iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani (A. Rich) in Tannourine Cedar Forest Reserve (Lebanon) affected by cedar web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis, Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae)

Sarita Bassil (1), Salim Kattar (1)   , Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo (2), Miguel Angel Navarrete Poyatos (3), Nabil Nemer (4-5), Guillermo Palacios Rodríguez (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 2, Pages 300-307 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2502-011
Published: Apr 13, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

The analysis of forest structure is a useful tool to understand stand biodiversity characterizing forest ecosystems, and could help in suggesting appropriate management plans. Cedar forests in Lebanon are remnant patches that survived past human activities but are still threatened by other different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Among these threats, the cedar web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis) discovered in Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve in 1997, which is able to cause the death of trees. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of this pest on the stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani in Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve located in North Lebanon. The dependence of stand structural attributes (diameter at breast height, total height and basal area) on the presence of infestation by the cedar web-spinning sawfly was identified using the Student’s t-test. The Ripley’s K(d) function was used to analyse the spatial pattern of cedar stands. In addition, the diameter, the vertical structure and the crown projection were characterized using the Weibull function and graphic representations. The results showed that stand structure and regeneration are significantly different between infested and non-infested stands. The cedar of Lebanon remains as the dominant species, with abundant young individuals and a good regeneration status (c = 1.0). The analysis of the spatial pattern showed a positive spatial relationship between mature Lebanese cedar trees as well as between mature and juvenile cedars, with a bigger aggregation in infested plots (6 to 10 meters) than in non-infested quadrates (2 to 7 meters), reflecting the impact of the cedar web-spinning sawfly on the stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani stands.


Cedrus libani, Stand Dynamic, Pest Damage, Spatial Pattern, Vertical Structure, Cephalcia tannourinensis

Authors’ address

Sarita Bassil
Salim Kattar
Lebanese University, Faculty of Agricultural and Veterinary Sciences, Dekwaneh, Beirut (Lebanon)
Rafael M Navarro-Cerrillo
Department of Forestry, Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry, Dendrodat Lab, University of Córdoba (Spain)
Miguel Angel Navarrete Poyatos
Guillermo Palacios Rodríguez
Center for Applied Research in Agroforestry Development (IDAF), University of Córdoba (Spain)
Nabil Nemer
Department of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Holy Spirit University of Kaslik, Jounieh (Lebanon)
Nabil Nemer
Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve, Scientific Coordinator, Tannourine El Fawka (Lebanon)

Corresponding author

Salim Kattar


Bassil S, Kattar S, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Navarrete Poyatos MA, Nemer N, Palacios Rodríguez G (2018). Stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani (A. Rich) in Tannourine Cedar Forest Reserve (Lebanon) affected by cedar web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis, Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae). iForest 11: 300-307. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2502-011

Academic Editor

Susanna Nocentini

Paper history

Received: May 25, 2017
Accepted: Jan 12, 2018

First online: Apr 13, 2018
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2018
Publication Time: 3.03 months

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