iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry https://iforest.sisef.org/ Last Issued: Volume 14, Issue 5 (Year 2021) Copyright (c) 2007-2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved en-us http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss PHP 7.0.12 help@sisef.org (Gabriele Bucci) help@sisef.org (Gabriele Bucci) 60 iForest Web Site https://iforest.sisef.org/images/logos/main-logo-papers.png https://iforest.sisef.org/ Research Articles: Abundance and impact of egg parasitoids on the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in Bulgaria https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3538-014 <p><b>Mirchev P, Georgiev G, Georgieva M, Markoff I, Zaemdzhikova G, Matova M</b></p><p><b>ABUNDANCE AND IMPACT OF EGG PARASITOIDS ON THE PINE PROCESSIONARY MOTH (THAUMETOPOEA PITYOCAMPA) IN BULGARIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We collected 2297 egg batches of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) during the period 1991-2018 from 44 sites in Bulgaria. The sampling sites were classified into three groups according to T. pityocampa phenological form (early, late and both forms) as well as in two groups of its range (historical and newly colonized areas). Seven primary egg parasitoids were identified: Ooencyrtus pityocampae, Baryscapus servadeii, Pediobius bruchicida, Anastatus bifasciatus, Eupelmus (Macroneura) vesicularis, Eupelmus (Macroneura) vladimiri and Trichogramma sp., and one hyperparasitoid, Baryscapus transversalis. The average impact of egg parasitoids (the percentage of parasitized host eggs) on T. pityocampa in Bulgaria was 13.8%. The two main parasitoids, O. pityocampae and B. servadeii, parasitized about 90% of the host eggs. The remaining parasitoids were of insignificant consequence to the parasitism of the T. pityocampa eggs, but in areas recently colonized by the pest, A. bifasciatus and Trichogramma sp. had a noticeable share (up to 33% of the impact). In old habitats of the host (areas colonized more than 10 years), the impact was almost two times higher than in new ones (15.3% vs. 8.6%). This could be attributed to B. servadeii, which was rare in newly colonized areas of T. pityocampa (impact 0.5%), but strongly dominant in old habitats (impact 7.2%). In contrast, O. pityocampae had a significant impact in new habitats (4.9%), which increased only slightly over time, reaching 6.0% in old habitats. There was no significant difference between the percentage of parasitism of the early and late form of the pine processionary moth (14.8% vs. 15.9%). However, there was a significant difference in the share of separate species in the parasitoid complex: in the early form, B. servadeii definitely dominated (63% of the infested eggs), while in the late form O. pityocampae dominated, although not so strongly (52% of the infested eggs). This difference is most likely due to the phenological characteristics of the parasitoids and the two forms of T. pityocampa. B. transversalis secondarily infested about 5% of the eggs of O. pityocampae and B. servadeii. This percentage was slightly lower for new habitats and habitats of the early form of pine processionary moth (3% and 4%, respectively). The impacts of the main parasitoids O. pityocampae and B. servadeii as well as the total impact of the parasitoid complex as a whole decreased with altitude. Conversely, the impacts of A. bifasciatus and Trichogramma sp. slightly increased with altitude probably due to the reduced competition of the main parasitoids.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Distribution, Habitats, Expansion, Phenological Forms, Egg Parasitism, Bulgaria</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 456-464 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3538-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3538-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3538-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mirchev P, Georgiev G, Georgieva M, Markoff I, Zaemdzhikova G, Matova M Research Articles 2021-10-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3538-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Daily prediction modeling of forest fire ignition using meteorological drought indices in the Mexican highlands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3623-014 <p><b>Vilchis-Francés AY, Díaz-Delgado C, Becerril Piña R, Mastachi Loza CA, Gómez-Albores M&, Bâ KM</b></p><p><b>DAILY PREDICTION MODELING OF FOREST FIRE IGNITION USING METEOROLOGICAL DROUGHT INDICES IN THE MEXICAN HIGHLANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We analyzed the behavior of forest fires for daily prediction purposes in one of the regions with the highest fire incidence in Mexico. The main objective was to build logistic regression models (LRMs) for daily prediction of forest fire ignition based on meteorological drought indices. We built 252 LRMs for seven types of vegetation cover of greater representativeness and interest for the study area. Three dynamic variables were considered to estimate daily dryness in combustible fuels based on the effective drought index and the standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index. Additionally, two weather data sources were included in drought indices: conventional weather stations (CWS) and automatic weather stations (AWS). Prediction efficiency assessment for LRMs was done through the relative operating characteristic (ROC) and model precision efficiency (MPE). The results show that LRMs using data from CWS performed relatively better than those based on data from AWS, as the former data sources have higher spatial density and thus generate predictions with higher accuracy (ROC ≥ 0.700, MPE ≥ 0.934). For both data sources, the use of standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index as a fuel dryness estimator is recommended, as it reflects an atmospheric moisture balance between precipitation and reference evapotranspiration (ROC ≥ 0.734, MPE = 1). Such predictive models can be used as inputs in early warning systems for forest fire prevention or mitigation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Logistic Regression, Effective Drought Index, Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index, Conventional Weather Stations, Automatic Weather Stations</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 437-446 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3623-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3623-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3623-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vilchis-Francés AY, Díaz-Delgado C, Becerril Piña R, Mastachi Loza CA, Gómez-Albores M&, Bâ KM Research Articles 2021-09-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3623-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Using nano-scale Fe0 particles and organic waste to improve the nutritional status of tree seedlings growing in heavy metal-contaminated soil https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3821-014 <p><b>Tafazoli M, Hojjati SM, Biparva P, Kooch Y, Lamersdorf N</b></p><p><b>USING NANO-SCALE FE0 PARTICLES AND ORGANIC WASTE TO IMPROVE THE NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF TREE SEEDLINGS GROWING IN HEAVY METAL-CONTAMINATED SOIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The rehabilitation of heavy metal-contaminated lands is a challenging issue worldwide. The application of effective eco-friendly techniques and materials is necessary for amending the contaminated soils, and the in-situ results should be examined. The present study investigated the effect of zero-valent iron-nanoparticles (Fe0-NPs) and cellulosic wastes (CW) on the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) uptake and nutrients’ (N, P, K) concentration of maple seedlings in contaminated soil. First, one-year-old seedlings were planted in pots containing unpolluted soil (volume = 3 Kg), and then the soil was contaminated by adding Pb (0, Pb100, Pb200, and Pb300 mg kg-1) and Cd (0, Cd10, Cd20, and Cd30 mg kg-1) solutions. The CW (0, 10, 20, 30 g/100g soil) and Fe0-NPs (0, 1, 2, 3 mg kg-1) treatments were applied to the soil before and after Pb and Cd addition, respectively. The biomass of seedlings and the concentration of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus in leaves were measured. Leaves, stems, and roots were digested to measure the Pb and Cd concentrations. Results showed that CW and Fe0-NPs improved N, P, and K concentrations in leaves at all levels of contamination. The lowest concentration of Pb and Cd in all organs and treatments was observed in the highest level of Fe0-NPs. The cellulosic waste and Fe0-NPs (the highest level only) significantly increased the soil pH at all levels of contamination. Our findings suggested that the use of Fe0-NPs (3 mg kg-1) and CW (30g/100g soil) could be appropriate for reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Cd in contaminated soil and improving the growth of maple seedlings.