iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Investigations on yellowing of chestnut crowns in Trentino (Alps, Northern Italy)

Daniela Bertoldi (1), Paolo Miorelli (1), Federico Pedrazzoli (1), Stefano Delugan (2), Marco Deromedi (3), Giorgio Maresi (1)   

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 13, Issue 5, Pages 466-472 (2020)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor3488-013
Published: Oct 07, 2020 - Copyright © 2020 SISEF

Research Articles

Yellowing of part or the whole canopy of chestnut trees was observed during the summer of 2014 in the areas of Tenno, Pranzo and Drena in Trentino, where chestnut cultivation is traditional on the lateral moraine deposit in a context of a prevalent limestone lithological substrate. Symptoms were observed on chestnut trees of different ages, either grafted or not, scattered or in stripes along the maximum slope. Investigations were carried out in the form of field surveys, chemical and molecular analyses of soil and leaves and greenhouse trials, to assess the damage evolution and its causes. No known pathogens emerged during the field surveys, and laboratory tests excluded the presence of phytoplasma infections. A comparison of yellow and asymptomatic leaves evidenced significant deficiencies of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in the yellow leaves, though the level of the two nutrients was the same in the soil below green and yellowed trees. Experimental run-off trials in the greenhouse reproduced the foliage damage with a continuous basic water regime; open-field fertilizations with Mn and Fe led to a slightly recovery on the part of some treated leaves, thus confirming the hypothesis of a probable, sudden deficiency of the mentioned microelements. A possible explanation of this phenomenon could be, on one side, the high precipitation level of 2014, and, on the other side, the previous outbreaks of the Asian chestnut gall wasp, that had reduced foliage volume and thus the organic substance in the soil. The natural recovery from symptoms was clearly visible in trees after four years in a context of normal rainfall regime and increasing organic acid in the soil, after effective biological control of wasp. Even if related to a particular and rare geological condition, this is the first description of Mn deficiency in Castanea sativa.


Chestnut Yellowing, Castanea sativa, Phytoplasmas, Foliar Deficiencies, Manganese

Authors’ address

Daniela Bertoldi 0000-0001-7512-1286
Paolo Miorelli
Federico Pedrazzoli 0000-0002-3841-4650
Giorgio Maresi 0000-0001-6806-6135
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Centre for Technology Transfer, v. E. Mach 1, 38010 San Michele all’Adige, TN (Italy)
Stefano Delugan
Free worker, Trento (Italy)
Marco Deromedi
Fondazione Edmund Mach, Research and Innovation Centre, Department of Sustainable Agroecosystems and Bioresources, San Michele all’Adige, TN (Italy)

Corresponding author

Giorgio Maresi


Bertoldi D, Miorelli P, Pedrazzoli F, Delugan S, Deromedi M, Maresi G (2020). Investigations on yellowing of chestnut crowns in Trentino (Alps, Northern Italy). iForest 13: 466-472. - doi: 10.3832/ifor3488-013

Academic Editor

Alberto Santini

Paper history

Received: Apr 29, 2020
Accepted: Aug 04, 2020

First online: Oct 07, 2020
Publication Date: Oct 31, 2020
Publication Time: 2.13 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 28236
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 25251
Abstract Page Views: 1103
PDF Downloads: 1462
Citation/Reference Downloads: 2
XML Downloads: 418

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1377
Overall contacts: 28236
Avg. contacts per week: 143.54

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2020): 1
Average cites per year: 0.25


