Polish]
Lambers JHR, Clark JS, Beckage B (2002)
Density-dependent mortality and the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Nature 417: 732-735.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Legg EW, Clayton NS (2014)
Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) conceal caches from onlookers. Animal Cognition 17: 1223-1226.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lenth RV (2016)
Least-squares means: the R package lsmeans. Journal of Statistical Software 69: 1.
Online | Gscholar
Linhart YB, Tomback DF (1985)
Seed dispersal by nutcrackers causes multi-trunk growth form in pines. Oecologia 67: 107-110.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lu J, Johnson DJ, Qiao X, Lu Z, Wang Q, Jiang M (2015)
Density dependence and habitat preference shape seedling survival in a subtropical forest in central China. Journal of Plant Ecology 8: 568-577.
CrossRef | Gscholar
McBride JR, Norberg E, Cheng S, Mossadegh A (1991)
Seedling establishment of coast live oak in relation to seed caching by jays. General Technical Reports PSW-126, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Berkeley, CA, USA, pp. 143-148.
Online | Gscholar
Mosandl R, Kleinert A (1998)
Development of oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) emerged from bird-dispersal seeds under old-growth pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Forest Ecology and Management 106: 35-44.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Myczko I, Dylewski I, Zduniak P, Sparks TH, Tryjanowski P (2014)
Predation and dispersal of acorns by European Jay (Garrulus glandarius) differs between a native (Pedunculate Oak Quercus robur) and an introduced oak species (Northern Red Oak Quercus rubra) in Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 331: 35-39.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Nilsson SG (1985)
Ecological and evolutionary interactions between reproduction of beech Fagus sylvatica and seed eating animals. Oikos 44: 157-164.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pons J, Pausas JG (2006)
Oak regeneration in heterogeneous landscapes: the case of fragmented Quercus suber forests in the eastern Iberian Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management 231: 196-204.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pons J, Pausas JG (2007)
Acorn dispersal estimated by radio-tracking. Oecologia 153: 903-911.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pons J, Pausas JG (2008)
Modeling jay (Garrulus glandarius) abundance and distribution for oak regeneration assessment in Mediterranean landscapes. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 578-584.
CrossRef | Gscholar
R Core Development Team (2016)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
Seiwa K, Watanabe A, Saitoh T, Kannu H, Akasaka S (2002)
Effects of burying depth and seed size on seedling establishment of Japanese chestnuts, Castanea crenata. Forest Ecology and Management 164: 149-156.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sherman RJ, Chilote WW (1972)
Spatial and chronological patterns of Purshia tridentata as influenced by Pinus ponderosa. Ecology 53: 294-298.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vander Wall SB (1990)
Food hoarding in animals. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA, pp. 178-198.
Online | Gscholar
Vander Wall SB (1992)
Establishment of Jeffrey pine seedlings from animal caches. Western Journal of Applied Forestry 7: 14-20.
Online | Gscholar
Wickham H (2009)
ggplot2: Elegant graphics for data analysis. Springer-Verlag, New York, USA, pp. 1-90.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info