*

Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings

Algis Aučina (1)   , Maria Rudawska (2), Tomasz Leski (2), Audrius Skridaila (1), Izolda Pašakinskiene (1), Edvardas Riepšas (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 394-400 (2014)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1083-008
Published: Aug 20, 2014 - Copyright © 2014 SISEF

Research Articles


In this paper, we report the influence of pine, oak and spruce forest litter on the growth and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) formation of Scots pine seedlings after the first growing season in a bare-root forest nursery. The mixture of collected forest litters and humus were used to obtain a 20-cm mulching layer on the prepared seedbeds. The concentrations of all nutrients and the C/N ratio of growth media were significantly higher in forest litter treatments than in negative control represented by mineral soil without litter. Addition of each forest litter type significantly enhanced pine seedling height and root-collar diameter compared to negative control. A significant positive influence on dry mass of stem, needles, roots and total dry mass of the seedling has been found only for pine litter. Based on molecular identification, seven ECM fungal taxa (Wilcoxina mikolae, Suillus luteus, Cenococcum geophilum, Meliniomyces bicolor, Laccaria laccata, unidentified Atheliaceae, unidentified Ascomycetes) were distinguished in the observed mycorrhizal communities. Each forest litter type significantly increased the total number of mycorrhizal tips and ECM fungal diversity compared to the control soil. However, results showed a lack of significant differences in species composition and relative abundance of ECM fungi between different litter types. Such result suggests that forest litter has not been a key source of inoculum for tested fungal species, as root systems of all pine seedlings from different litter types were dominated by a few nursery- adapted ECM fungi, probably originating from natural air-borne inoculum. Our data rather indicate that forest litter considerably improves environmental conditions for development of ECM fungi previously present in the nursery soil. Therefore, any of the forest litter types used in our studies may be able to promote planting stock quality on a small scale in the nursery phase.

  Keywords


Pinus sylvestris, Seedlings, Forest Nursery, Ectomycorrhiza

Authors’ address

(1)
Algis Aučina
Audrius Skridaila
Izolda Pašakinskiene
Botanical Garden of Vilnius University, 43 Kairenu Str., LT-10239 Vilnius (Lithuania)
(2)
Maria Rudawska
Tomasz Leski
Institute of Dendrology, Polish Academy of Sciences, 5 Parkowa Str., 62-035 Kórnik (Poland)
(3)
Edvardas Riepšas
Department of Sylviculture, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, 11 Studentu Str., Akademija, LT-53361 Kaunas district (Lithuania)

Corresponding author

 
Algis Aučina
algis.aucina@gf.vu.lt

Citation

Aučina A, Rudawska M, Leski T, Skridaila A, Pašakinskiene I, Riepšas E (2014). Forest litter as the mulch improving growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity of bare-root Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. iForest 8: 394-400. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1083-008

Academic Editor

Silvano Fares

Paper history

Received: Jul 24, 2013
Accepted: Apr 29, 2014

First online: Aug 20, 2014
Publication Date: Aug 02, 2015
Publication Time: 3.77 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 10078
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 6747
Abstract Page Views: 217
PDF Downloads: 2508
Citation/Reference Downloads: 23
XML Downloads: 583

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1856
Overall contacts: 10078
Avg. contacts per week: 38.01

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2015): 5
Average cites per year: 1.00

