*
 

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry

*

The nurse-plant effect under the dislodgement stress of landslides

Jian-Hong Yang (1-2), Li-Wan Chang (3), Kai-Chi Hsu (1), Chia-Cheng Fan (4), David Doley (5), Guo-Zhang Michael Song (1)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 16, Issue 2, Pages 78-85 (2023)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4017-015
Published: Mar 16, 2023 - Copyright © 2023 SISEF

Research Articles


While the mitigating effects of trees on shallow landslide occurrence are well recognised, the impact of landslides on tree community structure and tree-tree interactions have received much less research attention. The structures of tree communities before and after landslides were compared in a 25-ha subtropical forest plot. Tree-tree interactions were examined by analysing the pre- and post-landslide spatial point patterns of large (DBH ≥ 20 cm) and small (1 cm ≤ DBH < 20 cm) tree cohorts. In landslide scarps, 35 (34%) of 104 large trees and 467 (13%) of 3.072 small trees survived. Large (L) and small (S) tree cohorts were paired together for spatial analyses, including pre-landslide (PL) (LPL-SPL), surviving (S) (LS-SS), and missing (M) large-small tree paired cohorts (LM-SM). We randomly selected trees from the pre-landslide tree cohorts to create two virtual paired cohorts, the L34%-S13% and L66%-S87% paired cohorts, whose population sizes were identical to the field-observed LS-SS and LM-SM paired cohorts respectively, but with random spatial patterns. Post-landslide survival rates of trees increased monotonically with DBH. Large trees dislodged by landslides scarcely reduced small-tree survival. Evidence for this included: (i) the distance from small trees to the nearest large trees of the LM-SM paired cohort did not differ significantly from that of the virtual L66%-S87% paired cohort; (ii) survival rates of small trees near LM individuals did not differ significantly from those without large trees nearby. Surviving large trees had positive effects on the survival of small trees, indicated by: (i) the distance from small trees to the nearest large trees of the LS-SS paired cohort was significantly lower than that of the virtual L34%-S13% paired cohort; (ii) SS individuals clumped around LS individuals, whereas the virtual L34%-S13% spatial relationship was random. Large trees prevent landslide dislodgement of adjacent small trees through the nurse-plant effect. Our study suggests that landslide damage in sloping forests may be reduced simply by constantly maintaining a critical density of large trees.

  Keywords


Facilitation, Forest Dynamics Plot, Nurse-plant Effect, Point Pattern Analysis, Slope Stability

Authors’ address

(1)
Jian-Hong Yang
Kai-Chi Hsu
Guo-Zhang Michael Song 0000-0002-9266-3690
Department of Soil and Water Conservation, National Chung Hsing University, 145 Xingda Rd., South Dist., Taichung City 402 (Taiwan)
(2)
Jian-Hong Yang
Botanical Garden Division, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No.67 Sanyuan St., Zhongzheng Dist., Taipei City 100051 (Taiwan)
(3)
Li-Wan Chang
Forest Protection Division, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, No.67 Sanyuan St., Zhongzheng Dist., Taipei City 100051 (Taiwan)
(4)
Chia-Cheng Fan
Department of Construction Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, No.1, University Rd., Yanchao Dist., Kaohsiung City 824 (Taiwan)
(5)
David Doley 0000-0001-9430-6761
Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072 (Australia)

Corresponding author

 
Guo-Zhang Michael Song
mikegzsong@gmail.com

Citation

Yang J-H, Chang L-W, Hsu K-C, Fan C-C, Doley D, Song G-ZM (2023). The nurse-plant effect under the dislodgement stress of landslides. iForest 16: 78-85. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4017-015

Academic Editor

Giorgio Vacchiano

Paper history

Received: Nov 11, 2021
Accepted: Dec 18, 2022

First online: Mar 16, 2023
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2023
Publication Time: 2.93 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 10546
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 9010
Abstract Page Views: 753
PDF Downloads: 683
Citation/Reference Downloads: 0
XML Downloads: 100

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 348
Overall contacts: 10546
Avg. contacts per week: 212.13

