*

Does higher owner participation increase conflicts over common land? An analysis of communal forests in Galicia (Spain)

Manuel Francisco Marey-Pérez   , Emilio Díaz-Varela, Alexia Calvo-González

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 8, Issue 4, Pages 533-543 (2014)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1060-008
Published: Dec 01, 2014 - Copyright © 2014 SISEF

Research Articles


Communal forests or Montes Vecinales en Mano Común (MVMC) are a type of private collective land in Galicia (NW of Spain) that amounts to approximately one third of its forest land. There has been a series of changes in MVMC ownership and management throughout the 20th century. Uncertainty about ownership, changes in population and the presence of the Forestry Authority bring about deficiencies in management and increases conflict. This paper analyses MVMC management in 1.731 parishes in Galicia. The digital records of local and regional newspapers were used to compile a database consisting of 2.734 news reports related to MVMC issues. The results of hypothesis testing and of spatial analysis show that population, agricultural activity and land use affect management and conflict rates. This paper discusses how active management and conflict are complementary models, and how the presence or absence of one or the other is a determining factor in the situation of each parish. It concludes that it is necessary to implement management models and strategies to minimise conflict and increase active management for sustainable forest development in the region.

  Keywords


Commonly-owned Private Property, Communal Forests, Media, Social Participation, Management Models

Authors’ address

(1)
Manuel Francisco Marey-Pérez
Emilio Díaz-Varela
Alexia Calvo-González
Escola Politécnica Superior, Dept. Agroforestry Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, E-27002 Lugo (Spain)

Corresponding author

 
Manuel Francisco Marey-Pérez
manuel.marey@usc.es

Citation

Marey-Pérez MF, Díaz-Varela E, Calvo-González A (2014). Does higher owner participation increase conflicts over common land? An analysis of communal forests in Galicia (Spain). iForest 8: 533-543. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1060-008

Academic Editor

Raffaele Lafortezza

Paper history

Received: Jun 27, 2013
Accepted: Oct 16, 2014

First online: Dec 01, 2014
Publication Date: Aug 02, 2015
Publication Time: 1.53 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 8123
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 5756
Abstract Page Views: 185
PDF Downloads: 1631
Citation/Reference Downloads: 42
XML Downloads: 509

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1750
Overall contacts: 8123
Avg. contacts per week: 32.49

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2015): 1
Average cites per year: 0.20