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Amendments, Zero-valent Iron, Heavy Metal Immobilization, Forest Rehabilitation</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 447-455 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3821-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3821-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3821-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tafazoli M, Hojjati SM, Biparva P, Kooch Y, Lamersdorf N Research Articles 2021-09-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3821-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A multisource approach helps to detect a forest as a reference site in an intensively used rural landscape (Uckermark, NE Germany) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3774-014 <p><b>Wulf M, Kaiser K, Mrotzek A, Geiges-Erzgräber L, Schulz L, Stockmann I, Schneider T, Kappler C, Bens O</b></p><p><b>A MULTISOURCE APPROACH HELPS TO DETECT A FOREST AS A REFERENCE SITE IN AN INTENSIVELY USED RURAL LANDSCAPE (UCKERMARK, NE GERMANY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The sharp decline in seminatural areas worldwide is undisputed, but the consequences of this decline, apart from the loss of biodiversity, cannot be fully assessed. To restore ecosystems or landscapes, it is essential to have so-called reference sites. We want to show how reliable reference sites can be found in heavily used landscapes with the help of independent sources, and we present an approach that can be used in other regions, because it is very well suited for developing essential databases in the context of theses at different levels. A forest of seminatural stocking was selected in northeast Germany as a case study. The mapping of archival sources and the analyses of historical maps as well as field investigations were combined to reconstruct the dynamics of vegetation and soil for the last several centuries to thousands of years. Palynological data from nearby sites show that the study area has been forested for several millennia and has been less influenced by humans in the last 450 years. Together with historical maps of tree species composition, it allows to infer that the specific forest has been preserved in good ecological conditions for at least 250 years. Soil inventory and field studies on two catenas and corings support this conclusion, as they rarely show signs of anthropogenic erosion and related colluviation. Using a multisource approach, it is possible to identify potential reference sites that provide a reliable basis for ecosystem or landscape restoration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ancient Forest, Geo-bio-archives, Historic Maps, Land Use Legacy, Pollen Analysis, Reference Site</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 426-436 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3774-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3774-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3774-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wulf M, Kaiser K, Mrotzek A, Geiges-Erzgräber L, Schulz L, Stockmann I, Schneider T, Kappler C, Bens O Research Articles 2021-09-21 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3774-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Forest management with carbon scenarios in the central region of Mexico https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3630-014 <p><b>Ramírez-Martínez A, González-Guillén MDJ, De Los Santos-Posadas HM, Ángeles-Pérez G, Santiago-García W</b></p><p><b>FOREST MANAGEMENT WITH CARBON SCENARIOS IN THE CENTRAL REGION OF MEXICO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The search for mechanisms to mitigate global warming has generated a series of proposals to reduce deforestation and promote conservation of forests as carbon stocks through financial or in-kind support. However, the economic implications of including carbon sequestration in forest for timber production have not been dealt with in depth, and the conditions in which combined production might be a profitable option to forest owners, particularly in Mexico, are unknown. The aim of this study was to quantify carbon sequestration in a central region of Mexico and evaluate the profitability of selling carbon credits as well as timber products. Data and information used comes from three inventories (2013, 2014 and 2016) taken in 160 permanent sampling plots of 400 m2 each; forest management costs per hectare were obtained through interviews to the landowners, and the profitability was assessed using the economic indicators Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Return Rate (IRR), Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR), and Land Expected Value (LEV). The results indicate that, in areas of low productivity, carbon sequestration is profitable only at a low discount rate (3.5%) and a high price of the ton CO2e (USD 100 ha-1 year-1). However, under combined production, the optimal rotation periods are longer, depending on the discount rate and price of sequestered carbon. Therefore, timber production will continue to be the main economic activity, until the rules of operation of the different mechanisms created for carbon sequestration become more flexible and the carbon markets offer more attractive incentives.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change, Carbon Sequestration, Productivity, Financial Profitability, Optimal Rotation</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 413-420 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3630-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3630-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3630-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ramírez-Martínez A, González-Guillén MDJ, De Los Santos-Posadas HM, Ángeles-Pérez G, Santiago-García W Research Articles 2021-09-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3630-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Competition effects and economic scenarios in an agroforestry system with cereal crops and wood plantations: a case study in the Po Valley (Italy) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3842-014 <p><b>Rosso L, Cantamessa S, Chiarabaglio PM, Coaloa D</b></p><p><b>COMPETITION EFFECTS AND ECONOMIC SCENARIOS IN AN AGROFORESTRY SYSTEM WITH CEREAL CROPS AND WOOD PLANTATIONS: A CASE STUDY IN THE PO VALLEY (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study aims to evaluate the economic feasibility of agroforestry management in temperate latitudes. The surveys carried out in 1971 by Prevosto on the yields of wheat and rice combined with poplars was revised with updated prices to assess whether an agroforestry system can positively influence farm incomes. Based on Prevosto’s dataset, four scenarios were simulated with poplar clone I-214, assuming four different positions of the poplar row (along the field borders, towards the cardinal points) and the relative shadows. The results show that the agroforestry system is economically advantageous, especially for wheat, and is directly related to wood price. The achievable benefits could be more significant with political and financial support that promotes these practices, taking into account the fundamental ecosystem services they provide.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Agroforestry, Poplar, Cereal Crop, Shading Effect, Tree Row Orientation, Economic Evaluation, Threshold Area Convenience</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 421-425 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3842-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3842-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3842-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rosso L, Cantamessa S, Chiarabaglio PM, Coaloa D Short Communications 2021-09-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3842-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Is microbial biomass measurement by the chloroform fumigation extraction method biased by experimental addition of N and P? https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3374-014 <p><b>Mori T, Wang S, Wang C, Mo J, Zhang W</b></p><p><b>IS MICROBIAL BIOMASS MEASUREMENT BY THE CHLOROFORM FUMIGATION EXTRACTION METHOD BIASED BY EXPERIMENTAL ADDITION OF N AND P?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method determines microbial biomass carbon (MBC) or nitrogen (MBN) by calculating the increase in extractable carbon (C) or nitrogen (N) due to microbial lysis during chloroform fumigation. In China, many studies have focused on the impacts of N and phosphorus (P) addition on soil MBC and MBN in forest ecosystems, where substantial atmospheric N deposition has strongly acidified soils. The addition of nutrients may alter the extraction process applied in the CFE method, potentially influencing the MBC and MBN determined by the CFE method independently of the actual microbial biomass. In this study, we tested whether the MBC and MBN determined by the CFE method were biased by the experimental addition of N and P in strongly acidified Chinese forest soils by adding N and P to the soils immediately before chloroform fumigation, which should not affect the actual microbial biomass. P addition significantly elevated the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content, especially after fumigation, while N addition significantly reduced the dissolved nitrogen (DN) content. The added N was subtracted using blank samples without soil. However, the altered DOC and DN contents did not affect the MBC and MBN contents determined by the CFE method. In conclusion, our study suggests that the CFE is a relatively robust method to test the impacts of nutrient addition on microbial biomass in the strongly acidified soils of Chinese forests. We also suggested that: (i) even if a fertilization experiment results in an elevated DOC content following P addition, it does not necessarily indicate a stimulation of DOC production by microbes; and (ii) the soil adsorption capacity or the strength of microbial N uptake during the extraction procedure applied in the CFE method may affect the determination of MBN by influencing the DN extraction efficiency.