iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Diversity, distribution and vegetation assessment in the Jahlmanal watershed in cold desert of the Lahaul valley, north-western Himalaya, India

YS Rawat (1)   , SCR Vishvakarma (1), SS Oinam (2), JC Kuniyal (2)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 3, Issue 3, Pages 65-71 (2010)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0532-003
Published: May 17, 2010 - Copyright © 2010 SISEF

Research Articles

Relict vegetation in the Jahlmanal watershed is sparsely and scantily distributed on forest land. Farmers maintain tree species (Salix spp., Populus spp., Hippophae rhamnoides) on the boundaries of terraced agriculture fields to meet the fodder and fuel wood requirements. Juniperus macropoda was found in relict forest patches in sparse and stunted conditions. The density of Salix fragilis was 3340 trees ha-1 under agroforestry and 5520 trees ha-1 under forestry. The density of J. macropoda was 4200 tree ha-1 in natural forest followed by 700 tree ha-1 in agroforestry and 160 tree ha-1 in managed forestry systems. The agroforesty system of the watershed consists of 30% trees, 35% small trees and 35% shrubs species. Shrubs contributed the highest density with 59.1% of the total, followed by density of trees (29.5%) and small trees (11.3%). Trees contributed highest basal area in all the three systems, i.e., agroforestry, forestry and forest. The relict forest patches are subjected to deforestation due to anthropogenic pressure, hence in-situ and ex-situ conservation are required. Efforts are needed for plantation of ecologically suitable multipurpose tree species with indigenous species in the watershed. Technological interventions are also required to improve the quality and resistance against drought and climate change.


Vegetation analysis, Agroforestry, Forestry, Forest, Watershed, Lahaul valley, Cold desert, Indian Himalaya

Authors’ address

YS Rawat
SCR Vishvakarma
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora 263 643 Uttarakhand (India)
SS Oinam
JC Kuniyal
G.B. Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Himachal Unit, Mohal-Kullu 175 126 Himachal Pradesh (India)

Corresponding author



Rawat YS, Vishvakarma SCR, Oinam SS, Kuniyal JC (2010). Diversity, distribution and vegetation assessment in the Jahlmanal watershed in cold desert of the Lahaul valley, north-western Himalaya, India. iForest 3: 65-71. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0532-003

Paper history

Received: Dec 24, 2009
Accepted: Apr 21, 2010

First online: May 17, 2010
Publication Date: May 17, 2010
Publication Time: 0.87 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 56033
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 48117
Abstract Page Views: 2466
PDF Downloads: 4521
Citation/Reference Downloads: 20
XML Downloads: 909

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 5121
Overall contacts: 56033
Avg. contacts per week: 76.59

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2010): 5
Average cites per year: 0.36


