*

On the geometry and allometry of big-buttressed trees - a challenge for forest monitoring: new insights from 3D-modeling with terrestrial laser scanning

Nils Nölke (1)   , Lutz Fehrmann (1), Surati Jaya I Nengah (2), Tatang Tiryana (2), Dominik Seidel (1), Christoph Kleinn (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 5, Pages 574-581 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1449-007
Published: Mar 02, 2015 - Copyright © 2015 SISEF

Research Articles


In many old-growth natural and close-to-natural forest types, notably in humid tropical forests, a relatively small number of very tall trees contribute considerably to stand basal area and biomass. Such trees often show distinct buttress roots with irregular non-convex shapes. Buttresses are complex structures in the lowest stem section, where most tree biomass is located. The methods used to assess the diameter of buttressed trees have a large impact on the determination of volume and biomass, as well as on the resulting estimates of the aboveground carbon stock in tropical forests. As the measurement of diameter at breast height (DBH at 1.3 m) is not feasible in such conditions, the diameter above buttress (DAB), where the cylindrical bole of the tree begins, is usually measured and included as an independent variable in biomass models. We conducted a methodological study aimed at determining the volume and biomass of individual buttressed trees belonging to several tropical species by the application of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS). The geometry and allometry of the buttresses, as well as the change with height along the stem in buttress volume and cross-sectional area were analyzed. Our results suggest that the relationship between cross-sectional areas at DAB height (ADAB) and the actual tree basal area measured at 1.3 m height is relatively strong (R² = 0.87) across a range of different species, buttress morphologies and tree dimensions. Furthermore, the change in stem cross-sectional area with tree height was surprisingly similar and smooth. Despite the small number of trees sampled, the methodological approach used in this study provided new insights on the very irregular geometry of buttressed trees. Our results may help improving the volume and biomass models for buttressed trees, that are crucial contributors to carbon stocks in tropical forests.

  Keywords


Biomass, Morphology, Volume, Form Factor

Authors’ address

(1)
Nils Nölke
Lutz Fehrmann
Dominik Seidel
Christoph Kleinn
Chair of Forest Inventory and Remote Sensing, Universität Göttingen, Büsgenweg 5, D-37075 Göttingen (Germany)
(2)
Surati Jaya I Nengah
Tatang Tiryana
Division of Forestry Planning, Department of Forest Management, Faculty of Forestry, Bogor Agricultural University (Indonesia)

Corresponding author

 
Nils Nölke
nnoelke@gwdg.de

Citation

Nölke N, Fehrmann L, I Nengah SJ, Tiryana T, Seidel D, Kleinn C (2015). On the geometry and allometry of big-buttressed trees - a challenge for forest monitoring: new insights from 3D-modeling with terrestrial laser scanning. iForest 8: 574-581. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1449-007

Academic Editor

Matteo Garbarino

Paper history

Received: Sep 19, 2014
Accepted: Dec 22, 2014

First online: Mar 02, 2015
Publication Date: Oct 01, 2015
Publication Time: 2.33 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 13967
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 9994
Abstract Page Views: 363
PDF Downloads: 2690
Citation/Reference Downloads: 50
XML Downloads: 870

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1691
Overall contacts: 13967
Avg. contacts per week: 57.82

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2015): 9
Average cites per year: 1.80

