*

Endangered and endemic species increase forest conservation values of species diversity based on the Shannon-Wiener index

Qingfeng Song, Bing Wang   , Jinsong Wang, Xiang Niu

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 9, Issue 3, Pages 469-474 (2016)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor1373-008
Published: Jan 02, 2016 - Copyright © 2016 SISEF

Research Articles


Species diversity is the most important component of biodiversity and plays an important role in maintaining forest ecosystem processes and stability. The assessment of the forest conservation value of species diversity is commonly carried out based on the Shannon-Wiener index. However, endangered and endemic species were always ignored in previous studies aimed at assessing the conservation value of forest species diversity. In this study, the conservation value of forest species diversity was assessed in two representative provinces of southern and northern China (Yunnan and Jilin provinces, respectively). The conservation values of species diversity for different forest types was calculated based on the standard Shannon-Wiener index, and on two different indexes derived from it by including: (i) an endangered species index (Ei) based on the China Species Red List; (ii) an endemic species index (Bx) based on the geographic distribution of the species considered. The results showed that the inclusion of the endangered and endemic species indexes dramatically increased the forest conservation values in these two provinces. The total conservation value in the Yunnan province was 268.65 billion yuan yr-1 based on the Shannon-Wiener index, 269.78 billion yuan yr-1 after including Ei in the assessment, and 324.44 billion yuan yr-1 after the inclusion of both Ei and Bx. In Jilin province, the total conservation value was 123.94 billion yuan yr-1 based on the standard Shannon-Wiener index, 124.60 billion yuan yr-1 after including Ei, and 125.74 billion yuan yr-1 after including both Ei and Bx in the assessment. Therefore, the inclusion of endangered and endemic species in the assessment of forest conservation values, as well as other aspects related to biodiversity like the presence of ancient trees, can contribute to the protection of endangered and endemic species in these two provinces of China.

  Keywords


Species Diversity, Conservation Value, Endangered Species, Endemic Species

Authors’ address

(1)
Qingfeng Song
Bing Wang
Jinsong Wang
Xiang Niu
Research Institute of Forest Ecology and Environmental Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091 (China)

Corresponding author

 

Citation

Song Q, Wang B, Wang J, Niu X (2016). Endangered and endemic species increase forest conservation values of species diversity based on the Shannon-Wiener index. iForest 9: 469-474. - doi: 10.3832/ifor1373-008

Academic Editor

Chris Eastaugh

Paper history

Received: Jun 09, 2014
Accepted: Aug 18, 2015

First online: Jan 02, 2016
Publication Date: Jun 01, 2016
Publication Time: 4.57 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 10305
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 7393
Abstract Page Views: 225
PDF Downloads: 2202
Citation/Reference Downloads: 18
XML Downloads: 467

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 1442
Overall contacts: 10305
Avg. contacts per week: 50.02

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Aug 2019)

Total number of cites (since 2016): 1
Average cites per year: 0.25

 

Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

 
(1)
Bollmann K, Bergamini A, Senn-Irlet B, Nobis M, Duelli P, Scheidegger C (2009)
Concepts, instruments and challenges for the conservation of biodiversity in the forest. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur Forstwesen 160 (3): 67-53.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(2)
Bonn A, Rodrigues AS, Gaston KJ (2002)
Threatened and endemic species: are they good indicators of patterns of biodiversity on a national scale? Ecology Letters 5 (6): 733-741.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(3)
Brooks TM, Mittermeier RA, Da Fonseca GAB, Gerlach J, Hoffmann M, Lamoreux JF, Mittermeier CG, Pilgrim JD, Rodrigues ASL (2006)
Global biodiversity conservation priorities. Science 313: 58-61.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(4)
Cardinale BJ, Srivastava DS, Duffy JE, Wright JP, Downing AL, Sankaran M (2006)
Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems. Nature 443: 989-992.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(5)
Ceballos G, Rodriguez P, Medellin RA (1998)
Assessing conservation priorities in megadiverse Mexico: mammalian diversity, endemicity, and endangerment. Ecological Applications 8 (1): 8-17.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(6)
Cheng KW, Zang RG (2004)
Advances in species endangerment assessment. Chinese Biodiversity 12 (5): 534-540.
Gscholar
(7)
Christie M, Hanley N, Warren J, Murphy K, Wright R, Hyde T (2006)
Valuing the diversity of biodiversity. Ecological Economics 58 (2): 304-317.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(8)
Cushman SA, McKelvey KS, Flather CH, McGarigal K (2008)
Do forest community types provide a sufficient basis to evaluate biological diversity? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6 (1): 13-17.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(9)
Dobson AP, Rodriguez JP, Roberts WM, Wilcove DS (1997)
Geographic distribution of endangered species in the United States. Science 275: 550-553.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(10)
PRC Forestry Industry Standard (2008)
Specifications for assessment of forest ecosystem services in China. LY/T 1721-2008, Forestry industry standard of the People’s Republic of China, Standards Press of China, Beijing, China, pp. 3-5.
Gscholar
(11)
Fu LG (1991)
China plant red data book - rare and endangered plants: volume I. Science Press of China, Beijing, China, pp. 1992.
Online | Gscholar
(12)
Ge S, Zhang DM, Wang HQ, Rao GY (1997)
Allozyme variation in Ophiopogon xylorrhizus, an extreme endemic species of Yunnan, China. Conservation Biology 11 (2): 562-565.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(13)
Jakobsson KM, Dragun A (2001)
The worth of a possum: valuing species with the contingent valuation method. Environmental and Resource Economics 19 (3): 211-227.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(14)
Kellert SR (1997)
The value of life: biological diversity and human society. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA, pp. 283.
Online | Gscholar
(15)
Kuuluvainen T (2002)
Natural variability of forests as a reference for restoring and managing biological diversity in boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica 36 (1): 97-125.
Online | Gscholar
(16)
Li SN (2007)
Study on forest ecosystem services in Jiangxi province and Dagangshan. Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing, China. pp. 25-26. [in Chinese]
Gscholar
(17)
Ma CL, Moseley RK, Chen WY, Zhou ZK (2007)
Plant diversity and priority conservation areas of Northwestern Yunnan, China. Biodiversity and Conservation 16 (3): 757-774.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(18)
Mooney HA (2009)
The ecosystem-service chain and the biological diversity crisis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 365 (1537): 31-39.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(19)
Naeem S, Thompson LJ, Lawler SP, Lawton JH, Woodfln RM (1994)
Declining biodiversity can alter the performance of ecosystem. Nature 368: 734-737.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(20)
Niu X, Wang B, Liu SR, Liu CJ, Wei WJ, Kauppi PE (2012)
Economical assessment of forest ecosystem services in China: characteristics and implications. Ecological Complexity 11: 1-11.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(21)
Niu X, Wang B, Wei WJ (2013)
Chinese forest ecosystem research network: a platform for observing and studying sustainable forestry. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 11 (2): 1008-1016.
Online | Gscholar
(22)
Norris K (2012)
Biodiversity in the context of ecosystem services: the applied need for systems approaches. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 367 (1586): 191-199.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(23)
Nunes PA, Van Den Bergh JC (2001)
Economic valuation of biodiversity: sense or nonsense? Ecological Economics 39 (2): 203-222.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(24)
Odum HT (1950)
Bird populations of the highlands plateau in relation to plant succession and avian invasion. Ecology 31: 587-605.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(25)
OECD (1996)
Saving biological diversity-economic incentives. OECD, Paris, France, pp. 2-5.
Gscholar
(26)
Pimentel D, Wilson C, Mccullum C, Huang R, Dwen P, Flack J, Tran Q, Saltman T, Cliff B (1997)
Economic and environmental benefits of biodiversity. BioScience 47 (11): 747-757.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(27)
Purvis A, Hector A (2000)
Getting the measure of biodiversity. Nature 405: 212-219.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(28)
Schwartz MW, Brigham CA, Hoeksema JD, Lyons KG, Mllls MH, Van Mantgern PJ (2000)
Linking biodiversity to ecosystem function: implications for conservation ecology. Oecologia 122: 297-305.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(29)
Simberloff D (1999)
The role of science in the preservation of forest biodiversity. Forest Ecology and Management 115 (2-3): 101-111.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(30)
Sodhi NS, Koh LP, Brook BW, Ng PK (2004)
Southeast Asian biodiversity: an impending disaster. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19 (12): 654-660.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(31)
Song L (2004)
Research on the assessment of forest biodiversity in Mt. Tai. Shandong Agricultural University, Tai An, China, pp. 17.
Gscholar
(32)
Terborgh JW (1998)
The big things that run the world: a sequel to E. O. Wilson. Conservation Biology 2 (4): 402-403.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(33)
Tilman D, Lehman CL, Bristow CE (1996)
Productivity and sustainability influenced by biodiversity in grassland ecosystems. Nature 379 (6567): 718-720.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(34)
United Nations (1993)
Report of the United Nations conference on environment and development. United Nations Publications, New York, USA, pp. 2.
Gscholar
(35)
Van Jaarsveld AS, Freitag S, Chown SL, Muller C, Koch S, Hull H, Bellamy C, Kruger M, Endrody-Younga S, Mansell MW, Scholtz CH (1998)
Biodiversity assessment and conservation strategies. Science 279: 2106-2108.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(36)
Vilenkin BY, Chikatunov VI, Coad BW, Schileyko AA (2009)
A random process may control the number of endemic species. Biologia 64 (1): 107-112.
CrossRef | Gscholar
(37)
Wang B, Lu SW (2009)
Evaluation of economic forest ecosystem services in China. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 20 (2): 417-425.
Online | Gscholar
(38)
Wang S (1998)
China red data book of endangered animals. Science Press of China, Beijing, China, pp. 3-5.
Gscholar
(39)
Wang B, Zheng QH, Guo H (2008)
Economic value assessment of forest species diversity conservation in China based on the Shannon-Wiener index. Forest Research - Chinese Edition 21 (2): 268-274.
Online | Gscholar
(40)
Wang B, Ren XX, Hu W (2011a)
Assessment of forest ecosystem services value in China. Scientia Silvae Sinicae 47 (2): 145-153.
Gscholar
(41)
Wang B, Wei JS, Hu W (2011b)
The assessment of forest ecosystem services evaluation for shrubbery-economic forest-bamboo forest in China. Acta Ecologica Sinica 31 (7): 1936-1945.
Gscholar
(42)
Wang S, Xie Y (2014)
China species red list: I. Higher Education Press, Beijing, China, pp. 35-98.
Gscholar
(43)
Yue TX, Haber W, Grossmann WD, Kasperidus HD (1998a)
Discussion on models for species diversity and suggestion on a comprehensive model. Ecological Modelling 9: 1-15.
Gscholar
(44)
Yue TX, Haber W, Grossmann WD, Kasperidus HD (1998b)
Towards the satisfying model for biological diversity. Ekologia 17 (3): 129-141.
Gscholar
 

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website