iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


The importance of tree species and size for the epiphytic bromeliad Fascicularia bicolor in a South-American temperate rainforest (Chile)

Gabriel Ortega-Solís (1-5)   , Iván Díaz (2), Daniela Mellado-Mansilla (2), Ricardo Moreno-González (3), Javier Godoy (2), Horacio Samaniego (4)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 92-97 (2020)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor2710-013
Published: Mar 10, 2020 - Copyright © 2020 SISEF

Short Communications

Bromeliads are a numerous family of vascular epiphytes, though only one epiphytic species inhabits South-American temperate rainforests: the endemic Fascicularia bicolor. This bromeliad is an important driver of canopy biodiversity, but attributes of its hosts are mostly unknown. Here we report (i) the tree species colonized by F. bicolor, (ii) the relationship between tree size and presence of F. bicolor and (iii) the relation between tree size and the number of mats of F. bicolor inhabiting each colonized tree. We sampled 231 trees in seven forest plots recording their species, diameter, heights, and the number of F. bicolor mats growing on them. The dataset was analyzed with a zero-inflated model to relate host tree attributes with F. bicolor occurrence and abundance in a single statistical approach. The occurrence and abundance of F. bicolor depend on host-species identity and diameter. F. bicolor colonization in slow-growing trees started at smaller DBH than that required for other tree species. Nonetheless, the overall occurrence of F. bicolor relies on large trees above 50 cm DBH for most host species. The number of mats occurring on each colonized tree depends on the interaction between tree height and species suggesting the importance of space available for colonization along the tree-trunk, and differential effects due to species’ traits. Currently, large trees and old-growth forests are scarce within the distribution range of F. bicolor, which could seriously affect the long-term conservation of this endemic epiphyte, along with the canopy properties and species associated with it.


Forest Canopy, Epiphytes, Bromeliads, South American Temperate Forests

Authors’ address

Gabriel Ortega-Solís 0000-0002-0516-5694
Unidad de Gestión Ambiental, Dirección de Servicios, Vicerrectoría de Gestión Económica y Administrativa, Universidad Austral de Chile, Las Encinas 220, Valdivia (Chile)
Iván Díaz 0000-0002-0679-9576
Daniela Mellado-Mansilla
Javier Godoy
Laboratorio de Biodiversidad y Ecología del Dosel, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia 641, Valdivia (Chile)
Ricardo Moreno-González 0000-0002-7407-4542
Department of Palynology and Climate Dynamics, Albrecht-von-Haller-Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Göttingen, Untere Karspüle 2, 37073 Göttingen (Germany)
Horacio Samaniego 0000-0002-2485-9827
Laboratorio de Ecoinformática, Instituto de Conservación, Biodiversidad y Territorio, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia 641, Valdivia (Chile)
Gabriel Ortega-Solís 0000-0002-0516-5694
Escuela de Graduados, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales, Universidad Austral de Chile, Independencia 641, Valdivia (Chile)

Corresponding author

Gabriel Ortega-Solís


Ortega-Solís G, Díaz I, Mellado-Mansilla D, Moreno-González R, Godoy J, Samaniego H (2020). The importance of tree species and size for the epiphytic bromeliad Fascicularia bicolor in a South-American temperate rainforest (Chile). iForest 13: 92-97. - doi: 10.3832/ifor2710-013

Academic Editor

Michele Carbognani

Paper history

Received: Dec 08, 2017
Accepted: Jan 04, 2020

First online: Mar 10, 2020
Publication Date: Apr 30, 2020
Publication Time: 2.20 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 32119
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 27705
Abstract Page Views: 2149
PDF Downloads: 1716
Citation/Reference Downloads: 0
XML Downloads: 549

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1530
Overall contacts: 32119
Avg. contacts per week: 146.95

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2020): 2
Average cites per year: 0.50


