iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry


Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

O Badea (1)   , S Neagu (1-8), A Bytnerowicz (7), D Silaghi (1), I Barbu (1), C Iacoban (1), F Popescu (1), M Andrei (6), E Preda (6), C Iacob (1), I Dumitru (2), H Iuncu (3), C Vezeanu (4), V Huber (5)

iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, Volume 4, Issue 2, Pages 49-60 (2011)
doi: https://doi.org/10.3832/ifor0565-004
Published: Apr 05, 2011 - Copyright © 2011 SISEF

Research Articles

Collection/Special Issue: IUFRO RG 7.01 2010 - Antalya (Turkey)
Adaptation of Forest Ecosystems to Air Pollution and Climate Change
Guest Editors: Elena Paoletti, Yusuf Serengil

The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems’ status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two monitoring networks were placed in selected forest ecosystems for each LTER site (11 plots in Retezat and 22 plots in Bucegi - Piatra Craiului, respectively). Both in Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts, the distribution of mean ozone (O3) concentrations are significantly correlated with altitude. The location (plot) has a significant influence on ozone concentration and in some cases the exposure period along the growing season has an influence. Ambient ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) concentrations were below toxicity levels for forest trees, their health status (crown condition) and volume growth being insignificantly affected. More than 45% of the rain events were acidic with pH≤5.5, thus contributing to an increased N deposition on forest stands. In Retezat Mts crown condition was relatively better than in Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts. As a consequence, in 2009 European beech (Fagus sylvatica) was the least affected species, with a percentage of damaged trees (crown defoliation higher than 25%) between 8.0% (Retezat) and 9.8% (Bucegi - Piatra Craiului), followed by Norway spruce (Picea abies) with 12.9% (Retezat) and 27.7% (Bucegi - Piatra Craiului). The most affected species was Silver fir (Abies alba) with 31.6% of damaged trees (Bucegi-Piatra Craiului). In the last period, both European beech and conifers (Norway spruce and Silver fir) with high defoliation (damaged trees) had lower annual relative increment than trees with low defoliation (healthy trees). A definite trend regarding rapid environmental modifications is not evident and no significant reduction of biodiversity occurred. In addition, all the vegetation biodiversity components of the forest ecosystems are specific to the stand type’s structures and local climate conditions, and no quantifiable consequences of specific air pollutants on ecosystems’ diversity occurred.


Long-term monitoring, Air pollution, Forest ecosystems, Crown condition, Growth, Biodiversity

Authors’ address

O Badea
S Neagu
D Silaghi
I Barbu
C Iacoban
F Popescu
C Iacob
Forest Research and Management Institute (ICAS), Eroilor Bld. 128, R-077190, Voluntari, Ilfov (Romania)
I Dumitru
Valahia University, Carol I Bld. 2, R-130024, Targoviste, Dambovita (Romania)
H Iuncu
Bucegi National Park, Principala Str. 21, Moroieni, Dambovita (Romania)
C Vezeanu
Piatra Craiului National Park, Toplitei Str. 150, Zarnesti, Brasov (Romania)
V Huber
Transilvania University, Eroilor Bld. 129, R-500036, Brasov (Romania)
M Andrei
E Preda
Bucharest University, M. Kogalniceanu Bld. 36-46, R-050170, Bucharest (Romania)
A Bytnerowicz
USDA - Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (USA)
S Neagu
“Stefan cel Mare” University, Universitatii Str. 13, R-720229, Suceava (Romania)

Corresponding author

O Badea


Badea O, Neagu S, Bytnerowicz A, Silaghi D, Barbu I, Iacoban C, Popescu F, Andrei M, Preda E, Iacob C, Dumitru I, Iuncu H, Vezeanu C, Huber V (2011). Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania). iForest 4: 49-60. - doi: 10.3832/ifor0565-004

Paper history

Received: May 25, 2010
Accepted: Nov 17, 2010

First online: Apr 05, 2011
Publication Date: Apr 05, 2011
Publication Time: 4.63 months

Breakdown by View Type

(Waiting for server response...)