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Basuki TM, Van Laake PE, Skidmore AK, Hussin YA (2009)
Allometric equations for estimating the above-ground biomass in tropical lowland Dipterocarp forests. Forest Ecology and Management 257: 1684-1694.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
Bauwens S (2013)
Le LiDAR-t et la photogrammétrie pour modéliser des troncs irréguliers [Modeling irregular shaped tree with Terrestrial LiDAR and photogrammetry]. In: Proceedings of the International Conference “Utilisation du système LiDAR terrestre en écologie forestière (4ème édition)”. Marseille (France) 8 Oct 2013. On-line presentation, pp. 24.
Online | Gscholar
(3)
Chapman CA, Kaufman L, Chapman LJ (1998)
Buttress formation and directional stress experienced during critical phases of tree development. Journal of Tropical Ecology 14: 341-349.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Chave J, Andalo C, Brown S, Cairns MA, Chambers JQ, Eamus D, Folster H, Fromard F, Higuchi N, Kira T, Lescure JP, Ogawa BWNH, Puig H, Riera B, Yamakura T (2005)
Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia 145:87-99.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Clark DB, Clark DA (2000)
Landscape-scale variation in forest structure and biomass in a tropical rain forest. Forest Ecology and Management 137: 185-198.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Clark DA (2002)
Are tropical forests an important carbon sink? Reanalysis of the long-term plot data. Ecological Applications 12: 3-7.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(7)
Clark DB, Kellner JR (2012)
Tropical forest biomass estimation and the fallacy of misplaced concreteness. Journal of Vegetation Science 23: 1191-1196.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Crook MJ, Ennos AR, Banks JR (1997)
The function of buttress roots: a comparative study of the anchorage systems of buttressed (Aglaia and Nephelium ramboutan species) and non-buttressed (Mallotus wrayi) tropical trees. Journal of Experimental Botany 48: 1703-1716.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Cushman KC, Muller-Landau HC, Condit RS, Hubbell P (2014)
Improving estimates of biomass change in buttressed trees using tree taper models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5 (6): 573-582.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(10)
Dean C (2003)
Calculation of wood volume and stem taper using terrestrial single-image close-range photogrammetry and contemporary software tools. Silva Fennica 37 (3): 359-380.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(11)
Edelsbrunner H, Mücke EP (1994)
Three-dimensional alpha shapes. ACM Transactions on Graphics 13 (1): 43-72. doi:
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Ennos AR (1993)
The scaling of root anchorage. Journal of Theoretical Biology 161: 61-75.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Enquist BJ (2002)
Universal scaling in tree and vascular plant allometry: toward a general quantitative theory linking plant form and function from cells to ecosystems. Tree Physiology 22: 1045-1064.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Fehrmann L, Kleinn C (2006)
General considerations about the use of allometric equations for biomass estimation on the example of Norway spruce in central Europe. Forest Ecology and Management 236: 412-421.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
FAO (2004)
National forest inventory: field manual template. Food and Agricukture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 84.
Online | Gscholar
(16)
He Z, Tang Y, Deng X, Cao M (2013)
Buttress trees in a 20-hectare tropical dipterocarp rainforest in Xishuangbanna, SW China. Journal of Plant Ecology 6: 187-192.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(17)
Henry M, Besnard A, Asante WA, Eshun J, Adu-Bredu S, Valentini R, Bernoux M, Saint-André L (2010)
Wood density, phytomass variations within and among trees, and allometric equations in a tropical rainforest of Africa. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1375-1388.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Kazhdan M, Bolitho M, Hoppe H (2006)
Poisson surface reconstruction. In: Proceedings of the “Eurographics Symposium on Geometry Processing” (Polthier K, Sheffer A eds). Cagliari (Italy) 26-28 Jun 2006, pp. 61-70.
Online | Gscholar
(19)
Mattheck C (1998)
Design in nature: learning from trees. Springer Science & Business Media, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, pp. 276.
Online | Gscholar
(20)
Mehedi AH, Kundu C, Chowdhury Q (2012)
Patterns of tree buttressing at Lawachara National Park, Bangladesh. Journal of Forest Research 23 (3): 461-466.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
Metcalf CJE, Clark JS, Clark DA (2009)
Tree growth inference and prediction when the point of measurement changes: modelling around buttresses in tropical forests. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25: 1-2.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Mindawati N, Hendromono HM, Toma T, Morikawa Y, Ngaloken GA (2004)
