*

Influence of soil and topography on defoliation intensity during an extended outbreak of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.)

Maiju Kosunen   , Tuula Kantola, Mike Starr, Minna Blomqvist, Mervi Talvitie, Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 164-171 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2069-009
Published: Nov 19, 2016 - Copyright © 2016 SISEF

Research Articles


Insect herbivore disturbances are likely to intensify as a consequence of climate change. In Finland, outbreaks of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.), which feeds on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles, and resulting damage to forests have already increased. Although drivers of sawfly outbreak dynamics have been investigated, the effects of topography and soil fertility have not been fully elucidated. We studied the effect of elevation, slope and soil properties (carbon and nitrogen contents, C/N ratio, pH, texture and horizon thicknesses) on the defoliation intensity of 28 plots (227-531 m2), located in a 34.5 km2 forested area in eastern Finland suffering from an extended outbreak of D. pini. Plot elevation and slope (relative relief 35 m, maximum elevation 200 m a.s.l.) were derived from a digital elevation model and the soil properties from samples of the humus layer (Of+Oh), (Ah+)E and B horizons of podzol profiles. Defoliation was greater on the more fertile and flatter sites than on less fertile and steeper sites, but independent of elevation. The soil property most strongly correlated to plot mean defoliation was the C/N ratio of the humus layer (Spearman’s ρ = -0.68). However, logistic modelling showed that the thickness of the (Ah+)E-horizon had the highest classification accuracy in predicting the probability of a plot having moderate to severe (>20%) defoliation. Our study showed that forest damage caused by D. pini was related to topography and soil fertility. Taking these factors into account could help in understanding the population dynamics of D. pini, in modeling of insect outbreaks and in forest management planning.

  Keywords


C/N Balance, Defoliation, Pine Sawfly, Soil, Topography

Authors’ address

(1)
Maiju Kosunen
Tuula Kantola
Mike Starr
Minna Blomqvist
Mervi Talvitie
Päivi Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa
Department of Forest Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 27 (Latokartanonkaari 7), FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

Corresponding author

 

Citation

Kosunen M, Kantola T, Starr M, Blomqvist M, Talvitie M, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P (2016). Influence of soil and topography on defoliation intensity during an extended outbreak of the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.). iForest 10: 164-171. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2069-009

Academic Editor

Massimo Faccoli

Paper history

Received: Mar 26, 2016
Accepted: Oct 18, 2016

First online: Nov 19, 2016
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2017
Publication Time: 1.07 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 8539
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 6279
Abstract Page Views: 233
PDF Downloads: 1412
Citation/Reference Downloads: 39
XML Downloads: 576

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1089
Overall contacts: 8539
Avg. contacts per week: 54.89

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2017): 3
Average cites per year: 1.00