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Aasetre J (2006)
Perceptions of communication in Norwegian forest management. Forest Policy and Economics 8: 81-92.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
AIMC (2009)
Estudio General de Medios (EGM) [General Media Survey (EGM)]. AIMC - Asociación para la Investigación de Medios de Comunicación, Madrid, Spain, pp. 14. [in Spanish]
Gscholar
(3)
Alberich T (2002)
Participación ciudadana [Citizen participation]. In: “Diccionario critico de Ciencias Sociales” (Reyes R ed).
Online | Gscholar
(4)
Atmis E, Özden S, Lise W (2007)
Public participation in forestry in Turkey. Ecological Economics 62: 352-359.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Balboa López X, Besteiro Rodríguez B, Fernández Leiceaga X, Fernández Prieto L, Jordán Rodríguez M, López Iglesias E, Soto Fernández D, Viso Outeiriño P (2006)
Os Montes Veciñais en man Común: o patrimonio silente. Natureza, economía, identidade e democracia na Galicia rural [The Communal forests: a silent heritage. Nature, economy, identity and democracy in rural Galicia]. Edicións Xerais de Galicia, Vigo, Spain, pp. 520. [in Galician]
Gscholar
(6)
Barli O, Baskent EZ, Turker MF, Gedik T (2006)
Analytical approach for analyzing and providing solutions for the conflicts among forest stakeholders across Turkey. Forest Policy and Economics 9: 219-236.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(7)
Barros C (1999)
De rural a rururbano: transformaciones territoriales y construcción de lugares al sudoeste del área metropolitana de Buenos Aires [From rural to rururban: territorial transformations and construction of places to the southwest of the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires]. Revista Electrónica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales 45: 51-53. [in Spanish]
Gscholar
(8)
Bengston DN, Fan DP (1999)
Conflict over natural resource management: a social indicator based on analysis of online news media text. Society and Natural Resources 12: 493-500.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Bogale A, Taeb M, Endo M (2006)
Land ownership and conflicts over the use of resources: implication for household vulnerability in eastern Ethiopia. Ecological Economics 58: 134-145.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(10)
Bouhier MA (1979)
La Galice. Essai géographique d’analyse et d’interpretation d’un vieux complexe agraire [Galicia. Proof of geographic analysis and interpretation of an old agricultural complex]. La Roche-sur-Yon, Imp. Yonnaise, Poitiers, France, pp. 1526. [in French]
Gscholar
(11)
Bojórquez-Tapia LA, De la Cueva H, Díaz S, Melgarejo D, Alcantar G, Solares MJ, Grobet G, Cruz-Bello G (2004)
Environmental conflicts and nature reserves: redesigning Sierra San Pedro Mártir National Park, México. Biological Conservation 117: 111-126.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(12)
Brehm J (2007)
Community attachment: the complexity and consequence of the natural environment facet. Human Ecology 35: 477-488.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Brett M (2005)
An economic theory of infrastructure and commons management. Minnesota Law Review 89: 917-1030.
Gscholar
(14)
Cantiani MG (2012)
Forest planning and public participation: a possible methodological approach. iForest 5:72-82.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(15)
Carver A, Thurau R, White E, Laznidis M (2006)
Applying spatial analysis to forest policy evaluation: case study of the Illinois Forestry Development Act. Environmental Science and Policy 9: 253-260.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(16)
Chambers JM, Trevor J (1992)
Statistical Models in S. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA, pp. 624.
Gscholar
(17)
Chas Amil M (2007)
Forest fires in Galicia (Spain): threats and challenges for the future. Journal of Forest Economics 13: 1-5.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
De Jong W, Ruiz S, Becker M (2006)
Conflicts and communal forest management in northern Bolivia. Forest Policy and Economics 8: 447-457.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
De Moor T, Bravo G (2008)
The commons in Europe: from past to future. International Journal of the Commos 2 (2): 155-161.
Gscholar
(20)
Díaz Fuentes A (1999)
Montes Vecinales en Mano Común [Communal forests]. Bosch, Barcelona, Spain, pp. 386. [in Spanish]
Gscholar
(21)
Dietz T, Ostrom E, Stern P (2003)
The struggle to govern the commons. Science 302 (5652): 1907-1912.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(22)
Djamhuri TL (2008)
Community participation in a social forestry program in Central Java, Indonesia: the effect of incentive structure and social capital. Agroforest System 74: 83-96.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
DOG (1989)
Lei 13/1989 do 10 de outubro de Montes Veciñais en Man Común [Law no13 of 1989 of 10 October of Communal Forests]. Diario Oficial de Galicia no. 202, Xunta de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, pp. 15. [in Galician]
Gscholar
(24)
Druckman D (2005)
Doing research. Methods of inquiry for conflict analysis. SAGE Publications Inc., London, UK, pp. 387.
Gscholar
(25)
Elands HM, Oleary T, Boerwinkel H, Wiersum F (2004)
Forests as a mirror of rural conditions: local views on the role of forests across Europe. Forest Policy and Economics 5: 469-482.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(26)
Elsasser P (2002)
Rules for participation and negotiation and their possible influence on the content of a national forest program. Forest Policy and Economics 4: 291-300.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Fandiño M, Álvarez C, Ramos R, Marey MF (2006)