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Antonaroli R, Perna MR (2000)
Una fitopatia ad eziologia ancora incerta: il giallume del castagno in Emilia-Romagna e nelle Marche [An uncertain disease: yellowing of chestnut in Emilia-Romagna and Marche]. Sherwood 57: 43-46. [in Italian]
Arrobas M, Afonso S, Angelo Rodrigues M (2018)
Diagnosing the nutritional condition of chestnut groves by soil and leaf analyses. Scientia Horticulturae 228: 113-121
CrossRef | Gscholar
Castellarin A, Picotti V, Cantelli L, Claps M, Trombetta L, Selli L, Carton A, Borsato A, Daminato F, Nardin M, Santuliana E, Veronese L, Bollettinari G (2005)
Note illustrative della carta geologica d’Italia alla scala 1:50.000, foglio 080 Riva del Garda [Illustrative notes on Italian geological map 1:50.000, sheet 080 Riva del Garda]. Provincia Autonoma di Trento, LAC, Firenze, Italy, pp. 145.
Conedera M, Krebs P, Tinner W, Pradella M, Torriani D (2004)
The cultivation of Castanea sativa (Mill.) in Europe. From its origin to its diffusion on a continental scale. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 13 (3): 161-179.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Costello LR, Perry EJ, Matheny NP, Henry JM, Geisel PM (2003)
Abiotic disorders of landscape plants: a diagnostic guide. Agriculture and Natural Resources Publication no. 3420, University of California, Oakland, CA, USA, pp. 242.
Dengiz O, Ic S, Sarioglu FE (2011)
Physico-chemical and morphological properties of soils for Castanea sativa in the central Black See region. International Journal of Agricultural Research 6 (5): 410-419.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Deng S, Hiruki C (1991)
Amplification of 16S rRNA genes from culturable and nonculturable Mollicutes. Journal of Microbiological Methods 14: 53-61.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Drouineau J (1942)
Dosage rapide du calcaire actif de sols [Rapid dosage of active limestone in soils]. Annales Agronomiques 12: 441-450. [in French]
EPPO (2001)
EPPO alert list. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Gehring E, Bellosi B, Quacchia A, Conedera M (2018)
Assessing the impact of Dryocosmus kuriphilus on the chestnut tree: branch architecture matters. Journal of Pest Science 91: 189-202.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Han S, Kim YH, So IY, Chai JK (1997)
Association of phytoplasma with chestnut (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.) little leaf disease in Korea. Korean Journal of Mycoplasmology 8: 48-54.
INFC (2007a)
Le stime di superficie 2005 - Prima parte [Surfaces estimation 2005 - first part] (Tabacchi G, De Natale F, Di Cosmo L, Floris A, Gagliano C, Gasparini P, Genchi L, Scrinzi G, Tosi V eds). Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei Serbatoi Forestali di Carbonio, MiPAF - Corpo Forestale dello Stato - Ispettorato Generale, CRA - ISAFA, Trento. [in Italian]
Online | Gscholar
INFC (2007b)
Le stime di superficie 2005 - Seconda parte [Surfaces estimation 2005 - second part]. (Tabacchi G, De Natale F, Di Cosmo L, Floris A, Gagliano C, Gasparini P, Salvadori I, Scrinzi G, Tosi V eds). Inventario Nazionale delle Foreste e dei Serbatoi Forestali di Carbonio, MiPAF - Corpo Forestale dello Stato - Ispettorato Generale, CRA - ISAFA, Trento, Italy. [in Italian]
Online | Gscholar
ISO-10693 (1995)
Soil quality - determination of carbonate content - Volumetric method. International Organisation for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 7.
Jung H-Y, Sawayanagi T, Kakizawa S, Nishigawa H, Miyata S-I, Oshima K, Ugaki M, Lee J-T, Hibi T, Namba S (2002)
Candidatus Phytoplasma castaneae, a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with chestnut witches’ broom disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 52: 1543-9.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Laroche A, Freyssac V, Rahmani A, Verger JP, Morvan H (1997)
Growth and mineral content of young chestnut trees under controlled conditions of nutrition. Annales des Sciences Forestières 54: 681-693.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lee I-M, Hammond RW, Davis RE, Gundersen DE (1993)
Universal amplification and analysis of pathogen 16S rDNA for classification and identification of mycoplasmalike organisms. Phytopathology 83: 834.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lindsay WL, Norwell WA (1969)