Tree trunk volume of Shorea species: case study in Darmaga and Haurbentes research forest in West Java, Indonesia. Journal of Forestry Research 1 (1): 17-24.
Online | Gscholar
(23)
Newbery DM, Schwan S, Chuyong GB, Van der Burgt XM (2009)
Buttress form of the central African rain forest tree Microberlinia bisulcata, and its possible role in nutrient acquisition. Trees 23: 219-234.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Ngomanda A, Mavouroulou QM, Obiang NLE, Iponga DM, Mavoungou JF, Lépengué N, Picard N, Mbatchi B (2012)
Derivation of diameter measurements for buttressed trees, an example from Gabon. Journal of Tropical Ecology 28: 299-302.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
Niklas KJ (1994)
Plant allometry: the scaling of plant form and process. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA, pp. 395.
Online | Gscholar
(26)
Niklas KJ (2004)
Plant allometry: is there a grand unifying theorem? Biological Reviews 79: 871-889.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Niklas KJ (2013)
Biophysical and size-dependent perspectives on plant evolution. Journal of Experimental Botany 64: 4817-4827.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Nogueira EM, Nelson BW, Fearnside PM (2006)
Volume and biomass of trees in central Amazonia: influence of irregularly shaped and hollow trunks. Forest Ecology and Management 227: 14-21.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Parresol BR (1999)
Assessing tree and stand biomass: a review with examples and critical comparisons. Forest Science 45 (4): 573-593.
Online | Gscholar
(30)
Phillips OL, Malhi Y, Vincety B, Baker T, Lewis SL, Higuchi N, Laurance WF, Nunez Vargas P, Vasquez Martinez R, Laurance S, Ferreira LV, Stern M, Brown S, Grace J (2002)
Changes in growth of tropical forests: evaluating potential biases. Ecological Applications 12: 576-587.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Picard N, Saint-André L, Henry M (2012)
Manual for building tree volume and biomass allometric equations: from field measurement to prediction. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, and Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, Montpellier, France, pp. 215.
Gscholar
(32)
Pilli R, Anfodillo T, Carrer M (2006)
Towards a functional and simplified allometry for estimating forest biomass. Forest Ecology and Management 237: 583-593.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(33)
R Core Team (2013)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R foundation for statistical computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
(34)
Richards PW (1952)
The tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, pp. 450.
Gscholar
(35)
Richter W (1984)
A structural approach to the function of buttresses of Quararibea asterolepis. Ecology 65 (5): 1429-1435.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(36)
Saner P, Loh YY, Ong RC, Hector A (2012)
Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical lowland dipterocarp rainforests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. PloS One 7 (1): e29642.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(37)
Slik JWF, Aiba SI, Brearley FQ, Cannon CH, Forshed O, Kitayama K, Nagamasu H, Nilus R, Payne J, Paoli G, Poulsen AD, Raes N, Sheil D, Sidiyasa K, Suzuki E, Van Valkenburg JLCH (2010)
Environmental correlates of tree biomass, basal area, wood specific gravity and stem density gradients in Borneo’s tropical forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 50-60.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(38)
Smith AP (1972)
Buttressing of tropical trees: a descriptive model and new hypotheis. American Naturalist 106: 32-46.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(39)
Stephenson NL, Das AJ, Condit R, Russo SE, Baker PJ, Beckman NG, Coomes DA, Lines ER, Morris WK, Ruger N, Alvarez E, Blundo C, Bunyavejchewin S, Chuyong G, Davies SJ, Duque A, Ewango CN, Flores O, Franklin JF, Grau HR, Hao Z, Harmon ME, Hubbell SP, Kenfack D, Lin Y, Makana J, Malizia A, Malizia LR, Pabst RJ, Pongpattananurak N, Su S, Sun I, Tan S, Thomas D, Van Mantgem PJ, Wang X, Wiser SK, Zavala MA (2014)
Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size. Nature 507 (7490): 90-93.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ (1997)
A general model for the origin of allometry scaling laws in biology. Science 276: 122-126.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(41)
West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ (1999a)
The fourth dimension of live: fractal geometry and allometric scaling of organisms. Science 284: 167-169.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(42)
West GB, Brown JH, Enquist BJ (1999b)
A general model for the structure and allometry of plant vascular systems. Nature 400: 664-667.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(43)
Zianis D, Mencuccini M (2004)
On simplifying allometric analyses of forest biomass. Forest Ecology and Management 187: 311-332.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website