iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Genetic diversity of core vs. peripheral Norway spruce native populations at a local scale in Slovenia

Marjana Westergren   , Gregor Bozic, Hojka Kraigher

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 104-110 (2018)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2444-011
Published: Jan 31, 2018 - Copyright © 2018 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: COST Action FP1202
Strengthening conservation: a key issue for adaptation of marginal/peripheral populations of forest trees to climate change in Europe (MaP-FGR)
Guest Editors: Fulvio Ducci, Kevin Donnelly

We investigated the levels of genetic diversity and population differentiation among core and peripheral populations of Norway spruce along an altitudinal gradient (from inversions to upper tree line) using isoenzymes (ISO) and nuclear simple-sequence repeats (SSR) markers on overlapping set of populations. Twenty-seven to seventy trees from 11 and 7 populations were genotyped with isoenzymes and SSRs, respectively. The results partially conform to the expectations of the central-peripheral hypothesis (CPH) and are consistent for both marker sets. Genetic differentiation among peripheral populations was low but significantly different from zero (FST-ISO = 0.013, FST-SSR = 0.009) and higher than that among core populations (FST-ISO = 0.007, FST-SSR = 0.005), conforming to central peripheral hypothesis. Contrastingly, levels of genetic diversity assessed by both richness and equitability measures did not significantly differ between peripheral and core populations (AR-ISO = 2.20 vs. 2.14, AR-SSR = 17.16 vs. 17.68, HE-ISO = 0.183 vs. 0.185, and HE-SSR = 0.935 vs. 0.935 for peripheral and core populations, respectively).


Central Peripheral Hypothesis, Picea abies (L.) Karst., Genetic Diversity, Genetic Differentiation, Upper Tree Line, Inversion

Authors’ address

Marjana Westergren
Gregor Bozic
Hojka Kraigher
Slovenian Forestry Institute, Vecna pot 2, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

Corresponding author

Marjana Westergren


Westergren M, Bozic G, Kraigher H (2018). Genetic diversity of core vs. peripheral Norway spruce native populations at a local scale in Slovenia. iForest 11: 104-110. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2444-011

Academic Editor

Fulvio Ducci

Paper history

Received: Mar 27, 2017
Accepted: Jan 16, 2018

First online: Jan 31, 2018
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2018
Publication Time: 0.50 months

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