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Basnet K, Scatena FN, Likens GE, Lugo AE (1993)
Ecological consequences of root grafting in Tabonuco (Dacryodes excelsa) trees in the Luquillo Experimental Forest, Puerto Rico. Biotropica 25: 28-35.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
Bettella F, Michelini T, D’Agostino V, Bischetti GB (2018)
The ability of tree stems to intercept debris flows in forested fan areas: a laboratory modelling study. Journal of Agricultural Engineering 49: 42-51.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Bischetti GB, Bassanelli C, Chiaradia EA, Minotta G, Vergani C (2016)
The effect of gap openings on soil reinforcement in two conifer stands in northern Italy. Forest Ecology and Management 359: 286-299.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Bovis MJ, Jakob M (1999)
The role of debris supply conditions in predicting debris flow activity. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 24: 1039-1054.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Chang L-W, Hwong J-L, Chen Y-T, Yeh C-Y, Lin H-C, Kuo C-C, Lin C-C, Sun I-F, Yang K-C, Chen Z-S, Wnag H-H (2012)
Lienhuachih subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest dynamics plot tree species characteristics and distribution patterns. Taiwan Forest Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan, pp. 346.
Online | Gscholar
(6)
Chang L-W, Chen Y-T, Hwong J-L (2017)
Damage and regeneration of trees in the Lienhuachih forest dynamics plot in central Taiwan after typhoons disturbance. Taiwan Journal of Forest Science 32: 1-14.
Online | Gscholar
(7)
Chen Y-C, Wu C-F, Lin S-H (2014)
Mechanisms of forest restoration in landslide treatment areas. Sustainability 6: 6766-6780.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Chung C-H, Wang C-H, Hsieh H-C, Huang C-Y (2019)
Comparison of forest canopy height profiles in a mountainous region of Taiwan derived from airborne lidar and unmanned aerial vehicle imagery. GIScience and Remote Sensing 56: 1289-1304.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Cislaghi A, Alterio E, Fogliata P, Rizzi A, Lingua E, Vacchiano G, Bischetti GB, Sitzia T (2021)
Effects of tree spacing and thinning on root reinforcement in mountain forests of the European Southern Alps. Forest Ecology and Management. 482.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(10)
Cohen D, Schwarz M (2017)
Tree-roots control of shallow landslides. Earth Surface Dynamics Discussions 5: 451-477.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Di Iorio A, Lasserre B, Petrozzi L, Scippa GS, Chiatante D (2008)
Adaptive longitudinal growth of first-order lateral roots of a woody species (Spartium junceum) to slope and different soil conditions-upward growth of surface roots. Environmental and Experimental Botany 63: 207-215.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Fan C-C, Lai Y-F (2014)
Influence of the spatial layout of vegetation on the stability of slopes. Plant and Soil 377: 83-95.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Genet M, Kokutse N, Stokes A, Fourcaud T, Cai X, Ji J, Mickovski S (2008)
Root reinforcement in plantations of Cryptomeria japonica D. Don: effect of tree age and stand structure on slope stability. Forest Ecology and Management 256: 1517-1526.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Genet M, Stokes A, Fourcaud T, Norris JE (2010)
The influence of plant diversity on slope stability in a moist evergreen deciduous forest. Ecological Engineering 36: 265-275.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Germany MS, Bruelheide H, Erfmeier A (2019)
Janzen-Connell effects in a forest BEF experiment: strong distance-dependent seedling establishment of multiple species. Ecology 100 (8): e02736.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Giadrossich F, Cohen D, Schwarz M, Ganga A, Marrosu R, Pirastru M, Capra GF (2019)
Large roots dominate the contribution of trees to slope stability. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 44: 1602-1609.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
González de Andrés E, Camarero JJ, Blanco JA, Imbert JB, Lo YH, Sangüesa-Barreda G, Castillo FJ (2018)
Tree-to-tree competition in mixed European beech-Scots pine forests has different impacts on growth and water-use efficiency depending on site conditions. Journal of Ecology 106: 59-75.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Guariguata MR (1990)
Landslide disturbance and forest regeneration in the upper Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico. Journal of Ecology 78: 814-832.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Hierro JL, Callaway RM (2021)
The ecological importance of allelopathy. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 52: 25-45.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Hubbell SP (1980)
Seed predation and the coexistence of tree species in tropical forests. Oikos 35: 214.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
Johnson KA, Sitar N (1990)
Hydrologic conditions leading to debris-flow initiation. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 27: 789-801.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Kothari S, Montgomery RA, Cavender-Bares J (2021)
Physiological responses to light explain competition and facilitation in a tree diversity experiment. Journal of Ecology 109: 2000-2018.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
LaManna JA, Mangan SA, Alonso A, Bourg NA, Brockelman WY, Bunyavejchewin S, Chang LW, Chiang JM, Chuyong GB, Clay K, Condit R, Cordell S, Davies SJ, Furniss TJ, Giardina CP, Gunatilleke IAUN, Gunatilleke CVS, He F, Howe RW, Hubbell SP, Hsieh CF, Inman-Narahari FM, Janík D, Johnson DJ, Kenfack D, Korte L, Král K, Larson AJ, Lutz JA, McMahon SM, McShea WJ, Memiaghe HR, Nathalang A, Novotny V, Ong PS, Orwig DA, Ostertag R, Parker GG, Phillips RP, Sack L, SunIF, Tello JS, Thomas DW, Turner BL, Díaz DMV, Vrska T, Weiblen GD, Wolf A, Yap S, Myers JA (2017)
Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale. Science 356 (6345): 1389-1392.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Lev-Yadun S (2011)
Why should trees have natural root grafts? Tree Physiology 31: 575-578.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Lin W-T, Lin C-Y, Chou W-C (2006)
Assessment of vegetation recovery and soil erosion at landslides caused by a catastrophic earthquake: a case study in Central Taiwan. Ecological Engineering 28: 79-89.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(26)
Magee L, Wolf A, Howe R, Schubbe J, Hagenow K, Turner B (2021)
Density dependence and habitat heterogeneity regulate seedling survival in a North American temperate forest. Forest Ecology and Management 480: 118722.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
McClure JW, Lee TD (1993)
Small-scale disturbance in a northern hardwoods forest: effects on tree species abundance and distribution. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 23: 1347-1360.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Moos C, Bebi P, Graf F, Mattli J, Rickli C, Schwarz M (2016)
How does forest structure affect root reinforcement and susceptibility to shallow landslides? Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 41: 951-960.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Myster RW, Sarmiento FO (1998)
Seed inputs to microsite patch recovery on two Tropandean landslides in Ecuador. Restoration Ecology 6: 35-43.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Osman N, Barakbah SS (2011)
The effect of plant succession on slope stability. Ecological Engineering 37: 139-147.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Pommerening A, Grabarnik P (2019)
Individual-based methods in forest ecology and management. Springer, Cham, Switzerland, pp. 411.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Pourghasemi HR, Kariminejad N, Gayen A, Komac M (2020)
Statistical functions used for spatial modelling due to assessment of landslide distribution and landscape-interaction factors in Iran. Geoscience Frontiers 11: 1257-1269.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(33)
Pretzsch H (2022)
Facilitation and competition reduction in tree species mixtures in Central Europe: consequences for growth modeling and forest management. Ecological Modelling. 464: 109812.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(34)
Roering JJ, Schmidt KM, Stock JD, Dietrich WE, Montgomery DR (2003)
Shallow landsliding, root reinforcement, and the spatial distribution of trees in the Oregon Coast Range. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 40: 237-253.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(35)
Royo AA, Carson WP (2006)
On the formation of dense understory layers in forests worldwide: consequences and implications for forest dynamics, biodiversity, and succession. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 36: 1345-1362.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(36)
Rubin BD, Manion PD, Faber-Langendoen D (2006)
Diameter distributions and structural sustainability in forests. Forest Ecology and Management 222: 427-438.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(37)
Sasaki T, Konno M, Hasegawa Y, Imaji A, Terabaru M, Nakamura R, Ohira N, Matsukura K, Seiwa K (2019)
Role of mycorrhizal associations in tree spatial distribution patterns based on size class in an old-growth forest. Oecologia 189: 971-980.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(38)
Schwarz M, Preti F, Giadrossich F, Lehmann P, Or D (2010)
Quantifying the role of vegetation in slope stability: a case study in Tuscany (Italy). Ecological Engineering 36: 285-291.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(39)
Smith TM, Smith RL (2015)
Elements of ecology (7th edn). Pearson, New York, USA, pp. 704.
Gscholar
(40)
Strimbu BM, Petritan IC, Montes C, Biris IA (2017)
An assessment of the O-ring methodology using virgin stands of mixed European beech - Sessile oak. Forest Ecology and Management 384: 378-388.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(41)
Stokes A, Atger C, Bengough AG, Fourcaud T, Sidle RC (2009)
Desirable plant root traits for protecting natural and engineered slopes against landslides. Plant and Soil 324: 1-30.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(42)
Varnes D (1978)
Slope movement types and processes. In: “Landslides, Analysis and Control” (Schuster R, Krizek R eds). Special Report no. 176, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 11-33.
Gscholar
(43)
Vergani C, Schwarz M, Soldati M, Corda A, Giadrossich F, Chiaradia EA, Morando P, Bassanelli C (2016)
Root reinforcement dynamics in subalpine spruce forests following timber harvest: a case study in Canton Schwyz, Switzerland. Catena 143: 275-288.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(44)
Walker LR, Shiels AB (2013)
Landslide ecology. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp. 300.
Gscholar
(45)
Wiegand T, Moloney KA (2004)
Rings, circles, and null-models for point pattern analysis in ecology. Oikos 104: 209-229.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(46)
Wiegand T, Moloney KA (2014)
Handbook of spatial point-pattern analysis in ecology (Smith R ed). CRC press, Boca Raton, USA, pp. 499.
Gscholar
(47)
Wilcke W, Valladarez H, Stoyan R, Yasin S, Valarezo C, Zech W (2003)
Soil properties on a chronosequence of landslides in montane rain forest, Ecuador. Catena 53: 79-95.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(48)
Zhang W, Lin J, Peng J, Lu Q (2010)
Estimating Wenchuan earthquake induced landslides based on remote sensing. International Journal of Remote Sensing 31: 3495-3508.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info