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chloroform Fumigation Extraction, Microbial Biomass, Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Soil, Tropical Forest</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 408-412 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3374-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3374-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3374-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mori T, Wang S, Wang C, Mo J, Zhang W Short Communications 2021-09-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3374-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Cryptogamic epiphytes and microhabitat diversity on non-native green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh., Oleaceae) in urban habitats https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3739-014 <p><b>Dittrich S, Thiem E, Albrecht BM, von Oheimb G</b></p><p><b>CRYPTOGAMIC EPIPHYTES AND MICROHABITAT DIVERSITY ON NON-NATIVE GREEN ASH (FRAXINUS PENNSYLVANICA MARSH., OLEACEAE) IN URBAN HABITATS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: With the increased planting of non-native trees within urban environments there is a need for investigating the impacts they may have on the indigenous biodiversity. In this study, we explored the diversity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes as well as the tree-related microhabitats on planted, non-native green ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica and compared it to that of indigenous Fraxinus excelsior and Quercus robur. We conducted sampling on trees of similar growing conditions and size within two cities of eastern Germany (Dresden and Dessau-Roßlau). In our analysis we did not find any significant differences in epiphyte diversity and abundance. By contrast, microhabitat diversity was significantly higher on F. pennsylvanica than on the indigenous tree species, which we attribute to the pioneer character of F. pennsylvanica with faster ageing. Our results underline a low impact of F. pennsylvanica on epiphytic lichen and bryophyte diversity, while indigenous animals might even benefit from the higher diversity and frequency of microhabitats on trees of this species. Therefore, its use as an ornamental tree should not be generally rejected in urban environments.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Alien Trees, Bryophytes, Invasiveness, Lichens</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 393-399 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3739-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3739-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3739-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Dittrich S, Thiem E, Albrecht BM, von Oheimb G Research Articles 2021-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3739-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Characterization of technological properties of matá-matá wood (Eschweilera coriacea [DC.] S.A. Mori, E. odora Poepp. [Miers] and E. truncata A.C. Sm.) by Near Infrared Spectroscopy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3748-014 <p><b>Nascimento CSD, Nascimento CCD, Araújo RDD, Soares JCR, Higuchi N</b></p><p><b>CHARACTERIZATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MATá-MATá WOOD (ESCHWEILERA CORIACEA [DC.] S.A. MORI, E. ODORA POEPP. [MIERS] AND E. TRUNCATA A.C. SM.) BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to determine the technological properties (chemical, mechanical and physical) of Eschweilera sp. woods using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). NIR spectroscopy proved to be efficient for chemical analysis (extractives, lignin and carbohydrates) and physical-mechanical testing (moisture content, basic density - BD, modulus of elasticity - MOE and modulus of rupture - MOR) of wood, providing a powerful tool for use in sustainable forest management activities in the Amazon. Wood samples from three trees of each Eschweilera species were collected from the Experimental Station of Tropical Forestry/INPA/Brazil. Specimens were extracted from the cross-sectional area (20 × 20 × 30 mm) in the direction sapwood-heartwood. NIR spectra (4.000-10.000 cm-1) were then obtained from the samples (moisture 12%) using Fourier-transform spectrometry. The Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression prediction models for the chemical, mechanical and physical properties of Amazonian woods were used for quantification. The results for total extractives (both in toluene and ethanol) and hot water solubility showed a maximum extractive concentration of 7.66% and 3.13% for E. odora (yellow matá-matá), including several compounds with low molecular weight, such as resins, gums, terpenes, alkaloids, flavonoids, and tannins. The highest concentration of phenolic substances (tannins) was found in E. Truncata (black matá-matá, 10.00%). The macrocomponents (primary metabolism) of Eschweilera species were in the range of 44.20-46.33% for cellulose and 28.89-31.21% for lignin. Mineral compounds (ash) were quantified in concentrations < 0.70%. The predictive results for the physical and mechanical properties of matá-matá wood are in the standard range for tropical woods. The higher calorific value (HCV) varied from 4.993-5.033 cal g-1 and the BD from 0.78-0.88 g m-3. Regarding moisture, the highest content was observed in E. truncata (13.46%). Values for mechanical resistance were in the range of 14,253-17,447 MPa for MOE and 146.04-175.73 MPa for MOR, with the greatest strength attributed to E. truncata wood. The values obtained for the wood technological properties of E. coriacea (white matá-matá), E. odora (yellow matá-matá) and E. truncata (black matá-matá) were compatible with those obtained by destructive determination of tropical species and also for other species of the genus Eschweilera.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eschweilera, Amazonian Woods, Wood Chemistry, Physico-mechanical Properties, NIR Spectroscopy, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 14 (5): 400-407 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3748-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3748-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3748-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Nascimento CSD, Nascimento CCD, Araújo RDD, Soares JCR, Higuchi N Research Articles 2021-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3748-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Long-term dynamics of stand structure and regeneration in high-stocked selection fir-beech forest stand: Croatian Dinarides case study https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3638-014 <p><b>Cavlović J, Teslak K, Beljan K, Vedriš M, Andabaka M</b></p><p><b>LONG-TERM DYNAMICS OF STAND STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION IN HIGH-STOCKED SELECTION FIR-BEECH FOREST STAND: CROATIAN DINARIDES CASE STUDY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent decades, changes in stand structure in Central European fir-beech forests, such as accumulation of large-diameter firs, fir dieback, and poor regeneration, have been well documented. Besides environmental factors, light harvesting was suggested as one of the main drivers of the negative structural dynamics of these forests in Croatia. This study applied the MOSES 3.0 stand simulator on permanent sample plot data to reconstruct stand development over the past 20 years and simulate long-term projections of selection stand structure and regeneration with respect to theoretical values, using three management regimes differing by the applied harvesting intensity (traditionally applied, theoretical intensity, and no management). Sample plot data from three sets of detailed measurements (1992, 2002, and 2012) were used for validation of the simulator, and eleven 10-year cycles of management were then simulated under the above management scenarios. Results showed a positive influence of harvest intensity on stand regeneration and the achievement of a targeted selection structure in the long term. Two management scenarios predicted a decrease in stand volume (34% and 40%, respectively), an increase in the initial percentage (28%) of beech and maple (58% and 75%, respectively), and the achievement of optimal stand regeneration of 11-13 recruited trees per hectare annually (60% firs). No management scenario could achieve old-growth structure (accumulation of standing stock, large trees, and deadwood). The theoretical intensity scenario was evaluated as the better approach to be applied in this type of forest stands in Croatia.