Article Usage

Total Article Views: 52422
(from publication date up to now)

Breakdown by View Type
HTML Page Views: 44391
Abstract Page Views: 2723
PDF Downloads: 4059
Citation/Reference Downloads: 32
XML Downloads: 1217

Web Metrics
Days since publication: 4792
Overall contacts: 52422
Avg. contacts per week: 76.58

Article Citations

Article citations are based on data periodically collected from the Clarivate Web of Science web site
(last update: Feb 2023)

Total number of cites (since 2011): 6
Average cites per year: 0.46


Publication Metrics

by Dimensions ©

Articles citing this article

List of the papers citing this article based on CrossRef Cited-by.

Badea O (1998)
Fundamente dendrometrice si auxologice pentru monitoringul forestier. Ph.D. thesis, “Stefan cel Mare” University, Suceava, Romania, pp. 177.
Badea O, Patrascoiu N, Geambasu N, Barbu I, Bolea V (1998)
Forest condition monitoring in Romania. Office National de Forets, Departement des Recherches Techniques, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 62.
Badea O, Popescu F, Bytnerowicz A, Musselman R, Cenusa R, Barbu I, Ganz V, Tanase M (2002)
Long term effects of air pollution on selected forest ecosystems in the Carpathian Mountains (Retezat National Park, Romania). In: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Workshop on “Effects of air pollution on forest health and biodiversity in forests of the Carpathian Mountains” (Szaro RC ed). Stara Lesna (Slovakia), 22-26 May 2002, IOS Press.
Badea O (2008)
Manual on methodology for long term monitoring of forest ecosystems status under air pollution and climate change influences (in Romanian). Ed. Silvica, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 100.
Beldie A (1967)
Flora si vegetatia muntilor Bucegi. Ed. Academiei, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 578.
Bredemeyer M (1988)
Forest canopy transformation of atmospheric deposition. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 40: 121-138.
Brumme R, Leimcke U, Matzner E (1992)
Interception and uptake of NH4 and NO3 from wet deposition by above-ground parts of young beech. Plant and soil 142: 273-279.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Barbu I, Iacoban C (2008)
Quantitative and qualitative sampling and analysis of pollutant ions fluxes (atmospheric deposition) in the forest ecosystems within the long term research network (LTRN). In: “Manual on methodology for long term monitoring of forest ecosystems status under air pollution and climate change influences” (in Romanian). Ed. Silvica, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 55-62.
Bytnerowicz A, Arbaugh MJ, Schiilling SL (1998)
Air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosystems. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium of the USDA Forest Service. General technical report PSW-GTR-166, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Berkeley, CA, USA.
Bytnerowicz A, Badea O, Popescu F, Musselman R, Tanase M, Barbu I, Fraczek W, Geambasu N, Surdu A, Danescu F, Postelnicu D, Cenusa R, Vasile C (2005)
Air pollution, precipitation chemistry and forest health in the Retezat Mountains, Southern Carpathians, Romania. Environmental Pollution 137: 546-567.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Bytnerowicz A, Badea O, Musselmann R, Neagu S (2008)
Assessment of ozone (O3) and other phytotoxic agents (NH3, NO2 and SO2) in the long term research network. In: “Manual on methodology for long term monitoring of forest ecosystems status under air pollution and climate change influences” (in Romanian). Ed. Silvica, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 75-82.
Dise NB, Matzner E, Gundersen P (1998)
Synthesis of nitrogen pools and fluxes from European forest ecosystems. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 105: 143-154.
Grodzinska K, Godzik B, Fraczek W, Badea O, Oszlanyi J, Postelnicu D, Shparyk Y (2004)
Vegetation of the selected forest stands and land use in the Carpathian Mountains. Environ. Pollut. 130: 17-32.
CrossRef | Gscholar
Lindberg SE, Lovett GM (1992)
Deposition and forest canopy interactions of airborne sulphur: results from integrated forest study. Atmospheric Environment 26: 1477-1492.
Nyarady EI (1958)
Flora si vegetatia munèilor (Retezat ed). Academiei Romane, Bucharest, Romania, pp. 195.
UN/ECE, ICP-Forests (2004)
Manual on methods and criteria for harmonized sampling, assessment, monitoring and analysis of the effects of air pollution on forests. Hamburg, pp. 173.
Vadineanu A, Badea O, Gheorghe IF, Neagu S, Postelnicu D (2008)
New insights on the dynamics of the forest vegetation from the Romanian Carpathian Mountains. Ekologia, Bratislava 27: 269-287.

This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. More info