Agricultural cooperatives as transforming agents in rural development. The case of Galicia. Outlook on Agriculture 35 (2): 191-197.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Fernandes PM (2008)
Forest fires in Galicia (Spain): the outcome of unbalanced fire management. Journal of Forest Economics 14: 155-157.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Fernández S, Marey MF, Crecente R, Rodríguez V (2006)
Is having a specific legal framework the only way for improving nowadays the management of communal lands? An analysis of the “Montes Veciñais en Man Común in Galicia NW Spain”. In: Proceedings of the “European Meeting of the International Association for the study of Common Property”. Brescia (Italy) 23-25 March 2006, pp. 1-16.
Gscholar
(30)
Glück P (2000)
Policy means for ensuring the full value of forests to society. Land Use Policy 17: 177-185.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Gobin A, Campling P, Feyen J (2001)
Logistic modelling to identify and monitor local land management systems. Agricultural Systems 67 (1): 1-20.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(32)
Gómez-Vázquez I, Álvarez-Álvarez P, Marey-Pérez MF (2009)
Conflicts as enhancers or barriers to the management of privately owned common land: A method to analyse the role of conflicts on a regional basis. Forest Policy and Economics 11: 617-627.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(33)
González XP, Marey MF, Alvarez CJ (2007)
Evaluation of productive rural land patterns with joint regard to the size, shape and dispersion of plots. Agricultural Systems 92: 52-62.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(34)
Gritten D, Saastamoinen O, Sajama S (2009)
Ethical analysis: a structured approach to facilitate the resolution of forest conflicts. Forest Policy and Economics 11 (8): 555-560.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(35)
Groome H (1990)
Historia de la Política Forestal en el Estado español [History of forest policy in the Spanish State]. Agencia del Medio Ambiente, Madrid, Spain, pp. 336.
Gscholar
(36)
GvSIG (2010)
SIG libre de la Generalitat Valenciana [Free GIS of Valencian Government]. Web Site. [in Spanish].
Online | Gscholar
(37)
Hellström E (2001)
Conflict cultures-qualitative comparative analysis of environmental conflicts in forestry. Silva Fennica Monographs 2, The Finnish Society of Forest Science, The Finnish Research Institute, Tampere, Finland, pp. 109.
Gscholar
(38)
Hickey GM, Innes JL, Kozak RA (2007)
Monitoring and information reporting for sustainable forest management: A regional comparison of forestry stakeholder perceptions. Journal of Environmental Management 84 (4): 572-585.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(39)
Hiltunen V, Kurttila M, Leskinen P, Pasanen K, Pykäläinen J (2009)
Mesta: an internet-based decision-support application for participatory strategic-level natural resources planning. Forest Policy and Economics 11: 1-9.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(40)
Hoogstra MA, Schanz H, Wiersum KF (2004)
The future of European forestry-between urbanization and rural development. Forest Policy and Economics 6: 441-445.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(41)
Hovardas T, Korfiatis KJ (2008)
Framing environmental policy by the local press: case study from the Dadia Forest Reserve, Greece. Forest Policy and Economics 10: 316-325.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(42)
Ibarra E, Hirakuri SR (2007)
Institutional conflict and forest policy effectiveness: the case of the Costa Rican institutional reform. Forest Policy and Economics 9: 591-601.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(43)
ILO (2000)
Public participation in forestry in Europe and North America: report of the team of specialists on participation in forestry. Report of the FAO/ECE/ILO Joint committee team of specialists on participation in forestry, WP 163, International Labour Office, Geneva, Switzerland, pp. 130.
Gscholar
(44)
INE (2008)
Padrón Municipal de Habitantes [Municipal Register of people]. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Madrid, Spain. [in Spanish]
Online | Gscholar
(45)
Janse G, Konijnendijk C (2007)
Communication between science, policy and citizens in public participation in urban forestry - experiences from the Neighbourwoods project. Urban Forestry and Urban Greening 6: 23-40.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(46)
Kangas J, Store R (2003)
Internet and teledemocracy in participatory planning of natural resources management. Landscape and Urban Planning 62: 89-101.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(47)
Kangas A, Saarinen N, Saarikoski H, Leskinen LA, Hujala T, Tikkanen J (2010)
Stakeholder perspectives about proper participation for Regional Forest Programmes in Finland. Forest Policy and Economics 12: 213-222.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(48)
Kumar P, Hate S, Chaturvedi A (2009)
Community based forest management and its impact on vegetation: a case study. iForest 2: 93-98.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(49)
Leiceaga X, López E, Jordán M, Besteiro B, Viso P, Balboa XL, Fernández L, Soto D (2006)
OsMontes Veciñais en Man Común: o patrimonio silente [The Communal forests: a silent heritage]. Grupo de Estudios da propiedade Comunal-IDEGA, Edicións Xerais de Galicia, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, pp. 325.
Gscholar
(50)
Lennox J, Proctor W, Russell S (2011)
Structuring stakeholder participation in New Zealand’s water resource governance. Ecological Economics 70: 1381-1394.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(51)
Lloret F, Calvo E, Pons X, Díaz-Delgado R (2002)
