iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


The effect of soil conditions on submountain site suitability for Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) in Central Europe

Pavel Samec (1)   , Jirí Volánek (1), Ladislav Holík (1), Petra Rychtecká (2), Marie Balková (1), Valerie Vranová (1)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 16, Issue 4, Pages 210-217 (2023)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor4262-016
Published: Jul 31, 2023 - Copyright © 2023 SISEF

Research Articles

Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) occurred rarely at submountain altitudes before reaching its present position as the most important economic tree species in Central Europe. Spruce cultivation outside of natural sites is under constant threat from harmful agents. In this study, we focused on the indication of potentially suitable planting sites for Norway spruce in areas of protected submountain (< 700 m a.s.l) populations using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) of soil properties in oak-beech, mixed and spruce stands in the territory of the Czech Republic. The soil A-horizon properties in mixed stands were more similar to those in spruce than in broadleaved stands; stand mixtures resulted in lower soil property separability than the localization of individual populations (57% and 85%, respectively). The suitable sites were defined by acid phosphomonoesterase > 151 µg hour-1, soil porosity > 63%, aeration > 53%, bulk density < 0.86 g cm-3, cation exchange capacity < 18 cmol+ kg-1, Corg< 9% and Ntot< 0.5% in clusters comprising the Bohemian highlands, North Bohemian rock cities and the Outer Western Carpathians. The LDA of soil properties offered a useful tool for assessing both naturalness and forest threats to support sustainable management.


Site Series, Spruce Cultivation, Soil Organic Matter, Extracellular Enzyme Activity

Authors’ address

Pavel Samec 0000-0002-8152-1603
Jirí Volánek 0000-0003-3629-4971
Ladislav Holík 0000-0002-2357-9487
Marie Balková 0000-0003-4796-4491
Valerie Vranová 0000-0003-0931-2345
Department of Geology and Soil Science, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Zemedelská 3, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)
Petra Rychtecká 0009-0007-2797-7195
Department of Forest Botany, Dendrology and Geobiocoenology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Technology, Mendel University, Zemedelská 3, CZ-613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

Corresponding author

Pavel Samec


Samec P, Volánek J, Holík L, Rychtecká P, Balková M, Vranová V (2023). The effect of soil conditions on submountain site suitability for Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) in Central Europe. iForest 16: 210-217. - doi: 10.3832/ifor4262-016

Academic Editor

Luigi Saulino

Paper history

Received: Nov 10, 2022
Accepted: May 22, 2023

First online: Jul 31, 2023
Publication Date: Aug 31, 2023
Publication Time: 2.33 months

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