iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Frost damage to eucalypts in a short-rotation forestry trial in Cumbria (England)

Andrew D Leslie (1)   , Maurizio Mencuccini (2), Mike Perks (3)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 7, Issue 3, Pages 156-161 (2014)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1161-007
Published: Jan 23, 2014 - Copyright © 2014 SISEF

Research Articles

Cold is the main climatic constraint to planting eucalypts in Britain and the winter of 2009-2010, the coldest in thirty years, proved particularly challenging for their survival. Damage to transplants planted in May 2009 of two species of eucalypts, Eucalyptus gunnii and Eucalyptus nitens, were assessed over the winter of 2009/2010 at a trial in Cumbria, northern England. Larger trees were found to have exhibited less cold damage by the end of January 2010, but by May there were no significant differences in survival due to tree size. By late January, there were statistically significant differences in damage between E. gunnii and E. nitens with the former being more cold tolerant. However, damage at the end of January, after minimum temperatures of -14 oC, did not appear serious, yet by May the survival of E. gunnii was 37% and for E. nitens was less than 1%. As larger trees exhibited relatively less frost damage it is recommended that intensive silviculture be practiced to ensure trees are between 1 and 1.5 m tall prior to their first winter to reduce the extent of damage through frost.


Frost, Cold, Eucalyptus, England

Authors’ address

Andrew D Leslie
National School of Forestry, University of Cumbria, Penrith Campus, Newton Rigg, CA11 0AH Penrith, England (UK)
Maurizio Mencuccini
School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Crew Building, The King’s Buildings, West Mains Road, EH9 3JN Edinburgh, Scotland (UK)
Mike Perks
Centre for Forestry and Climate Change, Forest Research Northern Research Station, EH25 9SY Roslin Midlothian, Scotland (UK)

Corresponding author

Andrew D Leslie


Leslie AD, Mencuccini M, Perks M (2014). Frost damage to eucalypts in a short-rotation forestry trial in Cumbria (England). iForest 7: 156-161. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1161-007

Academic Editor

Marco Borghetti

Paper history

Received: Oct 22, 2013
Accepted: Jan 13, 2014

First online: Jan 23, 2014
Publication Date: Jun 02, 2014
Publication Time: 0.33 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 48077
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 40043
Abstract Page Views: 3257
PDF Downloads: 3550
Citation/Reference Downloads: 21
XML Downloads: 1206

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 3769
Overall contacts: 48077
Avg. contacts per week: 89.29

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2014): 4
Average cites per year: 0.40