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Angelini C, Silliman BR (2014)
Secondary foundation species as drivers of trophic and functional diversity: evidence from a tree-epiphyte system. Ecology 95: 185-196.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Brooks ME, Kristensen K, Benthem KJ, Magnusson A, Berg CW, Nielsen A, Skaug HJ, Mächler M, Bolker BM (2017)
glmmTMB balances speed and flexibility among packages for zero-inflated generalized linear mixed modeling. The R Journal 9 (2): 378.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Burnham KP, Anderson D (2004)
Model selection and multimodel inference (Burnham KP, Anderson DR eds). Springer, New York, USA, pp. 488.
Online | Gscholar
Cascante-Marín A, Wolf JHD, Oostermeijer JGB, Den Nijs JCM, Sanahuja O, Durán-Apuy A (2006)
Epiphytic bromeliad communities in secondary and mature forest in a tropical premontane area. Basic and Applied Ecology 7: 520-532.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Comisión de Evaluación Ambiental (2011)
Calificación ambiental de proyecto Parque Eólico San Pedro [Environmental evaluation of the San Pedro Wind Farm project]. Resolución exenta No. 351. Puerto Montt, Chile, pp. 70. [in Spanish]
Online | Gscholar
CONAF (1999)
Proyecto catastro y evaluación de los recursos vegetacionales nativos de Chile [Cadastre and evaluation of Chile’s native vegetation resources project]. Corporación Nacional Forestal - CONAF, Santiago, Chile, pp. 87.
Díaz IA, Sieving KE, Peña-Foxon ME, Larraín J, Armesto JJ (2010)
Epiphyte diversity and biomass loads of canopy emergent trees in Chilean temperate rainforests: a neglected functional component. Forest Ecology and Management 259 (8): 1490-1501.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Donoso C (2006)
Las especies arbóreas de los bosques templados de Chile y Argentina: autoecología [The arboreal species of the temperate forest of Chile and Argentina: autoecology]. Marisa Cuneo Ediciones, Valdivia, Chile, pp. 678. [in Spanish]
Donoso Zegers C (2015)
Estructura y dinámica de los bosques del Cono Sur de América [Structure and dynamics of the forests of the Southern Cone of America]. Ed. Univ. Mayor, Santiago, Chile, pp. 405. [in Spanish]
Online | Gscholar
Flores-Palacios A, García-Franco JG (2006)
The relationship between tree size and epiphyte species richness: testing four different hypotheses. Journal of Biogeography 33: 323-330.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Gutiérrez AG, Huth A (2012)
Successional stages of primary temperate rainforests of Chiloé Island, Chile. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 14 (4): 243-256.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hietz P, Winkler M, Scheffknecht S, Hülber K (2012)
Germination of epiphytic Bromeliads In forests and coffee plantations: microclimate and substrate effects. Biotropica 44: 197-204.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Hora B, Marchant C (2016)
When a private park supports the local economy. In: “Investing in sustainable mountain development: Opportunities, resources and benefits” (Wymann von Dach S, Bachmann F, Borsdorf A, Kohler T, Jurek M, Sharma eds). Centre for Development and Environment (CDE), University of Bern, Switzerland, pp. 3.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ishii HR, Minamino T, Azuma W, Hotta K, Nakanishi A (2018)
Large, retained trees of Cryptomeria japonica functioned as refugia for canopy woody plants after logging 350 years ago in Yakushima, Japan. Forest Ecology and Management. 409: 457-467.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lindenmayer DB, Laurance WF (2017)
The ecology, distribution, conservation and management of large old trees. Biological Reviews 92 (3): 1434-1458.
CrossRef | Gscholar
López-Villalobos A, Flores-Palacios A, Ortiz-Pulido R (2008)
The relationship between bark peeling rate and the distribution and mortality of two epiphyte species. Plant Ecology 198: 265-274.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lusk CH (1999)
Long-lived light-demanding emergents in southern temperate forests: the case of Weinmannia trichosperma (Cunoniaceae) in Chile. Plant Ecology 140: 111-115.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Merwin MC, Rentmeester SA, Nadkarni NM (2003)
The influence of host tree species on the distribution of epiphytic bromeliads in experimental monospecific plantations, La Selva, Costa Rica. Biotropica 35: 37-47.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Moorman M, Donoso PJ, Moore SE, Sink S, Frederick D (2013)
Sustainable protected area management: the case of Llancahue, a highly valued periurban forest in Chile. Journal of Sustainable Forestry 32: 783-805.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Muñoz AA, Chacón P, Pérez F, Barnert ES, Armesto JJ (2003)
Diversity and host tree preferences of vascular epiphytes and vines in a temperate rainforest in southern Chile. Australian Journal of Botany 51 (4): 381-391.
Online | Gscholar
Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Da Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000)
Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403: 853-858.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Ortega-Solís G, Díaz I, Mellado-Mansilla D, Tello F, Moreno R, Tejo C (2017)
Ecosystem engineering by Fascicularia bicolor in the canopy of the South-American temperate rainforest. Forest Ecology and Management 400: 417-428.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Paggi G, Sampaio J, Bruxel M, Zanella C, Göetze M, Büttow MV, Palma-Silva C, Bered F, Alves J (2010)
Seed dispersal and population structure in Vriesea gigantea, a bromeliad from the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 164: 317-325.
CrossRef | Gscholar
R Core Team (2019)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
Ramírez C, Hauenstein E, Martín JS, Contreras D (1989)
Study of the flora of Rucamanque, Cautin Province, Chile. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 76: 444-453.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Sillett SC, Van Pelt R (2007)
Structure of an old-growth redwood forest: trunk reiteration and limb formation promote epiphytes, soil development, and water storage in the canopy. Ecological Monographs 77: 335-359.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Taylor A, Burns K (2015)
Epiphyte community development throughout tree ontogeny: an island ontogeny framework. Journal of Vegetation Science 26: 902-910.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Vera A, Schapheer C (2018)
Austroectobius invunche: new genus and species of Ectobiidae for Chile (Insecta, Blattaria). Zootaxa 4500: 115-125.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Woda C, Huber A, Dohrenbusch A (2006)
Vegetación epifita y captación de neblina en bosques siempreverdes en la Cordillera Pelada, sur de Chile [Epiphytic vegetation and fog capture in evergreen forests at the Cordillera Pelada, southern Chile]. Bosque 27: 231-240. [in Spanish]
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zizka G, Horres R, Nelson EC, Weising K (1999)
Revision of the genus Fascicularia Mez (Bromeliaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 129: 315-332.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zizka G, Schmidt M, Schulte K, Novoa P, Pinto R, König K (2009)
Chilean Bromeliaceae: diversity, distribution and evaluation of conservation status. Biodiversity and Conservation 18: 2449-2471.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Zotz G (2013)
The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes-a critical update. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 171: 453-481.
CrossRef | Gscholar

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info