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Anonymous (1993)
Action plan on cold desert: an integrated approach for sustainable development. Regional center, NAEB, UHF, Solan, pp. 1-40.
Anonymous (1995)
Annual report. G.B. Plant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development, Kosi-Katarmal, Almora (India), pp. 55-56.
Aswal BS, Goel AK (1989)
Alpine flora in west Himalayan mountain of India: a curious view. Himalayan Research and Development 8: 10-13.
Aswal BS, Mehrotra BN (1994)
Flora of Lahual-Spiti. A cold desert in north west Himalaya. Bishen Singh, Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehradun, India, pp. 10-15.
Curtis JT (1959)
The vegetation of Wisconsin: an ordination of plant communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Winconsin, USA.
Curtis JT, Cottom G (1956)
Plant ecology workbook. Laboratory field production in <i>Andropogon gerardi</i>. Ecology 31: 488-489.
Curtis JT, McIntosh RR (1950)
The interrelations of certain analytic and synthetic phytosociological characters. Ecology 46: 84-89.
Dhar U, Vir J, Kachroo P (1994)
Ladhak: an update on natural resources. In: “High altitudes of the Himalaya - Biogeography, ecology and conservation” (Pangety YPS, Rawal RS eds). pp. 102-114.
Harcourt AFP (1870)
The Himalayan district of Koloo, Lahaul and Spiti. Vivek Publishing House (reprint 1972), Delhi, India, pp. 74.
Issermann M (2005)
Soil pH and species diversity in coastal dunes. Plant Ecology 178:111-120.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kershaw KK (1973)
Quantitative and dynamic plant ecology. ELBS and Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd. London, pp. 308.
Knight DH (1963)
A distance method for constructing forest profile diagram and obtaining structural data. Tropical Ecology 4: 89-94.
Kuniyal CP, Rawat YS, Oinam SS, Kuniyal JC, Vishvakarma SCR (2005)
Kuth (<i>Saussurea lappa</i>) cultivation in the cold desert environment of the Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India: arising threats and need to revive socio-economic. Biodiversity and Conservation 14 (5): 1035-1045.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kuniyal CP, Vishvakarma SCR, Kuniyal JC, Singh GS (2002)
Seabuckthorn (<i>Hippophae L</i>). A promising plant for land-restoration in the cold desert Himalayas. In: “Proceedings of International Workshop on Seabuckthorn” (Singh V, Khosla PK eds). Feb. 18-21 2002, New Delhi, India, pp. 1-6.
Kuniyal JC, Vishvakarma SCR, Singh GS (2004)
Changing crop biodiversity and resource use efficiency of traditional versus introduced crops in cold desert of north-western Indian Himalaya: a case of Lahaul valley. Biodiversity and Conservation 13 (7): 1271-1304.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Mac Arthur RH (1965)
Pattern of species diversity. Biological Review 40: 510-533.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Maikhuri RK, Semwal RL, Rao KS, Singh K, Saxena KG (2000)
Growth and ecological impacts of traditional agroforestry tree species in central Himalaya, India. Agroforestry Systems 48: 257-272.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Monk CD (1967)
Tree species diversity in the eastern deciduous forest with particular references to north central Florida. American Naturalist 10: 173-187.
Nautiyal AR, Negi GCS (1994)
Multipurpose tree species with potential for introduction in agroforestry system in Himalayan mountains. In: “Agroforestry system for degraded lands” (Singh P, Pathak PS, Roze MM eds). Oxford & IBH publishing co-pvt-Ltd, New Delhi, India, pp. 269-278.
Oinam SS, Rawat YS, Khoiyangbam RS, Khwairakpam G, Kuniyal JC, Vishvakarma SCR (2005)
Land use and land cover changes in Jahlma watershed of the Lahaul valley, India. Journal of Mountain Science 2 (2): 129-136.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Phillips EA (1959)
Methods of vegetation study. Henry Holt and Co. Inc., New York, USA.
Pielou EC (1966)
The measurement of diversity in different types of biological collections. Journal Theoretical Biology 13: 131-144.
Rao KS, Maikhuri RK (1996)
Agroforestry for sustainable development of rural people ecosystem of central Himalaya. Proceedings of the “IUFRO-DNAES international meeting on resource inventory techniques to support agroforestry and environment activities” (Kohali RK, Arya KS eds). Dyanand National Academy of Environmental Science, DAV. Collage. Chandigarh (India) Oct 1-3 1996, pp. 301-305.
Rawat YS, Oinam SS, Vishvakarma SCR, Kuniyal JC (2004)
<i>Saussurea costus</i> (Falc.) Lipsch: a promising medicinal crop under cold desert agro-ecosystem in north-western Himalaya. Indian Journal of Forestry 27 (3): 297-303.
Rawat YS, Oinam SS, Vishvakarma SCR, Kuniyal CP, Kuniyal JC (2006)
Willow (<i>Salix fragilis</i> Linn.): a multipurpose tree species under pest attack in the cold desert of Lahaul valley, north-western Himalaya, India. Ambio 35 (1): 43-48.
Rawat YS (2006)
Vegetational analysis, socio-economic and cultural aspects of <i>Salix</i> sp. in cold desert environment of the Lahaul valley, north-western Himalaya (HP). Ph.D. Thesis, Garhwal University, Srinagar Garhwal, UK-India, pp. xiii+270.
Risser PG, Rice EL (1971)
Diversity in tree species in Oklahoma upland forest species. Ecology 52: 876-880.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Rongsen L (1992)
Seabuckthorn: a multipurpose plant species for fragile mountains. International centre for integrated mountain development (ICIMOD), Occasional Paper No. 20, Kathmandu, Nepal, pp.1-62.
Saxena AK, Singh JS (1982)
A phytosociological analysis of woody species in forest communities of a part of Kumaun Himalaya. Vegetatio 50: 3-32.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Shannon CE, Weiner W (1963)
The mathematical theory of communication. University Illinois Press, Urbana, USA, pp.17.
Simpson EH (1949)
Measurement of diversity. Nature 163: 668.
Singh GS, Ram SC, Kuniyal JC (1997)
Changing traditional land use patterns in the Great Himalayas: a case study of Lahaul Valley. Journal of Environmental Systems 25 (2): 195-211.
Singh JS, Singh SP (1987)
Forest vegetation of the Himalaya. Botanical Review 52: 82-192.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Snedecor GW, Cochran WG (1968)
Statistical methods. Oxford and IBH publishing Co., New Delhi, India.
Sood SK, Nath R, Kalia DC (2001)
Ethnobotany of cold desert tribes of Lahaul-Spiti (NW, Himalaya). Deep Publication, New Delhi, India, pp. 228.
Tiwari JC, Singh SP (1985)
Analysis of woody vegetation in a mixed Oak forest of Kumaon Himalaya. Proc. Indian Sci. Acad. 332-345.
Vishvakarma SCR, Kuniyal JC, Singh GS (1998)
Indigenous agroforestry system of north western Himalaya. Research for mountain development: some initiative and accomplishment. Gyanodaya Prakashan, Nainital, Uttarakhand, India, pp. 99-118.
Vishvakarma SCR, Rawat YS, Oinam SS, Kuniyal JC (2005a)
Irrigation (Kuhls): a community management system in cold desert of the Lahaul valley, northwestern Himalaya, India. In: Proceedings of the “Third international seminar on farmer managed irrigation systems and governance alternatives” (Pradhan P, Gautam U eds). Kathmandu (Nepal), Sep 9-10 2004, pp. 425-444.
Vishvakarma, SCR, Kuniyal JC, Rawat YS, Oinam SS (2005b)
Impact of anthropogenic activities on Bio-resource in cold desert of Lahaul valley, north-western Himalaya. Submitted to the Ministry of Environment & Forests, New Delhi, India. F. No. 10/35/99-CS/BR of 10<sup>th</sup> April 2000, pp. 190.
Watt G (1981)
Notes on vegetation of Chamba state and British Lahul. J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 18: 368-382.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Whittaker RH (1965)
Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147: 250-260.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Whittaker RH (1975)
Communities and ecosystem (2<sup>nd</sup> edn). Macmillan publishing Co. New York, pp. 385.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info