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Almeira MH, Chavez MM, Silva JC (1994)
Cold acclimation in eucalypt hybrids. Tree Physiology 14: 921-932.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Beadle CL, Honeysett JL, Turnbull CRA, White DA (1995)
Site limits to achieving genetic potential. Eucalypt plantations: Improving Fibre yield and quality. Theme 5, Ensuring sustainable production, CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry. IUFRO, Hobart, Tasmania, pp. 325-330.
Booth T, Pryor L (1991)
Climatic requirements of some commercially important eucalypt species. Forest Ecology and Management 43: 47-60.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Boyce RL, Lucero SA (1994)
Role of roots in winter water relations of Engelmann spruce saplings. Tree Physiology 19: 893-898.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (2013)
Soil data sheet for the Newton Rigg trial. Internal report, CEH - Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Penicuik, Midlothian, UK, pp. 1.
Close DC, Beadle CL (2003)
The ecophysiology of foliar anthocyanin. The Botanical Review 69 (2): 149-161.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Close DC, Beadle CL, Battaglia M (2004)
Foliar anthocyanin accumulation may be a useful indicator of hardiness in eucalypt seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 198: 169-181.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Cochrane PM, Slayter RO (1988)
Water relations of Eucalyptus pauciflora near the alpine tree line in winter. Tree Physiology 4: 45-52.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Commonwealth Government of Australia (1999)
Comprehensive Regional Assessment, World Heritage Sub-theme: Eucalypt-dominated vegetation. Report of the Expert Workshop, Canberra (Australia) 8-9 March 1999.
Online | Gscholar
Cope M, Leslie AD, Weatherall A (2008)
The potential suitability of provenances of Eucalyptus gunnii for short rotation forestry in the UK. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 102 (3): 185-194.
Davidson NJ, Battaglia M, Beadle C (1995)
Photosynthesis of Eucalyptus nitens is reduced by mild frosts in Eucalypt plantations: improving Fibre yield and quality. CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry, IUFRO, Hobart, Tasmania, pp. 339-343.
Davidson NJ, Reid JB (1987)
The influence of hardening and waterlogging on the frost resistance of subalpine eucalypts. Australian Journal of Botany 35: 91-101.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Evans J (1986)
A re-assessment of cold-hardy eucalypts in Great Britain. Forestry 59 (2): 223-242.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hamilton MG, Potts BM (2008)
Eucalyptus nitens genetic parameters. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science 38 (1), p102-119.
Hardcastle PD (2006)
A review of the impacts of short-rotation forestry. Final report on SRF, LTS International Inc., Penicuik, Scotland, UK, pp. 168.
Online | Gscholar
Hovenden MJ, Warren CR (1998)
Phytochemistry, energy dissipation and cold hardening in Eucalyptus nitens and E. pauciflora. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 25: 581-589.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Kerr G, Evans J (2011)
Eucalypts for short rotation forestry: a case study from the 1980s. Quarterly Journal of Forestry 105 (2): 109-117.
King DA, Ball MC (1998)
A model of frost impacts on seasonal photosynthesis of Eucalyptus pauciflora. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 25: 27-37.
Leslie AD, Mencuccini M, Perks M (2012)
The potential for Eucalyptus as a wood fuel in the UK. Applied Energy 89 (1): 176-182.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Met Office (2010)
Coldest UK winter for over 30 years, 1 March 2010. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Met Office (2011a)
Winter 2009/10. Web site.
Online | Gscholar
Met Office (2011b)
Summer 2009. Web Site
Online | Gscholar
Paton DM (1983)
Physiology of frost resistance in Eucalyptus. In: “Collogue International sur les eucalypts au froid”. Nangis (France) 26-30 September 1983. AFOCEL, Nangis, France, pp. 107-125.
Pearce RS (2001)
Plant freezing and damage, botanical briefing. Annals of Botany 87: 417-424.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Perks MP, Osborne BA, Mitchell DT (2004)
Rapid predictions of cold-tolerance in Douglas-fir seedlings using chlorophyll fluorescence after freezing. New Forests 28: 49-62.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Potts BM (1985)
Variation in the Eucalyptus gunnii-archeri complex. III. Reciprocal transplant trials. Australian Journal of Botany 33: 687-704.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Potts BM, Reid JB (1985a)
Variation in the Eucalyptus gunnii-archeri complex. I. Variation in the adult phenotype. Australian Journal of Botany 33: 337-359.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Potts BM, Reid JB (1985b)
Variation in the Eucalyptus gunnii-archeri complex. II. The Origin of variation. Australian Journal of Botany 33: 519-541.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Prior J, Kendon M (2011)
The UK winter of 2009/2010 compared with severe winters of the last 100 years. Weather 66 (1): 4-10.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Pryor LD (1976)
The biology of eucalypts. Studies in Biology No. 61, Edward Arnold, London, UK.
Purse JG, Richardson KF (2001)
Short rotation single stem tree crops for energy in the UK - an examination with Eucalyptus. Aspects of Applied Biology 65: 1-8.
Online | Gscholar
Read DJ, Freer-Smith PH, Morison JIL, Hanley N, West CC, Snowdon P (2009)
Combating climate change - a role for UK forests. An assessment of the potential of the UK’s trees and woodlands to mitigate and adapt to climate change. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, UK.
Scarascia-Mugnozza G, Valentiny R, Kuzminsky E, Giordano E (1989)
Freezing mechanisms, acclimation processes and cold injury in Eucalyptus species planted in the Mediterranean Region. Forest Ecology and Management 29: 81-94.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Tibbits WN, Reid JB (1987)
Frost resistance in Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden: Genetic and seasonal aspects of variation. Australian Journal of Forest Research 17: 29-47.
Tibbits WN, Hodge GR (2003)
Genetic parameters for cold hardiness in Eucalyptus nitens (Deane and Maiden) Maiden. Silvae Genetica 52 (3-4): 89-97.
Valentini R, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Giordano E, Kuzminsky E (1990)
Influence of cold hardening on water relations of three eucalypt species. Tree Physiology 6: 1-10.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info