Wildfires and landscape patterns in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula. Landscape Ecology 17: 745-759.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(52)
Marey-Pérez MF (2003)
Tenencia de la tierra en Galicia: modelo para la caracterización de los propietarios forestales [Land tenure in Galicia: a model for the characterization of forest owners]. Doctoral Thesis, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, Spain, pp. 633.
Gscholar
(53)
Marey-Pérez MF, Rodríguez-Vicente V, Crecente Maseda R (2006)
Using GIS to measure changes in the temporal and spatial dynamics of forestland: experiences from north-west Spain. Forestry 79 (4): 409-423.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(54)
Marey-Pérez MF, Rodríguez-Vicente V (2008)
Forest transition in Northern Spain: local responses on large-scale programmes of field-afforestation. Land Use Policy 261: 139-156.
Gscholar
(55)
Marey-Pérez MF, Gómez-Vázquez I, Díaz-Varela ER (2010)
Different approaches to the social vision of communal land management: The case of Galicia (Spain). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 3: 848-863.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(56)
Maskey V, Gebremedhin TG, Dalton TJ (2006)
Social and cultural determinants of collective management of community forest in Nepal. Journal of Forest Economics 11: 261-274.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(57)
Matta JR, Alavalapati JRR (2006)
Perceptions of collective action and its success in community based natural resource management: an empirical analysis. Forest Policy and Economic 9: 274-284.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(58)
Mattson DJ, Hererro S, Wright RG, Pease CM (1996)
Science and management of Rocky Mountain grizzly bears. Conservation Biology 10:1013-1025.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(59)
McCallum DB, Hammond SL, Covello VT (1991)
Communicating about environmental risks: how the public uses and perceives information sources. Health Education Quarterly 18: 349-361.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(60)
Mei Szen MN, Sovacool BK (2013)
Of fast lanes, flora, and foreign workers: managing land use conflicts in Singapore. Land Use Policy 30: 167-176.
Gscholar
(61)
Meitner MJ, Ryan Gandy R, D’Eon RG (2005)
Human perceptions of forest fragmentation: implications for natural disturbance management. The Forestry Chronicle 81: 258-264.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(62)
Merlo M (1995)
Common property forest management in Northern Italy: a historical and socio-economic profile. Unasylva 180 (46): 58-63.
Gscholar
(63)
Mermoz M, Kitzberger T, Veblen TT (2005)
Landscape influences on occurrence and spread of wildfires in Patagonian forests and shrublands. Ecology 86: 2705-2715.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(64)
Miserendino ML, Masi CI (2010)
The effects of land use on environmental features and functional organization of macroinvertebrate communities in Patagonian low order streams. Ecological Indicators 10 (2): 311-319.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(65)
Montiel Molina C (2007)
Cultural heritage, sustainable forest management and property in inland Spain. Forest Ecology and Management 249: 80-90.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(66)
Niemelä J, Young J, Alard D, Askasivar M, Henle K, Jhonson R, Kurttila M, Larsson T, Matouch S, Nowick P, Paiva R, Portoghesi L, Smulders R, Stevenson A, Tartes U, Watt A (2005)
Identifying, managing and monitoring conflicts between forest biodiversity conservation and other human interests in Europe. Forest Policy and Economics 7: 877-890.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(67)
Niskanen A, Lin C (2001)
Regional similarities of forest resources and socio-economic structures in the EU member states. Forest Policy and Economics 3: 55-67.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(68)
Nunes MCS, Vasconcelos MJ, Pereira JMC, Dasgupta N, Alldredge RJ, Rego FC (2005)
Land cover type and fire in Portugal: do fires burn land cover selectively? Landscape Ecology 20: 661-673.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(69)
Ohkura Y (2003)
The roles and limitations of newspapers in environmental reporting. Case study: Isahaya Bay land reclamation project issue. Marine Pollution Bulletin 47: 237-245.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(70)
Olsson P, Folke C, Berkes F (2004)
Adaptive comanagement for building resilience in social-ecological systems. Environmental Management 34 (1): 75-90.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(71)
O’Leary TN, McCormack AG, Clinch JP (2000)
Afforestation in Ireland: regional differences in attitude. Land Use Policy 17: 39-48.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(72)
Ostrom E (2005)
Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, pp. 376.
Gscholar
(73)
Ostrom E, Nagendra H (2006)
Insights on linking forests, trees, and people from the air, on the ground, and in the laboratory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 103: 19224-19231.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(74)
Ostrom E (2010)
Analyzing collective action. Agricultural Economics 41: 155-166.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(75)
Owen L, Howard W, Waldron M (2000)
Conflicts over farming practises in Canada: the role of interactive conflicts resolution approaches. Journal of Rural Studies 16: 475-483.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(76)
Pagdee A, Kim YS, Daugherty PJ (2006)
What makes community forest management successful: a meta-study from community forests throughout the world. Society and natural resources 19 (1): 33-52.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(77)