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Selection Harvest, Stand Growth Simulator, Development of DBH Distribution, Tree Species Composition, Natural Regeneration, Old-growth Structure</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 383-392 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3638-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3638-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3638-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cavlović J, Teslak K, Beljan K, Vedriš M, Andabaka M Research Articles 2021-08-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3638-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Evidence of Alectoris chukar (Aves, Galliformes) as seed dispersal and germinating agent for Pistacia khinjuk in Balochistan, Pakistan https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3691-014 <p><b>Essa M, Ziauddin Z, Khan MA, Imran M, Saeed AE</b></p><p><b>EVIDENCE OF ALECTORIS CHUKAR (AVES, GALLIFORMES) AS SEED DISPERSAL AND GERMINATING AGENT FOR PISTACIA KHINJUK IN BALOCHISTAN, PAKISTAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Seed dispersal is a key process for the distribution of wild fruit plants in forests and/or rangeland. The ecological role of Alectoris chukar as a seed dispersal agent was hardly known to date, though its diet consists of herbs, shrubs, and fleshy fruits of wild plants. Here we report the first evidence of seed dispersal and germination of wild pistachio plant (Pistacia khinjuk Stocks) favored by Alectoris chukar from the district Killa Saifullah and Pishin in Balochistan, Pakistan. Fecal droppings of Alectoris chukar were collected by a suitable sampling method from August to September 2020. Fecal droppings were kept in plastic bags, and later washed thoroughly, identified, and counted for Pistacia khinjuk seeds, which have a characteristic rounded and tough seed coat easily distinguishable from other seeds. Out of a total of 840 fecal samples collected, 557 were identified as Pistacia khinjuk seeds. A comparative germination trial was carried out for pistachio seeds both from Alectoris chukar fecal droppings and manually collected from mother trees in the forest. After passing through the chukar gut, the seeds were still viable and showed a faster germination rate as compared with seeds collected from mother trees and directly sown in the soil. The results revealed that Alectoris chukar is an important spreading and germinating agent for seeds of pistachio plants in suitable habitats and could contribute in the long term to modify the ground vegetation of (sub)arid regions depending on its dietary preferences.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Alectoris chukar, Balochistan, Fecal Dropping, Pistacia khinjuk, Seed Dispersal, Seed Germination</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 378-382 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3691-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3691-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3691-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Essa M, Ziauddin Z, Khan MA, Imran M, Saeed AE Short Communications 2021-08-22 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3691-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Temporal patterns control carbon balance in forest and agricultural tropical peatlands in North Selangor, Malaysia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3700-014 <p><b>Vijayanathan J, Ishak MF, Parlan I, Omar H, Osumanu Haruna A, Lion M, Hassan MG, Jong RM, Samah AKA</b></p><p><b>TEMPORAL PATTERNS CONTROL CARBON BALANCE IN FOREST AND AGRICULTURAL TROPICAL PEATLANDS IN NORTH SELANGOR, MALAYSIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tropical peat swamp forests can sequester significant amount of carbon (C). However, there is dearth of understanding on the tropical soils’ C stocks and emissions because of the changes in peatland use, land use policies, and micro-climate. The objective of this study was to determine the C stocks and fluxes of two peat swamp forests and a peatland under mixed cropping in Selangor, Malaysia. Standard procedures were used to determine aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, selected peat soil physical, chemical, and biological properties, and environmental variables that are related to peat soil respirations. The mean C stocks for the peat swamp forest and mixed cropping sites were 1788.79 Mg C ha-1 and 1023.57 Mg C ha-1, respectively. The carbon dioxide emission rates of peat swamp forest and mixed cropping sites ranged from 7.20 to 73.13 tCO2 ha-1 year-1 and 26.50 to 43.43 tCO2 ha-1 year-1, respectively. These emissions are related to seasonal changes because the relative humidity, soil temperature, and ground water of the experimental sites had significant effects on soil respiration. Unlike the mixed cropping sites, the fluxes of the peat swamp forest were significantly higher in the dry season compared with the wet season. These findings suggest that peat soil respiration is controlled by relative humidity, temperature, and the changes in ground water table. Continued monitoring and conservation efforts to preserve stored C in peatlands are essential.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Peat Characteristics, Carbon Storage, Carbon Dioxide Fluxes, Cash Crop Cultivation, Seasonal Variations</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 362-369 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3700-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3700-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3700-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vijayanathan J, Ishak MF, Parlan I, Omar H, Osumanu Haruna A, Lion M, Hassan MG, Jong RM, Samah AKA Research Articles 2021-08-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3700-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Short-term effects in canopy gap area on the recovery of compacted soil caused by forest harvesting in old-growth Oriental beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) stands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3432-014 <p><b>Jourgholami M, Feghhi J, Tavankar F, Latterini F, Venanzi R, Picchio R</b></p><p><b>SHORT-TERM EFFECTS IN CANOPY GAP AREA ON THE RECOVERY OF COMPACTED SOIL CAUSED BY FOREST HARVESTING IN OLD-GROWTH ORIENTAL BEECH (FAGUS ORIENTALIS LIPSKY) STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Natural treefall gaps have a substantial role in maintaining soil and plant diversity in old-growth forests. However, the amount of information on the effects of gaps on the recovery of physical and chemical properties of compacted soils is scarce. We tested the hypothesis that natural treefall gaps accelerate the restoration of compacted soil by enhancing biological and microbial activity in the topsoil after a period of five years. Five years after a ground-based skidding operation in the Hyrcanian forest, the recovery levels of soil properties were compared among different treatments including natural canopy gaps with an area of 200 m2 (NCG), clear-cuts with an area of 1600 m2 (CC), disturbed trails under a dense canopy (DDC), and an undisturbed area (UND) as control. The lowest soil bulk density (1.07 g cm-3), penetration resistance (1.11 MPa), and the highest macroporosity (36.3%), and sand content (14.4%) among treatments were recorded for the NCG followed by DDC and CC treatments. Significantly lower values of soil pH, and electric conductivity and the highest values of soil organic C, total N, available P, K, Ca, and Mg were detected under the NCG followed by the DDC and CC treatments, as compared to the UND area. The highest values of earthworm density and dry mass, and soil microbial respiration were found in the NCG followed by the DDC and CC treatments. Fine root biomass was significantly higher in the UND area (92.27 g m-2) followed by the DDC, NCG and CC treatments. We can conclude that the effects of gap size on the recovery values of compacted soil were significant in terms of greater nutrient availability and higher earthworm density and dry mass, suggesting that mimicking natural canopy gap was more effective than the clear-cut gap (CC) for the resilience of the forest stand in the restoration of soil quality.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Gap Area, Timber Extraction, Skid Trails, Soil Compaction, Forest Soil Recovery, Earthworm, Hyrcanian Forest</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 370-377 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3432-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3432-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3432-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jourgholami M, Feghhi J, Tavankar F, Latterini F, Venanzi R, Picchio R Research Articles 2021-08-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3432-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A geographically weighted deep neural network model for research on the spatial distribution of the down dead wood volume in Liangshui National Nature Reserve (China) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3705-014 <p><b>Sun Y, Ao Z, Jia W, Chen Y, Xu K</b></p><p><b>A GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED DEEP NEURAL NETWORK MODEL FOR RESEARCH ON THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE DOWN DEAD WOOD VOLUME IN LIANGSHUI NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE (CHINA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In natural forest ecosystems, there is often abundant down dead wood (DDW) due to wind disasters, which greatly changes the size and structure of forests. Accurately determining the DDW volume (DDWV) is crucial for sustaining forest management, predicting the dynamic changes in forest resources and assessing the risks of natural disasters or disturbances. However, existing models cannot accurately express the significant spatial nonstationarity or complexity in their spatial relationships. To this end, we established a geographically weighted deep neural network (GWDNN) model that constructs a spatially weighted neural network (SWNN) through geographic location data and builds a neural network through stand factors and remote sensing factors to improve the interpretability of the spatial model of DDWV. To verify the effectiveness of this method, using 2019 data from Liangshui National Nature Reserve, we compared model fit, predictive ability and residual spatial autocorrelation among the GWDNN model and four other spatial models: an ordinary least squares (OLS) model, a linear mixed model (LMM), a geographically weighted regression (GWR) model and a deep neural network (DNN) model. The experimental results show that the GWDNN model is far superior to the other four models according to various indicators; the coefficient of determination R2, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), Moran’s I and Z-statistic values of the GWDNN model were 0.95, 1.05, 0.77, -0.01 and -0.06, respectively. In addition, compared with the other models, the GWDNN model can more accurately depict local spatial variations and details of the DDWV in Liangshui National Nature Reserve.