*

Sap flow, leaf-level gas exchange and spectral responses to drought in Pinus sylvestris, Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis

José Antonio Manzanera (1)   , Aranzazu Gómez-Garay (2), Beatriz Pintos (2), Manuel Rodríguez-Rastrero (3), Eugenio Moreda (2), Javier Zazo (1), Eugenio Martínez-Falero (1), Antonio García-Abril (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 204-214 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1748-009
Published: Nov 01, 2016 - Copyright © 2016 SISEF

Research Articles


In a climate change scenario, Mediterranean forest species such as pines may be endangered by rising temperatures and reduced precipitation, thus calling for studies on the transpiration and water balance in pines. In this paper, the response of young plants of Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus pinea L. and Pinus halepensis Mill. to different irrigation treatments has been studied. Significant differences were found in water potential, sap flow, leaf-level gas exchange and spectral variables. P. sylvestris had higher pre-dawn and midday water potentials, sap flow rates and leaf-level gas exchange rates compared to the other two species in well-watered conditions. Vapor pressure gradient correlated with stomatal conductance, net assimilation and transpiration, but the association between stomatal conductance and sap flow was weak. The environmental variables more strongly associated with sap flow were solar radiation and reference evapo-transpiration, especially in the well-watered plants, but those associations were weaker in the stressed plants. All three pine species showed the isohydric, drought-avoiding strategy common in the genus Pinus, maintaining relatively high water potentials in dry conditions. Nevertheless, P. halepensis showed a water-saving strategy, with a stomatal closure behavior under drought. Stomatal regulation was less strict in P. sylvestris, closer to a water-spending pattern, while P. pinea showed an intermediate behavior. Significant differences were recorded among species in spectral reflectance in the visible and infra-red regions. Photochemical Reflectance Index, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and combinations of other ratios permitted the discrimination among the three pine species. These spectral variables showed association with sap flow rate, water potential and leaf-level gas exchange variables. Both cluster analysis and k-means classification discriminated Scots pine and Aleppo pine in two different groups. On the other hand, Stone pine showed differences in spectral behavior depending on the hydric status of the plants. Well-watered Stone pine plants had the same spectral behavior as Scots pine, while the plants subjected to drought stress were closer to Aleppo pine plants in spectral response. These findings may help to quantify the impacts of early and mid-summer water deficit on Mediterranean pines in future climate regimes.

  Keywords


Carbon Assimilation, Aleppo Pine, Hydric Relations, Reflectance, Scots Pine, Stone Pine, Transpiration

Authors’ address

(1)
José Antonio Manzanera
Javier Zazo
Eugenio Martínez-Falero
Antonio García-Abril
Technical University of Madrid, College of Forestry and Natural Environment, Ciudad Universitaria, Moncloa Campus of International Excellence, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
(2)
Aranzazu Gómez-Garay
Beatriz Pintos
Eugenio Moreda
Complutense University of Madrid, Dept. of Plant Physiology, Ciudad Universitaria, Moncloa Campus of International Excellence, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
(3)
Manuel Rodríguez-Rastrero
Autonomous University of Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

Corresponding author

 
José Antonio Manzanera
joseantonio.manzanera@upm.es

Citation

Manzanera JA, Gómez-Garay A, Pintos B, Rodríguez-Rastrero M, Moreda E, Zazo J, Martínez-Falero E, García-Abril A (2016). Sap flow, leaf-level gas exchange and spectral responses to drought in Pinus sylvestris, Pinus pinea and Pinus halepensis. iForest 10: 204-214. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1748-009

Academic Editor

Tamir Klein

Paper history

Received: Jun 24, 2015
Accepted: Jul 16, 2016

First online: Nov 01, 2016
Publication Date: Feb 28, 2017
Publication Time: 3.60 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 9072
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 6393
Abstract Page Views: 268
PDF Downloads: 1864
Citation/Reference Downloads: 55
XML Downloads: 492

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1112
Overall contacts: 9072
Avg. contacts per week: 57.11

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

(No citations were found up to date. Please come back later)