Pardo F, Gil L (2005)
The impact of traditional land use on woodlands: a case study in the Spanish Central System. Historical Geography 31: 390-408.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(78)
Pinto-Correia T (2000)
Future development in Portuguese rural areas: how to manage agricultural support for landscape conservation? Landscape and Urban Planning 50: 95-106.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(79)
Penker M (2009)
Landscape governance for or by the local population? A property rights analysis in Austria. Land Use Policy 26: 947-953.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(80)
Prada A, González M, Polomé P, González XM, Vázquez MX (2001)
Valoración económica del patrimonio natural [Economic valuation of natural heritage]. Fundacion Pedro Barrie de la Maza-Banco Pastor, A Coruna, Spain, pp. 243. [in Spanish]
Gscholar
(81)
R Development Core Team (2008)
R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
Online | Gscholar
(82)
Reed MG (2007)
Uneven environmental management: a Canadian perspective. Environmental Management 39: 30-49.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(83)
Rice JA (1995)
Mathematical statistics and data analysis (2nd edn). Duxbury Press, Belmont, CA, USA, pp. 602.
Gscholar
(84)
Riveiro JM, Marey-Pérez MF, Marco JL, Alvarez CJ (2007)
Procedure for the classification and characterization of farms for agricultural production planning: application in the northwest of Spain. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 61: 169-178.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(85)
Rohde RF, Moleele NM, Mphale M, Allsopp N, Chanda R, Hoffman MT (2006)
Dynamics of grazing policy and practice: environmental and social impacts in three communal areas of southern Africa. Environmental Science and Policy 9: 302-316.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(86)
Salka J, Longauer R, Lacko M (2006)
The effects of property transformation on forestry entrepreneurship and innovation in the context of Slovakia. Forest Policy and Economics 8: 716-724.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(87)
Santos R, Antunes P, Baptista G, Mateus P, Madruga L (2006)
Stakeholder participation in the design of environmental policy mixes. Ecological Economics 60: 100-110.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(88)
Schlueter A (2008)
Small-scale European forestry, an anticommons? International Journal of the Commons 2 (2): 248-268.
Online | Gscholar
(89)
Short C (2000)
Common land and ELMS: a need for policy innovation in England and Wales. Land Use Policy 17: 121-133.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(90)
Siiskonen H (2007)
The conflict between traditional and scientific forest management in 20th century Finland. Forest Ecology and Management 249: 125-133.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(91)
Skutsch MM (2000)
Conflict management and participation in community Forestry. Agroforestry Systems 48: 189-206.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(92)
Soliño M (2003)
Programas forestales en las comunidades de montes vecinales en mano común en la Red Natura 2000: Un análisis delphi [Forest programs in the communities of communal forests mountains in Natura 2000: A Delphi analysis]. Revista Galega de Economía 12: 1-22. [in Spanish]
Gscholar
(93)
Steins NA, Edwards VM (1999)
Platforms for collective action in multiple-use common-pool resources. Agriculture and Human Values 16: 241-255.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(94)
Susskind L, Cruikshank J (1987)
Breaking the impasses: consensual approaches to resolving public disputes. Basic books, New York, NY, USA, pp. 276.
Gscholar
(95)
Van Der Ploeg JD, Roep D (2003)
Multifunctionality and rural development: the actual situation in Europe. In: “Multifunctional Agriculture. A New Paradigm for European Agriculture and Rural Development” (Van Huylenbroeck G, Durand G eds). Ashgate, Aldershot, New Hampshire, UK, pp. 37-53.
Gscholar
(96)
Vázquez A, Moreno JM (2001)
Spatial distribution of forest fires in Sierra de Gredos (Central Spain). Forest Ecology and Management 147: 55-65.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(97)
Wakefield SEL, Elliott SL (2003)
Constructing the news: the role of local newspapers in environmental risk communication. The Professional Geographer 55: 216-226.
Online | Gscholar
(98)
Wallgren M, Skarpe C, Bergstrom R, Danell K, Bergstrom A, Jakobsson T, Karlsson K, Strand T (2009)
Influence of land use on the abundance of wildlife and livestock in the Kalahari, Botswana. Journal of Arid Environments 73 (3): 314-321.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(99)
White M, Fischer A, Marshall K, Travis MJ, Webb J, Di Falco S, Redpath M, Van der Walf R (2009)
Developing an integrated conceptual framework to understand biodiversity conflicts. Land Use Policy 26: 242-253.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(100)
Xu Z, Bengston DM (1997)
Trends in national forest values among forestry professionals, environmentalists, and the news media, 1982-1993. Society and Natural Resources 10: 43-59.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(101)
Yasmi Y, Schanz H, Salim A (2006)
Manifestation of conflict escalation in natural resource management. Environmental Science and Policy 9: 538-546.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(102)
Ziegenspeck S, Härter U, Schraml U (2004)
Lifestyles of private forest owners as an indication of social change. Forest Policy and Economics 6 (5): 447-458.
CrossRef | Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website