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Down Dead Wood Volume (DDWV), Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Model, Linear Mixed Model (LMM), Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) Model, Deep Neural Network (DNN) Model, Geographically Weighted Deep Neural Network (GWDNN) Model</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 353-361 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3705-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3705-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3705-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sun Y, Ao Z, Jia W, Chen Y, Xu K Research Articles 2021-07-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3705-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Method for the analysis of the relationship between forest cover and streamflow in watersheds https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3536-014 <p><b>Ferraz FT, Zanetti SS, Cecílio RA, De Carvalho D, De Oliveira FR</b></p><p><b>METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOREST COVER AND STREAMFLOW IN WATERSHEDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The relationship between forest cover and streamflow of watersheds is complex and still controversial in the scientific literature. To investigate suchrelationship we propose an alternative method which requires the following information for each watershed: percentage of forest cover, annual rainfall, average specific streamflow (qave), and minimum mean specific streamflow in seven consecutive days (q7). As a case study, we analyzed a dataset composed by 25 watersheds located in the Espírito Santo State (ESS), Brazil. We conducted simple and multiple linear regression analyses as well as partial correlation analysis between the above parameters. To reduce the effect of heterogeneity of environmental factors, watersheds with similar characteristics in term of rainfall, drainage area, and both rainfall and drainage area were grouped by cluster analysis, and the above regression and correlation analysis was repeated on each group. Our results using the whole dataset showed that forest cover has a negative relationship with watershed streamflow. The analysis of homogeneous groups of watersheds showed that the average minimum streamflow during seven days (q7) was more sensitive to the presence of forest cover, showing a negative relationship, especially in watersheds with low annual rainfall, while in areas with high precipitation, the annual rainfall showed a strong influence on the hydrological responses of watersheds, masking the effect of forest cover. The proposed method may be easily extended to other areas, and allowsthe inclusion of other relevant environmental variables according to specific cases.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forests, Cluster Analysis, Water Regime, Land Use, Watershed Management</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 344-352 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3536-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3536-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3536-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ferraz FT, Zanetti SS, Cecílio RA, De Carvalho D, De Oliveira FR Research Articles 2021-07-21 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3536-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Response of Chinese sea buckthorn clonal growth and photosynthetic physiological mechanisms toward a soil moisture gradient https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3564-014 <p><b>Bai S, Nie K, Ji S, Chen S, Yao Z, Li G, Tang C, Guo F</b></p><p><b>RESPONSE OF CHINESE SEA BUCKTHORN CLONAL GROWTH AND PHOTOSYNTHETIC PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS TOWARD A SOIL MOISTURE GRADIENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Studies have reported on the regulation of clonal growth in Chinese sea buckthorn in response to environmental resource availability, but these studies have been limited to external mechanisms. In this report, we controlled irrigation to generate a soil moisture gradient in order to examine the photosynthetic physiological mechanisms regulating clonal growth in this species. The results indicated that as irrigation intensity increased, the soil water content increased vertically and tissue water content first increased and then decreased. Furthermore, Rubisco activase (RCA) and Mg-chelatase H subunit (CHLH) gene expression levels, photosynthetic capacity (net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, chlorophyll content, and stomatal conductance), and clonal growth (ramet growth, clonal proliferation, clonal propagation) all showed a quadratic parabolic change (i.e., first increasing and then decreasing). In addition, gene expression levels and tissue water content, photosynthetic capacity and gene expression levels, and clonal growth and photosynthetic capacity were all significantly positively correlated. When irrigation intensity (soil water content) is exceedingly low or high, the tissue water content is also low, RCA and CHLH gene expression levels are low, photosynthetic capacity is weak, clonal growth ability is inhibited, and clonal growth layout tends toward the “guerrilla type.” This type manifests as fewer and smaller clonal daughter ramets that are sparsely distributed with reduced clonal organ extension ability and branching intensity. When irrigation intensity (soil water content) is moderate, the tissue water content, gene expression levels, and photosynthetic capacity is high, clonal growth ability is completely uninhibited, and the clonal growth layout tends toward the “aggregated type.” This type is associated with numerous large clonal daughter ramets that are densely distributed with high clonal organ extension ability and branching intensity. Therefore, as irrigation intensity continuously changes from inordinately low to moderate to exceedingly high, Chinese sea buckthorn regulates clonal growth by photosynthetic capacity through photosynthetic gene expression. This results in a clonal growth layout continuum of “guerrilla-aggregated-guerrilla” that depends on irrigation intensity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Clonal Growth, Irrigation Intensity, Tissue Water Content, Photosynthetic Genes, RCA and CHLH Gene Expression, Hippophae rhamnoides ssp. sinensis, Mu Us Sandy Land</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 337-343 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3564-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3564-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3564-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bai S, Nie K, Ji S, Chen S, Yao Z, Li G, Tang C, Guo F Research Articles 2021-07-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3564-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Potential relationships of selected abiotic variables, chemical elements and stand characteristics with soil organic carbon in spruce and beech stands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3654-014 <p><b>Horváth M, Bečvárová PH, Šarapatka B, Vencálek O, Zouhar V</b></p><p><b>POTENTIAL RELATIONSHIPS OF SELECTED ABIOTIC VARIABLES, CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND STAND CHARACTERISTICS WITH SOIL ORGANIC CARBON IN SPRUCE AND BEECH STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Increasing attention is given to carbon sequestration in forest soil with regard to climate change and the mitigation of its impacts; therefore, it is very important to know which parameters and variables could influence carbon sequestration and throw light on their relationships. The aim of this study is to assess the role of abiotic variables, chemical elements and stand parameters in soil carbon sequestration, and clarify which of these could affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the surface mineral horizon in Norway spruce and European beech stands in Czech Republic. We analyzed 81 monitoring plots within pure and mixed stands of spruce and beech with different degrees of forest naturalness. In each monitoring plot, SOC content, chemical elements (content of bound forms of oxides: tFe, tAl, tCa, tMg, tK, tMn, tP, tN) and related variables (BS, pH, C/N) were measured. The effect of these variables, including abiotic variables (elevation, temperature, precipitation, duration of growing season and soil group) on SOC content was tested, and differences between represented stands (natural vs. unnatural, pure vs. mixed, spruce vs. beech) were analyzed. The results showed that elevation has a positive relationship to SOC content. Of the studied chemical elements and related variables, only tN content was significantly related to SOC content. A positive relationship was also demonstrated between forest naturalness and SOC content. The highest SOC and tN contents were observed in pure natural Norway spruce stands, which likely play a very important role in SOC sequestration. In the context of the current issue of unnatural Norway spruce stands in the Czech Republic, a higher SOC content was found in mixed natural European beech stands than in either pure or mixed unnatural Norway spruce stands. Therefore, replacing the unnatural Norway spruce stands in the study area with mixed natural European beech stands could represent a viable alternative to current forest management in terms of soil carbon sequestration, especially in the context of global climate change and spruce dieback.