 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Baquedano FJ, Castillo FJ (2006)
Comparative ecophysiological effects of drought on seedlings of the Mediterranean water-saver Pinus halepensis and water-spenders Quercus coccifera and Quercus ilex. Trees - Structure and Function 20 (6): 689-700.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
Brito P, Lorenzo JR, González-Rodríguez AM, Morales D, Wieser G, Jimenez MS (2014)
Canopy transpiration of a Pinus canariensis forest at the tree line: implications for its distribution under predicted climate warming. European Journal of Forest Research 133 (3): 491-500.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Cohen WB (1991)
Response of vegetation indices to changes in three measurements of leaf water stress. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 57 (2): 195-202.
Online | Gscholar
(4)
Dzikiti S, Verreynne SJ, Stuckens J, Strever A, Verstraeten WW, Swennen R, Theron KI, Coppin P (2011)
Seasonal variation in canopy reflectance and its application to determine the water status and water use by citrus trees in the Western Cape, South Africa. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 151 (8): 1035-1044.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Eamus D, Shanahan ST (2002)
A rate equation model of stomatal responses to vapour pressure deficit and drought. BioMed Central Ecology 2: 8.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Filella I, Peñuelas J, Llorens L, Estiarte M (2004)
Reflectance assessment of seasonal and annual changes in biomass and CO2 uptake of a Mediterranean shrubland submitted to experimental warming and drought. Remote Sensing of Environment 90: 308-318.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(7)
Flexas J, Diaz-Espejo A, Gago J, Gallé A, Galmés J, Gulías J, Medrano H (2014)
Photosynthetic limitations in Mediterranean plants: a review. Environmental and Experimental Botany 103: 12-23.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Garbulsky MF, Peñuelas J, Gamon JA, Inoue Y, Filella I (2011)
The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and the remote sensing of leaf, canopy and ecosystem radiation use efficiencies: a review and meta-analysis. Remote Sensing of Environment 115: 281-297.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Gielen B, Verbeeck H, Neirynck J, Sampson DA, Vermeiren F, Janssens IA (2010)
Decadal water balance of a temperate Scots pine forest (Pinus sylvestris L.) based on measurements and modeling. Biogeosciences 7 (4): 1247-1261.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(10)
Granier A (1985)
Une nouvelle méthode pour la mesure du flux de sève brute dans le tronc des arbres. [A new method for the measurement of sap flow in tree stems]. Annales de Sciences Forestieres 42: 81-88. [in French]
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Hardisky MA, Klemas V, Smart RM (1983)
The influence of soil salinity, growth form, and leaf moisture on the spectral reflectance of Spartina alternifolia canopies. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 49: 77-83.
Gscholar
(12)
Hernández-Clemente R, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Suárez L, Morales F, Zarco-Tejada PJ (2011)
Assessing structural effects on PRI for stress detection in conifer forests Remote Sensing of Environment 115 (9): 2360-2375.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Irvine J, Perks MP, Magnani F, Grace J (1998)
The response of Pinus sylvestris to drought: stomatal control of transpiration and hydraulic conductance. Tree Physiology 18: 393-402.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Jacquemoud S, Verhoef W, Baret F, Bacour C, Zarco-Tejada PJ, Asner GP, François C, Ustin SL (2009)
PROSPECT + SAIL Models: a review of use for vegetation characterization. Remote Sensing of Environment 113: 56-66.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Klein T, Cohen S, Yakir D (2011)
Hydraulic adjustments underlying drought resistance of Pinus halepensis. Tree Physiology 31 (6): 637-648.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Manzanera JA, Martínez-Chacón MF (2007)
Ecophysiological competence of Populus alba L., Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. and Crataegus monogyna Jacq. used in plantations for the recovery of riparian vegetation. Environmental Management 40 (6): 902-912.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
Manzanera JA, Martin S, García-Abril A (2013)
Functionality indicators for sustainable management. In: “Quantitative Techniques in Participatory Forest Management” (Martinez-Falero E, Martin-Fernandez S, Garcia-Abril A eds). CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, USA, pp. 241-261.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Marino G, Pallozzi E, Cocozza C, Tognetti R, Giovannelli A, Cantini C, Centritto M (2014)
Assessing gas exchange, sap flow and water relations using tree canopy spectral reflectance indices in irrigated and rainfed Olea europaea L. Environmental and Experimental Botany 99: 43-52.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Martínez-Vilalta J, Piñol J (2002)
Drought-induced mortality and hydraulic architecture in pine populations of the NE Iberian Peninsula. Forest Ecology and Management 161: 247-256.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Martínez-Vilalta J, Sala A, Piñol J (2004)
The hydraulic architecture of Pinaceae - a review. Plant Ecology 171: 3-13.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
