iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Open field-applicable instrumental methods for structural and functional assessment of whole trees and stands

Jan Cermák   , Nadezhda Nadezhdina, Miroslav Trcala, Jaroslav Simon

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 3, Pages 226-278 (2015)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1116-008
Published: Sep 03, 2014 - Copyright © 2015 SISEF

Review Papers

This illustrated review is aimed to provide succinct account of different methods applicable for obtaining objective information about the functional ecology of forest sites and stands (and also, e.g., orchards, watersheds, parks or alleys) for the purposes of phytotechnology or precise forestry. Management strategies must consider preservation of many important functions of forests in the landscape. Management methodologies include classical forestry approaches based on classification of the natural environment according to climatic zones, soil characteristics and composition of herbaceous as well as woody vegetation. One possibility for obtaining objective information came with the development of ecologically applicable instrumentation, allowing studies on the whole tree and stand levels to be undertaken anywhere in the field. Information may be derived at sites that are not permanently observed and are not equipped with additional constructions, such as towers, masts, or greenhouses. These field applicable methods are focused especially on tree and stand macrostructure, water relations and functional parameters of trees. In addition, problems associated with interactions between trees and different organisms are also discussed. A series of methods based on different principles is useful to measure mostly quantitative, operative or effective tree parameters as tree crowns and leaf distribution, stems (or large tree trunks) and root systems including skeleton and absorptive fine roots. This is sometimes possible to do with rather simple methods, but instrumental methods prevail especially for root studies. In addition to several classical measurement principles including anatomical or mechanical sensing, the methods work with sound speed (acoustic tomography) using electromagnetic rays of different wavelength (from radar to optical), electric conductivity or impedance, supersonic air stream and thermodynamics for example. Methods for data evaluation and examples of application are also included. The whole complex system approach should serve for different scientific fields (including hydrology, landscape care, horticulture, forensic engineering, etc.) and especially to support precise forestry.


Instrumental and Simple Methods, Geometrical and Effective Parameters, Tree Crown, Stem (trunk) and Root System, Complex Studies, Water and Energy

Authors’ address

Jan Cermák
Nadezhda Nadezhdina
Miroslav Trcala
Jaroslav Simon
Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelská 3, 61300 Brno (Czech Republic)

Corresponding author

Jan Cermák


Cermák J, Nadezhdina N, Trcala M, Simon J (2015). Open field-applicable instrumental methods for structural and functional assessment of whole trees and stands. iForest 8: 226-278. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1116-008

Academic Editor

Marco Borghetti

Paper history

Received: Aug 31, 2013
Accepted: May 13, 2014

First online: Sep 03, 2014
Publication Date: Jun 01, 2015
Publication Time: 3.77 months

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