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Carbon Sequestration, Forest Soil, Norway Spruce, European Beech, Chemical Elements</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 320-328 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3654-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3654-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3654-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Horváth M, Bečvárová PH, Šarapatka B, Vencálek O, Zouhar V Research Articles 2021-07-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3654-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Study on the chemical composition of teak wood extracts in different organic solvents https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3717-014 <p><b>Colbu DE, Sandu I, Vasilache V, Earar K, Paraschiv ED, Sandu IG, Iliescu Bulgaru D, Sandu AV</b></p><p><b>STUDY ON THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF TEAK WOOD EXTRACTS IN DIFFERENT ORGANIC SOLVENTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Teak wood (Tectona grandis Linn F.) is known for its high natural resistance to attack by microorganisms. For this reason, teak wood is used for restoration works. This paper provides an assessment of the extraction capacity of various organic solvents and the chemical and physical-structural characteristics of extracts of teak wood with an age of 40 years. On the basis of literature data, we selected the solvents with potential synergetic activity in preservation treatments. For this purpose we used the SEM-EDX and GC+MS methods, assisted by computerized processing software, and corroborated the data obtained from these two instrumental techniques.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Teak Wood, Composition, Organic Solvents, Extracts, SEM-EDX, GC+MS</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 329-336 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3717-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3717-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3717-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Colbu DE, Sandu I, Vasilache V, Earar K, Paraschiv ED, Sandu IG, Iliescu Bulgaru D, Sandu AV Research Articles 2021-07-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3717-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth and physiological acclimation to shade in young plants of Adesmia bijuga Phil., a critically endangered species in central Chile https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3640-014 <p><b>Yáñez MA, Gómez P, Gajardo J, Espinoza S</b></p><p><b>GROWTH AND PHYSIOLOGICAL ACCLIMATION TO SHADE IN YOUNG PLANTS OF ADESMIA BIJUGA PHIL., A CRITICALLY ENDANGERED SPECIES IN CENTRAL CHILE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Adesmia bijuga Phil. is an endemic and endangered shrub species of central Chile. Its potential shade intolerance is one of the leading hypotheses for its vigor loss when the species grows beneath closed canopies. The objective of this study was to assess the growth and physiological acclimation to the shade of young plants of A. bijuga. A nursery experiment was established with three light levels based on the interception of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (TRT0: control at full sun; TRT60: 60% shaded; TRT90: 90% shaded), and maintained for 71 days during the summer season. Growth and leaf morpho-physiological responses were evaluated at the beginning, at the middle, and at the end of the experiment. The shading treatment increased plant height (H), live crown percentage (Lcrown), and specific leaf area (SLA) compared to the control treatment at full sun. However, light-saturated photosynthetic rate (Amax), dark respiration rate (Rd), and light compensation point (Γi) were higher in TRT60 than in the other treatments, while no differences were found among treatments for the apparent quantum yield (α). At this stage of plant development, our results suggest high acclimation plasticity of A. bijuga to light levels; however, a semi-shade environment (i.e., TRT60) favored a better performance of the species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Adesmia bijuga, Shade Tolerance, Photosynthesis, Light Acclimation, Forest Restoration</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 307-312 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3640-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3640-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3640-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Yáñez MA, Gómez P, Gajardo J, Espinoza S Research Articles 2021-07-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3640-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Improving dimensional stability of Populus cathayana wood by suberin monomers with heat treatment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3684-014 <p><b>Zhang R, Ma E</b></p><p><b>IMPROVING DIMENSIONAL STABILITY OF POPULUS CATHAYANA WOOD BY SUBERIN MONOMERS WITH HEAT TREATMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper presents a wood modification method using renewable and non-toxic suberin monomers (SMs) under heat treatment to improve dimensional stability of wood from fast-growing species. Specimens of poplar (Populus cathayana) wood were impregnated with SMs and then subjected to heat treatment at 180°C for two hours. The untreated wood (Control), suberin monomers impregnated wood (Sub) and suberin monomers impregnated wood with heat treatment (Sub 180°C) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hygroscopicity and dimensional stability of modified wood were evaluated. The results showed that SMs in the treated wood were located in the cell lumen of fibers and vessels, as well as in the cell wall which was bulked. The dimensional stability of SMs modified wood was improved, and this enhancement became more pronounced by a combination with heat treatment. The anti-swelling efficiency of Sub and Sub 180°C treatments were 30.0% and 49.6%, respectively. The presented results showed potential of SMs treatment to develop an effective modification approach and improve dimensional stability of wood of fast-growing species, as well as to promote the reuse of suberin from the bark.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Poplar, Wood Modification, Suberin, Dimensional Stability, Heat Treatment</p><p><i>iForest 14 (4): 313-319 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3684-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3684-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3684-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zhang R, Ma E Research Articles 2021-07-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3684-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Could cattle ranching and soybean cultivation be sustainable? A systematic review and a meta-analysis for the Amazon https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3779-014 <p><b>da Silveira Bueno R, Marchetti L, Cocozza C, Marchetti M, Salbitano F</b></p><p><b>COULD CATTLE RANCHING AND SOYBEAN CULTIVATION BE SUSTAINABLE? A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND A META-ANALYSIS FOR THE AMAZON</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tropical forests are being destroyed to make space for agricultural activities with the assumption that they are required to feed the growing global population. Consequently, more sustainable practices are needed to guarantee food security and environmental protection of highly threatened natural biodiversity hotspots like the Amazon rainforest. Cattle ranching and soybean cultivation are by far the greater drivers of land use change and deforestation in the Amazon region. We performed a systematic review of papers related to these two main drivers and a meta-analysis on the effects of sustainable practices on different ecosystem services. The results of the review highlight a large concern about the negative impacts of cattle ranching and soybean crops on the ecosystem dynamics and functionality of the Amazon biome, in addition to the clear relationship with deforestation. Another relevant finding is the large gap in empirical research concerning the effects of sustainable practices on different ecosystem services. Such a gap is evident since only 13 studies from the initial database met the requirements for a meta-analysis. Of the 171 comparisons between the ecosystem services provided in conventional land-uses and those adopting sustainable practices, the overall model indicated a non-significant effect, although the results were heterogeneous. Crop yield and herbage biomass were negatively affected, while livestock productivity, soil organic carbon, soil fertility and woody biomass were positively affected. Also, the six sustainable practices evaluated showed different outcomes, from a predominance of positive effects in silvopastoral systems, to a predominance of negative effects on agrosilvicultural systems. Our systematic review and meta-analysis indicate that cattle ranching and soybean cultivation can indeed be conducted in a more sustainable way, enhancing the provision of ecosystem services while avoiding deforestation. In turn, our results also highlight the lack of empirical data and the need to standardize the methodologies used to deeply assess the effects of such practices. In conclusion, we suggest a way to advance research into the real effects of sustainable practices aimed at reducing the negative impacts of cattle ranching and soybean crops in the Amazon.