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Agerer R (1987)
Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. Einhorn-Verlag Eduard Dietenberger, Munich, Germany.
Gscholar
(2)
Amaranthus MP, Perry DA (1987)
Effect of soil transfer on ectomycorrhiza formation and the survival and growth of conifer seedlings on old, nonreforested clear-cuts. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 944-950.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Aučina A, Rudawska M, Leski T, Skridaila A, Riepšas E, Iwanski M (2007)
Growth and mycorrhizal community structure of Pinus sylvestris seedlings following the addition of forest litter. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73: 4867-4873.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Bakuzis E (1952)
A new idea in seed beds. Tree Planters’ Notes, Issue 11, pp. 2.
Gscholar
(5)
Balisky AC, Salonius P, Walli C, Brinkman D (1995)
Seedling roots and forest floor: misplaced and neglected aspects of British Columbia’s reforestation effort? Forestry Chronicle 71: 59-65.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Barzdajn W (2009)
Seedlings for reforestation. In: “Forest Nursery from A to Z” (Wesoly W, Hauke M eds). CILP, Warsaw, Poland, pp. 321-368. [in Polish]
Gscholar
(7)
Baxter JW, Dighton J (2005)
Diversity-functioning relationships in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. In: “The Fungal Community: Its Organization and Role in the Ecosystem (3rd edn)” (Dighton J, White JF, Oudemans P eds). CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 383-398.
Gscholar
(8)
Brearley FQ, Press MC, Scholes JD (2003)
Nutrients obtained from leaf litter can improve the growth of dipterocarp seedlings. New Phytologist 160: 101-110.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Colwell RK (2006)
EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 8.2.0 user’s guide and application persistent. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
(10)
Conn C, Dighton J (2000)
Litter quality influences on decomposition, ectomycorrhizal community structure and mycorrhizal root surface acid phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 489-496.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Cullings KW, New MH, Makhija S, Parker VT (2003)
Effects of litter addition on ectomycorrhizal associates of a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand in Yellowstone National Park. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 3772-3776.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Danielson RM, Visser S, Parkinson D (1983)
Microbial activity and mycorrhizal potential of four overburden types used in the reclamation of extracted oil sands. Canadian Journal of Soil Science 63: 363-375.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Danusevičius J (2000)
Pušies selekcija Lietuvoje [Breeding of pines in Lithuania]. Lutute, Kaunas, Lithuania, pp. 352. [in Lithuanian with English summary]
Gscholar
(14)
Dickie IA (2007)
Host preference, niches and fungal diversity. New Phytologist 174: 230-233.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Dunabeitia M, Rodriguez N, Salcedo I, Sarrionandia E (2004)
Field mycorrhization and its influence on the establishment and development of seedlings in a broadleaf plantation in the Basque Country. Forest Ecology and Management 195: 129-139.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Facelli JM, Pickett STA (1991)
Plant litter: its dynamics and effects on plant community structure. The Botanical Review 57: 1-32.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
FAO (1998)
World reference base for soil resources. International Soil Reference and Information Centre, Food and Agriculture Organization, United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 88.
Gscholar
(18)
Franklin O, Hogberg P, Ekblad A, Ågren GI (2003)
Pine forest floor carbon accumulation in response to N and PK additions: bomb C-14 modelling and respiration studies. Ecosystems 6: 644-658.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Giardina CP, Ryan MG, Hubbard RM, Binkley D (2001)
Tree species and soil textural controls on carbon and nitrogen mineralization rates. Soil Science Society of America Journal 65: 1272-1279.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Gorzelak A (1998)
Wybrane zagadnienia szkólkarstwa lesnego. [Selected aspects in the forest nursery practice]. Sylwan 2: 5-7. [in Polish with English summary]
Gscholar
(21)
Hallsby G (1995)
Field performance of outplanted Norway spruce: effects of organic matter amendments and site preparation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 1356-1367.i
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Hammer O, Harper DAT, Ryan PD (2001)
PAST: paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4: 9.
Gscholar
(23)
Hutt PA (1956)
The Dunemann nursery system. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 50: 155-156.
Gscholar
(24)
Iwanski M, Rudawska M, Leski T (2006)
Mycorrhizal associations of nursery grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) seedlings in Poland. Annals of Forest Science 63: 715-723.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Jonsson LM, Dighton J, Lussenhop J, Koide RT (2006)
The effect of mixing ground leaf litters to soil on the development of pitch pine ectomycorrhizal and soil arthropod communities in natural soil microcosm systems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 38: 134-144.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(26)