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Axelsson P (2000)
DEM generation from laser scanner data using adaptive TIN models. In: Proceedings of the “XIX ISPRS Congress, Commission I-VII” (Fritsch D, Molenaar M eds). Amsterdam (The Netherlands), 16-23 July 2000. pp. 110-117.
Online | Gscholar
(2)
Barbosa P, Krischik VA (1987)
Influence of alkaloids on feeding preference of Eastern deciduous forest trees by the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar. The American Naturalist 130: 53-69.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Barre F, Goussard F, Geri C (2003)
Variation in the suitability of Pinus sylvestris to feeding by two defoliators, Diprion pini (Hym., Diprionidae) and Graellsia isabellae galliaegloria (Lep., Attacidae). Journal of Applied Entomology 127: 249-257.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Battisti A, Stastny M, Buffo E, Larsson S (2006)
A rapid altitudinal range expansion in the pine processionary moth produced by the 2003 climatic anomaly. Global Change Biology 12: 662-671.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Björkman C, Larsson S, Gref R (1991)
Effects of nitrogen fertilization on pine needle chemistry and sawfly performance. Oecologia 86: 202-209.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Brady NC, Weil RR (2014)
Elements of the nature and properties of soils. Prentice Hall, New Jersey, USA, pp. 1046.
Gscholar
(7)
Bryant JP, Chapin FS, Klein DR (1983)
Carbon/ nutrient balance of boreal plants in relation to vertebrate herbivory. Oikos 40: 357-368.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Cobb NS, Mopper S, Gehring CA, Caouette M, Christensen KM, Whitham TG (1997)
Increased moth herbivory associated with environmental stress of pinyon pine at local and regional levels. Oecologia 109: 389-397.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Eichhorn J, Roskams P, Ferretti M, Mues V, Szepesi A, Durrant D (2010)
Manual on methods and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests Part IV. Visual Assessment of Crown Condition and Damaging Agents. UNECE ICP Forests Programme Co-ordinating Centre, Hamburg, Germany, pp. 49.
Online | Gscholar
(10)
Frost CJ, Hunter MD (2007)
Recycling of nitrogen in herbivore feces: plant recovery, herbivore assimilation, soil retention, and leaching losses. Oecologia 151: 42-53.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Gamer M, Lemon J, Fellows I, Singh P (2012)
irr: Various coefficients of interrater reliability and agreement. R package version 0.84.
Online | Gscholar
(12)
Geri C (1988)
The pine sawfly in central France. In: “Dynamics of forest insect populations” (Berryman AA ed). Plenum Press, New York, USA, pp. 377-405.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Giertych MJ, Karolewski P, Grzebyta J, Oleksyn J (2007)
Feeding behavior and performance of Neodiprion sertifer larvae reared on Pinus sylvestris needles. Forest Ecology and Management 242: 700-707.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Hanski I, Parviainen P (1985)
Cocoon predation by small mammals, and pine sawfly population dynamics. Oikos 45: 125-136.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Haynes KJ, Allstadt AJ, Klimetzek D (2014)
Forest defoliator outbreaks under climate change: effects on the frequency and severity of outbreaks of five pine insect pests. Global Change Biology 20: 2004-2018.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Helmisaari H-S (1992)
Spatial and age-related variation in nutrient concentrations of Pinus sylvestris needles. Silva Fennica 26: 145-153.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
Hengxiao G, McMillin JD, Wagner MR, Zhou J, Zhou Z, Xu X (1999)
Altitudinal variation in foliar chemistry and anatomy of yunnan pine, Pinus yunnanensis, and pine sawfly (Hym., Diprionidae) performance. Journal of Applied Entomology 123: 465-471.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Herz A, Heitland W (2005)
Species diversity and niche separation of cocoon parasitoids in different forest types with endemic populations of their host, the common pine sawfly Diprion pini (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). European Journal of Entomology 102: 217-224.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Hodkinson ID (2005)
Terrestrial insects along elevation gradients: species and community responses to altitude. Biological Reviews 80: 489-513.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Hood WM, Hedden RL, Berisford CW (1988)
Hazard rating forest sites for pine tip moth, Rhyacionia spp., in the Upper Piedmont Plateau. Forest Science 34: 1083-1093.
Online | Gscholar
(21)
Jactel H, Nicoll BC, Branco M, Gonzalez-Olabarria JR, Grodzki W, Långström B, Moreira F, Netherer S, Orazio C, Piou D, Santos H, Schelhaas MJ, Tojic K, Vodde F (2009)
The influences of forest stand management on biotic and abiotic risks of damage. Annals of Forest Science 66: 701-719.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Kainulainen P, Holopainen J, Palomäki V, Holopainen T (1996)
Effects of nitrogen fertilization on secondary chemistry and ectomycorrhizal state of Scots pine seedlings and on growth of grey pine aphid. Journal of Chemical Ecology 22: 617-636.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
Kantola T, Vastaranta M, Yu X, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Holopainen M, Talvitie M, Kaasalainen S, Solberg S, Hyyppä J (2010)
Classification of defoliated trees using tree-level airborne laser scanning data combined with aerial images. Remote Sensing 2: 2665-2679.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Kantola T, Vastaranta M, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Holopainen M, Kankare V, Talvitie M, Hyyppä J (2013)
Classification of needle loss of individual Scots pine trees by means of airborne laser scanning. Forests 4: 386-403.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Kantola T, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Coulson RN, Strauch S, Tchakerian MD, Holopainen M, Saarenmaa H, Streett DA (2014)
Spatial distribution of hemlock woolly adelgid induced hemlock mortality in the southern Appalachians. Open Journal of Forestry 4: 492-506.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(26)
Kaukonen M, Ruotsalainen AL, Wäli PR, Männistö MK, Setälä H, Saravesi K, Huusko K, Markkola A (2013)
Moth herbivory enhances resource turnover in subarctic mountain birch forests? Ecology 94: 267-272.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Kharuk VI, Ranson KJ, Fedotova EV (2007)