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tropical Forest, Agroforestry, Ecosystem Services, Silvopastoral Systems, Sustainable Practices, Cattle, Soybean</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 285-298 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3779-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3779-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3779-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> da Silveira Bueno R, Marchetti L, Cocozza C, Marchetti M, Salbitano F Research Articles 2021-06-08 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3779-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Age and thinning effects on elemental composition of Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata needles https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3575-014 <p><b>Gómez-Rey MX, Couto-Vázquez A, González-Prieto SJ</b></p><p><b>AGE AND THINNING EFFECTS ON ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION OF PINUS PINASTER AND PINUS RADIATA NEEDLES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The information about the impacts of thinning on the availability of micro-nutrients, as well as macro-nutrients other than N, P and K, is still scarce. We assessed the changes in the concentrations of 12 elements (Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P and Zn) with needle age (current year or 1-year-old) and three early thinning treatments in two of the most widely distributed pines in SW Europe: P. pinaster and P. radiata. Four treatments were setup in triplicate: control (C), light thinning (LT), heavy thinning (HT) and selection thinning of dominant trees (ST), with 0%, 10%, 20% and 20% of total basal area removed, respectively. Needle δ15N varied little with needle age and most thinning treatments in both species, but ST triggered an increase of N in P. pinaster needles. Needle Ca and Na increased with age, but were unaffected by treatment. Foliar K, Zn and Cu decreased with age in both species and increased with ST only in P. pinaster. Jointly considering all treatments, there was no needle age effect on Mn concentration, neither in P. radiata nor in P. pinaster, but in the latter species Mn levels increased with age in the selection thinning plots. There were significant thinning effects on Mn levels in both P. pinaster (ST>C) and P. radiata (HT > LT, ST). Foliar Fe and Al concentration increased with age in both pines; the former increased with ST only in P. pinaster while the latter was affected by thinning only in current year needles and without a clear tendency. Neither age nor treatment effects on needle Mg and B were found, while for P needle age had a significant effect only in P. pinaster.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaves, Macro-nutrient, Micro-nutrient, Management, Pines</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 299-306 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3575-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3575-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3575-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Gómez-Rey MX, Couto-Vázquez A, González-Prieto SJ Research Articles 2021-06-08 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3575-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Validation of visual and machine strength grading for Italian beech with additional sampling https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3649-014 <p><b>Brunetti M, Aminti G, Nocetti M, Russo G</b></p><p><b>VALIDATION OF VISUAL AND MACHINE STRENGTH GRADING FOR ITALIAN BEECH WITH ADDITIONAL SAMPLING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The typical variability of wood properties, higher than for other construction materials, requires a thorough knowledge of its mechanical performance. To make the use of wooden structural products safe and at the same time efficient, a proven methodology for the selection of the raw material is also crucial. As a general rule, the initial sampling is of vital importance to develop effective strength grading processes, but it is rarely verified with additional samples, besides those already included during the development of the grading procedure itself. Here, a new source of sawn timber was collected to verify the original sampling and to validate the visual and machine strength grading early developed for Italian beech. The new pieces were graded, destructively tested and the characteristic values of the graded material were calculated. The dispersion of the new data was found to be entirely included in that of the original data, proving an effective sampling of the resource variability. The correlations between properties were very similar comparing the original and the new sample, with the exception of the correlations between the dynamic modulus of elasticity and both bending strength and stiffness, which were lower in the new sample. The characteristic values of the graded new material were generally higher than the characteristics values of the corresponding strength classes as tabled in the technical standard. Only for one grade in the machine grading the strength reached 98.9% the class value, anyhow above the 90% required by the procedure of the checking of existing settings in a particular location, as provided by the related standard. In conclusion, the earlier development of the strength grading of Italian beech confirmed to be correct and safe.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hardwood, Visual Grading, Machine Grading, Structural Timber</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 260-267 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3649-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3649-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3649-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Brunetti M, Aminti G, Nocetti M, Russo G Research Articles 2021-05-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3649-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Thermo-modified native black poplar (Populus nigra L.) wood as an insulation material https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3710-014 <p><b>Todaro L, Liuzzi S, Pantaleo AM, Lo Giudice V, Moretti N, Stefanizzi P</b></p><p><b>THERMO-MODIFIED NATIVE BLACK POPLAR (POPULUS NIGRA L.) WOOD AS AN INSULATION MATERIAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Extensive research projects have been carried out on thermal modification of wood material, yet thermal properties of thermally modified poplar wood have not been comprehensively investigated. Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) is a Eurasian species native to Italy which is rarely used for the production of high-performance products, though it is one of the least expensive hardwoods on the market. To explore alternative applications of poplar wood such as building facade or fire resistance materials, reliable data of thermal behaviour of thermally modified wood at high temperatures are needed. In this work, the thermal behaviour of native black poplar wood after thermal modification at different temperatures (180 °C, 200 °C and 220 °C) was analyzed. Thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and porosity were measured on poplar wood boards, as well as mass loss and wood color changes after heat treatment were quantified. Thermal conductivity of wood samples showed significant changes after treatment at 200 and 220 °C, but not at 180 °C. Wood porosity showed significant differences with the control when the samples were modified at a temperature of 220 °C. Increasing color differences were observed in wood samples by increasing the thermal modification temperature. Also, the mass loss of wood samples increased and equilibrium moisture content significantly dropped down after thermal modification. Our results showed that the use of thermally-modified black poplar wood could be considered as a viable alternative to chemically treated wood products for specific applications where high insulation is needed, such as saunas or windows, and for façades elements.