Development of a DTPA micronutrient soil test. Agronomy Abstract 69: 87.
Lin CL, Li HF, Zhang GZ, Wei W, Zhu XQ, Li ZP, Wang H, Xu QC, Zhou T, Tian GZ (2011)
Molecular identification and characterization of a new phytoplasma strain associated with Chinese chestnut yellow crinkle disease in China. Forest Pathology 41: 233-236.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Maltoni A, Mariotti B, Tani A (2012)
Case study of a new method for the classification and analysis of Dryocosmus kuriphilus Yasumatsu damage to young chestnut sprouts. iForest 5: 50-59.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mittempergher L, Sfalanga A (1998)
Chestnut yellows: a new disease for Europe. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 37: 143-145.
Online | Gscholar
Okuda S, Doi Y, Yora K (1974)
Mycoplasma-like bodies associated with chestnut yellows. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 40: 464-468. [in Japanese]
Pezzi G, Donati D, Muzzi E, Conedera M, Krebs P (2019)
Using chorographic sources to reconstruct past agro-forestry systems. A methodological approach based on the study case of the northern Apennines. Landscape Research 45 (3): 359-376.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pezzi G, Lucchi E, Maresi G, Ferretti F, Viaggi D, Frascaroli F (2017)
Abandonment or survival? Understanding the future of Castanea sativa stands in function of local attitude (Northern Apennine, Italy). Land Use Policy 61: 564-574.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pezzi G, Maresi G, Conedera M, Ferrari C (2011)
Woody species composition of chestnut stands in the Northern Apennines: the result of 200 years of changes in land use. Landscape Ecology 26 (10): 1463-1476.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Portela E, Pires CC, Louzada J (2010)
Magnesium deficiency in chestnut groves: the influence of soil manganese. Journal of Plant Nutrition 33 (3): 452-460.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Quacchia A, Moriya S, Bosio S, Alma A (2008)
Rearing, release and settlement prospect in Italy of Torymus sinensis, the biological control agent of the chestnut gall wasp Dryocosmus kuriphilus. BioControl 53 (6): 829-839.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Schneider B, Seemüller E, Smart CD, Kirkpatrick BC (1995)
Phylogenetic classification of plant pathogenic mycoplasma-like organisms or phytoplasmas. In: “Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology” (Razin S, Tully JG eds). Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, pp. 369-380.
Seemüller E, Marcone C, Lauer U, Ragozzino A, Göschl M (1998)
Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology 80 (1): 3-26.
Online | Gscholar
Shimada C, Kouda S (1954)
Yellowing disease of chestnut. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan 19: 95.
Toprak S (2019)
The macro and micro nutrition status of Anatolian chestnut in Inegol (Bursa-Turkey). Eurasian Journal of Forest Science 7 (2): 121-132.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Toprak S, Seferoglu S (2013)
The seasonal changes of nutritional elements of chestnut (Castanea sativa) plant and determination of leaf sampling times. American Journal of Research Communication 1 (5): 1-8.
Online | Gscholar
Turchetti T, Ferretti F, Maresi G (2008)
Natural spread of Cryphonectria parasitica and persistence of hypovirulence in three Italian coppiced chestnut stands. Forest Pathology 38 (4): 227-243.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ugolini F, Massetti L, Pedrazzoli F, Tognetti R, Vecchione A, Zulini L, Maresi G (2014)
Ecophysiological responses and vulnerability to other pathologies in European chestnut coppices, heavily infested by the Asian chestnut gall wasp. Forest Ecology and Management 314 (1): 38-49.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vettraino AM, Vannini A, Flamini L, Lagnese R, Pizzichini L, Talevi S, Fulbright DW (2005)
A new transmissible symptomology on sweet chestnut in Italy. Acta Horticulturae: 547-550.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vittori Antisari L, Falsone G, Carbone S, Vianello G (2013)
Short-term effects of forest recovery on soil carbon and nutrient availability in an experimental chestnut stand. Biology and Fertility of Soils 49 (2): 165-173.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info