Spatial pattern of Siberian silkmoth outbreak and taiga mortality. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 22: 531-536.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Kharuk VI, Ranson KJ, Im ST (2009)
Siberian silkmoth outbreak pattern analysis based on SPOT VEGETATION data. International Journal of Remote Sensing 30: 2377-2388.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Kollberg I, Bylund H, Huitu O, Björkman C (2014)
Regulation of forest defoliating insects through small mammal predation: reconsidering the mechanisms. Oecologia 176: 975-983.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Kollberg I, Bylund H, Jonsson T, Schmidt A, Gershenzon J, Björkman C (2015)
Temperature affects insect outbreak risk through tritrophic interactions mediated by plant secondary compounds. Ecosphere 6: 1-17.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Landis JR, Koch GG (1977)
The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics 33: 159-174.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Larsson S, Björkman C, Gref R (1986)
Responses of Neodiprion sertifer (Hym., Diprionidae) larvae to variation in needle resin acid concentration in Scots pine. Oecologia 70: 77-84.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(33)
Larsson S, Tenow O (1984)
Areal distribution of a Neodiprion sertifer (Hym., Diprionidae) outbreak on Scots pine as related to stand condition. Holarctic Ecology 7: 81-90.
Online | Gscholar
(34)
Lyytikäinen P (1994)
Effects of natural and artificial defoliations on sawfly performance and foliar chemistry of Scots pine saplings. Annales Zoologici Fennici 31: 307-318.
Online | Gscholar
(35)
Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P (1999)
Growth responses of Scots pine (Pinaceae) to artificial and sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) defoliation. The Canadian Entomologist 131: 455-463.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(36)
Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Tomppo E (2002)
Impact of sawfly defoliation on growth of Scots pine Pinus sylvestris (Pinaceae) and associated economic losses. Bulletin of Entomological Research 92: 137-140.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(37)
Långström B, Annila E, Hellqvist C, Varama M, Niemelä P (2001)
Tree mortality, needle biomass recovery and growth losses in Scots pine following defoliation by Diprion pini (L.) and subsequent attack by Tomicus piniperda (L.). Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 16: 342-353.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(38)
Mayfield AE, Allen DC, Briggs RD (2007)
Site and stand conditions associated with pine false webworm populations and damage in mature eastern white pine plantations. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 24: 168-176.
Online | Gscholar
(39)
McMillin JD, Hengxiao G, Wagner MR, Long X (1996)
Spatial distribution patterns of pine sawflies (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) in Arizona, US and Sichuan, PR of China. Forest Ecology and Management 86: 151-161.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
McMillin JD, Wagner MR (1993)
Influence of stand characteristics and site quality on sawfly population dynamics. In: “Sawfly life history adaptation to woody plants” (Wagner MR, Raffa KF eds). Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 333-361.
Gscholar
(41)
McMillin JD, Wagner MR (1997)
Chronic defoliation impacts pine sawfly (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) performance and host plant quality. Oikos 79: 357-362.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(42)
Mikola P (1982)
Application of vegetation science to forestry in Finland. In: “Handbook of vegetation Science, Part 12” (Jahn G ed). Dr W. Junk Publishers, The Hague/Boston/London, pp. 199-224.
Gscholar
(43)
Mopper S, Whitham TG (1992)
The plant sex paradox: effects on pinyon sawfly sex ratios and fecundity. Ecology 73: 515-525.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(44)
Morse BW, Kulman HM (1986)
A method of hazard-rating white spruce plantations for yellowheaded spruce sawfly defoliation. Northern Journal of Applied Forestry 3: 104-105.
Online | Gscholar
(45)
Nevalainen S, Sirkiä S, Peltoniemi M, Neuvonen S (2015)
Vulnerability to pine sawfly damage decreases with site fertility but the opposite is true with Scleroderris canker damage; results from Finnish ICP Forests and NFI data. Annals of Forest Science 72: 909-917.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(46)
Niemelä P, Rousi M, Saarenmaa H (1987)
Topographical delimitation of Neodiprion sertifer (Hym., Diprionidae) outbreaks on Scots pine in relation to needle quality. Journal of Applied Entomology 103: 84-91.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(47)
Pirinen P, Simola H, Aalto J, Kaukoranta J-P, Karlsson P, Ruuhela R (2012)
Climatological statistics of Finland 1981-2010. Reports 2012-1, Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, Finland, pp 96.
Online | Gscholar
(48)
Pschorn-Walcher H (1991)
Development and diapause of different European provenances of the pine sawfly Neodiprion sertifer (Geoff.) (Hym., Diprionidae) under identical outdoor conditions. Journal Applied Entomology 112: 382-388.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(49)
R Core Team (2013)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
(50)
Raitio H (1999)
Needle chemistry. In: “Forest condition monitoring in Finland, National Report 1998” (Raitio H, Kilponen T eds). The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Research Papers 743: 51-69.
Online | Gscholar
(51)
De Somviele B, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Niemelä P (2007)
Stand edge effects on distribution and condition of diprionid sawflies. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 9: 17-30.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(52)
Strand L (1997)
Monitoring the environmental quality of Nordic forests. NORD 1997: 14, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 77.
Online | Gscholar
(53)
Talvitie M, Kantola T, Holopainen M, Lyytikainen-Saarenmaa P (2011)
Adaptive cluster sampling in inventorying forest damage by the common pine sawfly (Diprion pini). Journal of Forest Planning 16: 1-7.
Online | Gscholar
(54)
Tamminen P (1991)
Expression of soil nutrient status and regional variation in soil fertility of forested sites in southern Finland. Folia Forestalia 777. The Finnish Forest Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland, pp. 40. [in Finnish with English summary]
Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website