Jurgensen MF, Harvey AE, Graham RT, Page-Dumroese DS, Tonn JR, Larsen MJ, Jain TB (1997)
Impacts of timber harvesting on soil organic matter, nitrogen, productivity, and health of inland Northwest forests. Forest Science 43: 234-251.
Gscholar
(27)
Khasa PD, Sigler L, Chakravarty P, Dancik BP, Erickson L, McCurdy D (2001)
Effect of fertilization on growth and ectomycorrhizal development of container-grown and bare-root nursery conifer seedlings. New Forests 22: 179-197.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Kõljalg U, Larsson KH, Abarenkov K, Nilsson RH, Alexander IJ, Eberhardt U, Erland S, Hoiland K, Kjøller R, Larsson E, Pennanen T, Sen R, Taylor AF, Tedersoo L, Vrålstad T (2005)
UNITE: a database providing web-based methods for the molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 166: 1063-1068.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Kropp BR, Langlois C-G (1990)
Ectomycorrhizae in reforestation. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 438-451.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Leake JR, Read DJ (1997)
Mycorrhizal fungi in terrestrial habitats. In: “The Mycota - IV Environmental and Microbial Relationships” (Wicklow DT, Soderstrom B eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 281-301.
Gscholar
(31)
Leski T, Aučina A, Skridaila A, Pietras M, Riepšas E, Rudawska M (2010)
Ectomycorrhizal community structure of different genotypes of Scots pine under forest nursery conditions. Mycorrhiza 20: 473-481.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Lithuanian State Forest Management Institute (2001)
Lithuanian statistical yearbook of forestry. Lithuanian State Forest Management Institute, Kaunas, Lithuania, pp. 48.
Gscholar
(33)
Lithuanian State Forest Survey Service (2003)
Lithuanian statistical yearbook of forestry. Kaunas, Lithuania, pp. 112.
Gscholar
(34)
López-Barrera F, González-Espinosa M (2001)
Influence of litter on emergence and early growth of Quercus rugosa: a laboratory study. New Forests 21: 59-70.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(35)
Lukac M, Godbold DL (2011)
Soil ecology in northern forests: a belowground view of a changing world. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 268.
Gscholar
(36)
McMinn RG (1982)
Ecology of site preparation to improve performance of planted white spruce in northern latitudes. In: Proceedings of the “3rd International Workshop: Forest regeneration at high latitudes: experiences from northern British Columbia” (Murray M ed). Prince George (British Columbia, Canada) 29 Aug - 1 Sep 1981. Misc. Rept. No. 82-1, School of Agriculture and Land Resource Management, University of Alaska and USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Portland, OR, USA, pp. 25-32.99.
Gscholar
(37)
Mikola P (1988)
Ectendomycorrhiza of conifers. Silva Fennica 22: 19-27.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(38)
Pera J, Alvarez IF, Rincon A, Parlade J (1999)
Field performance in northern Spain of Douglas-fir seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 9: 77-84.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(39)
Pietras M, Rudawska M, Leski T, Karlinski L (2012)
Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungus assemblages on nursery grown European beech seedlings. Annals of Forest Science 70: 115-121.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
Richardson DM (1998)
Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 548.
Gscholar
(41)
Rose R, Haase DL, Boyer D (1995)
Organic matter management in forest nurseries: theory and practice. Nursery Technology Cooperative, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA, pp. 65.
Gscholar
(42)
Rudawska M, Leski T, Gornowicz R (2001)
Mycorrhizal status of Pinus sylvestris L. nursery stock in Poland as influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Dendrobiology 46: 49-58.
Gscholar
(43)
Rudawska M, Leski T, Trocha LK, Gornowicz R (2006)
Ectomycorrhizal status of Norway spruce seedlings from bare-root forest nurseries. Forest Ecology and Management 236: 375-384.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(44)
Scott NA, Binkley D (1997)
Foliage litter quality and annual net N mineralization: comparison across North American forest sites. Oecologia 111: 151-159.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(45)
Shi L, Guttenberger M, Kottke I, Hampp R (2002)
The effect of drought on mycorrhizas of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.): changes in community structure, and the content of carbohydrates and nitrogen storage bodies of the fungi. Mycorrhiza 12: 303-311.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(46)
Smith SE, Read D (2008)
Mycorrhizal symbiosis (3rd edn). Academic Press, London, UK, pp. 768.
Gscholar
(47)
StatSoft Inc. (2000)
STATISTICA for Windows (Computer Program Manual). StatSoft, Tulsa, OK, USA, pp. 378.
Gscholar
(48)
Sutton RF (1993)
Mounding site preparation: a review of European and North American experience. New Forest 7: 151-192.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(49)
White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990)
Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: “PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications” (Innis MA, Gelfaud DH, Sninsky JJ, White TJ eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 315-322.
Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website