McDowell N, Pockman WT, Allen CD, Breshears DD, Cobb N, Kolb T, Plaut J, Sperry J, West A, Williams DG, Yepez EA (2008)
Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytologist 178: 719-739.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Meinzer FC (1982)
The effect of vapour pressure on stomatal control of gas exchange in Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) saplings. Oecologia 54: 236-242.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
Melzack RN, Bravdo B, Riov J (1985)
The effect of water stress on photosynthesis and related parameters in Pinus halepensis. Physiologia Plantarum 64: 295-300.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Mitsopoulos ID, Dimitrakopoulos AP (2007)
Allometric equations for crown fuel biomass of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in Greece. International Journal of Wildland Fire 16: 642-647.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Montero G, Ruiz-Peinado R, Muñoz M (2005)
Producción de Biomasa y fijación de CO2 por los bosques españoles [Biomass production and CO2 fixation in Spanish forests]. Monografías INIA, Serie Forestal, Madrid, Spain, pp. 270. [in Spanish]
Gscholar
(26)
Oliveras I, Martínez-Vilalta J, Jimenez-Ortiz T, Lledó MJ, Escarré A, Piñol J (2003)
Hydraulic properties of Pinus halepensis, Pinus pinea and Tetraclinis articulata in a dune ecosystem of Eastern Spain. Plant Ecology 169: 131-141.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Peguero-Pina JJ, Morales F, Flexas J, Gil-Pelegrín E, Moya I (2008)
Photochemistry, remotely sensed physiological reflectance index and de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle in Quercus coccifera under intense drought. Oecologia 156: 1-11.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Pinty B, Verstraete MM (1992)
GEMI: a non-linear index to monitor global vegetation from satellites. Vegetatio 101 (1): 15-20.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Poyatos R, Aguade D, Galiano L, Mencuccini M, Martínez-Vilalta J (2013)
Drought-induced defoliation and long periods of near-zero gas exchange play a key role in accentuating metabolic decline of Scots pine. New Phytologist 200 (2): 388-401.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Ripullone F, Rivelli AR, Baraldi R, Guarini R, Guerrieri R, Magnani F, Peñuelas J, Raddi S, Borghetti M (2011)
Effectiveness of the photochemical reflectance index to track photosynthetic activity over a range of forest tree species and plant water statuses. Functional Plant Biology 38 (3): 177-186.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Rondeaux G, Steven M, Baret F (1996)
Optimization of soil-adjusted vegetation indices. Remote Sensing of Environment 55: 95-107.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Rouse JW, Haas RH, Schell JA, Deering DW, Harlan JC (1974)
Monitoring the vernal advancement and retrogradation (Greenwave Effect) of natural vegetation. Type III Final Report, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, ML, USA, pp. 371.
Online | Gscholar
(33)
Seager R, Ting M, Held I, Kushnir Y, Lu J, Vecchi G, Huang HP, Harnik N, Leetmaa A, Lau NC, Li C, Velez J, Naik N (2007)
Model projections of an imminent transition to a more arid climate in southwestern North America. Science 316: 1181-1184.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(34)
Snyder R, Pruitt W (1985)
Estimating reference evapotranspiration with hourly data. In: “California Irrigation Management Information System Final Report” (Snyder R, Henderson DW, Pruitt WO, Dong A eds.). Vol. 1. Chapter VII Land, Air and Water Resources Paper 10013-A, University of California, Davis, CA, USA, pp. 1-3.
Gscholar
(35)
Suárez L, Zarco-Tejada PJ, Sepulcre-Cantó G, Pérez-Priego O, Miller JR, Jiménez-Muñoz JC, Sobrino J (2008)
Assessing canopy PRI for water stress detection with diurnal airborne imagery. Remote Sensing of Environment 112: 560-575.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(36)
Tardieu F, Simonneau T (1998)
Variability among species of stomatal control under fluctuating soil water status and evaporative demand: modelling isohydric and anisohydric behaviours. Journal of Experimental Botany 49: 419-432.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(37)
Ungar ED, Rotenberg E, Raz-Yaseef N, Cohen S, Yakir D, Schiller G (2013)
Transpiration and annual water balance of Aleppo pine in a semiarid region: implications for forest management. Forest Ecology and Management 298: 39-51.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(38)
Ustin SL, Gitelson AA, Jacquemoud S, Schaepman M, Asner GP, Gamon JA, Zarco-Tejada P (2009)
Retrieval of foliar information about plant pigment systems from high resolution spectroscopy. Remote Sensing of Environment 113: S67-S77.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(39)
Wieser G, Gruber A, Oberhuber W (2014)
Sap flow characteristics and whole-tree water use of Pinus cembra across the treeline ecotone of the central Tyrolean Alps. European Journal of Forest Research 133 (2): 287-295.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
Zarco-Tejada PJ, Berjon A, Lopez-Lozano R, Miller JR, Martin P, Cachorro V, Gonzalez MR, Frutos A (2005)
Assessing vineyard condition with hyper- spectral indices: leaf and canopy reflectance simulation in a row-structured discontinuous canopy. Remote Sensing of Environment 99: 271-287.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website