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Thermal Modification, Poplar, Insulation, Thermal Properties</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 268-273 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3710-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3710-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3710-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Todaro L, Liuzzi S, Pantaleo AM, Lo Giudice V, Moretti N, Stefanizzi P Research Articles 2021-05-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3710-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Hardness and contact angle of thermo-treated poplar plywood for bio-building https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3662-014 <p><b>Zanuttini R, Negro F, Cremonini C</b></p><p><b>HARDNESS AND CONTACT ANGLE OF THERMO-TREATED POPLAR PLYWOOD FOR BIO-BUILDING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The interest towards poplar cultivation and its wood has recently been growing in Italy, where the use of timber and wood-based materials in construction is increasing as well. Poplar plywood, with a national production of around 270.000 m3 in 2017, is a key product for the Italian wood sector, and currently is destined for several applications as component for furniture and motorhomes. Previous research has shown that thermal treatment can be effectively applied to poplar plywood in order to make it suitable to the requirements of new end-uses. The present study aims to widen the knowledge of the effects of thermal treatment on poplar plywood. With this purpose, 7-layered, 12-mm thick plywood bonded with urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) resin was thermally treated for 2 h at 170, 190 and 210 °C through the Termovuoto® process. The treatment aimed to improve the dimensional stability and durability against fungal decay. The process was set at lower temperature and shorter time than those of many thermal treatments commonly used in practice in order to limit the reduction in mechanical properties and to maintain an adequate bonding quality. The above properties were already verified by previous research, whereas in this study Brinell hardness and contact angle of treated panels were investigated as relevant for several end-uses that can be prospected in building and in outdoor environments. Brinell hardness decreased from 10.8 to 8.3 N mm-2 and contact angle increased from 75.8° to 103.6°. Overall, treatment at 190 °C seems the most suitable to induce balanced modifications in the panels. From a technical point of view, these appear ready to enter the market, for instance for use in exterior claddings, partitions and outdoor flooring.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Brinell Hardness, Contact Angle, Plywood, Poplar, Thermo-treatment</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 274-277 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3662-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3662-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3662-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zanuttini R, Negro F, Cremonini C Research Articles 2021-05-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3662-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of forest leaf area index using satellite multispectral and synthetic aperture radar data in Iran https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3633-014 <p><b>Vafaei S, Fathizadeh O, Puletti N, Fadaei H, Baqer Rasooli S, Vaglio Laurin G</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF FOREST LEAF AREA INDEX USING SATELLITE MULTISPECTRAL AND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR DATA IN IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Different satellite datasets, including multispectral Sentinel 2 and synthetic aperture radar Sentinel 1 and ALOS2, were tested to estimate the Leaf Area Index (LAI) in the Zagros forests, Ilam province, in Iran. Field data were collected in 61 sample plots by hemispherical photographs, to train and validate the LAI estimation models. Different satellite data combinations were used as input in regression models built with the following algorithms: Multiple Linear Regression, Random Forests, and Partial Least Square Regression. The results indicate that Leaf Area Index can be best estimated using integrated ALOS2 and Sentinel 2 data; these inputs generated the model with higher accuracy (R2 = 0.84). The combination of a single band and a vegetation index from Sentinel 2 also led to successful results (R2 = 0.81). Lower accuracy was obtained when using only ALOS 2 (R2 = 0.72), but this dataset is helpful where cloud coverage affects optical data. Sentinel 1 data was not useful for LAI prediction. The optimal model was based on the traditional Multiple Linear Regression algorithm, using a preliminary input selection step to exclude multicollinearity effects. To avoid this step, the use of Partial Least Square Regression may be an alternative, as this algorithm was able to produce estimates similar to those obtained with the best model.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaf Area Index, Sentinel 2, ALOS 2, Forest Monitoring</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 278-284 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3633-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3633-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3633-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vafaei S, Fathizadeh O, Puletti N, Fadaei H, Baqer Rasooli S, Vaglio Laurin G Research Articles 2021-05-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3633-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Intra-annual tree growth responds to micrometeorological variability in the central Amazon https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3532-014 <p><b>Antezana-Vera SA, Marenco RA</b></p><p><b>INTRA-ANNUAL TREE GROWTH RESPONDS TO MICROMETEOROLOGICAL VARIABILITY IN THE CENTRAL AMAZON</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Intra-annual distribution of precipitation in central Amazonia leads to a short mild dry season, which is associated with an increase in irradiance and temperature and a decline in relative humidity; however, the independent effect of each individual climatic variable on tree growth is still under investigation. The objective of this study was to determine how tree growth (inferred from radial stem increment) responds to monthly variations of micrometeorological variables in the central Amazon. During five years (2013-2017) we measured tree growth in 51 trees from nine species and, above the forest canopy, collected environmental data, such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), air temperature (T), precipitation, air relative humidity (RH), air vapor pressure deficit (VPD), reference evapotranspiration (ETo), and soil water content (SWC). We used principal component regression to evaluate the effect of micrometeorological variability on tree growth. Mean tree growth across species was responsive to variations in almost all the micrometeorological variables examined, with the exception of mean and minimum temperature, maximum RH, and minimum VPD. Mean tree growth across species increased with increasing precipitation, RHmean, RHmin and SWC, while it decreased with increasing PAR, Tmax, and ETo. It was also shown that an increase in VPDmean and VPDmax has a negative effect on tree growth. These results contribute to improve our understanding of effect of climate variability on tree growth, and shed light on the potential effect of severe droughts in the central Amazon.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Atmospheric Evaporative Demand, Tropical Rainforest, Wood Density</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 242-249 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3532-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3532-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3532-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Antezana-Vera SA, Marenco RA Research Articles 2021-05-21 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3532-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Factors affecting the quantity and type of tree-related microhabitats in Mediterranean mountain forests of high nature value https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3568-014 <p><b>Marziliano PA, Antonucci S, Tognetti R, Marchetti M, Chirici G, Corona P, Lombardi F</b></p><p><b>FACTORS AFFECTING THE QUANTITY AND TYPE OF TREE-RELATED MICROHABITATS IN MEDITERRANEAN MOUNTAIN FORESTS OF HIGH NATURE VALUE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree-related microhabitats (hereafter TreMs) are structures occurring on trees, such as rot holes, cavities, large nests, mould, fruiting bodies and mycelia of decomposer fungi. TreMs have been widely recognized as important substrates and structures useful for biodiversity conservation in forest ecosystems, and they can be used as indicators for describing and monitoring forest naturalness. However, most studies on the occurrence of TreMs have been mainly done in forest ecosystems of Central Europe, while less research has been conducted in Mediterranean mountain forests. In this study, we investigated the diversity and abundance of 23 types of TreMs on living trees and on deadwood in seven Mediterranean mountains unmanaged forests located in the Apennines (Italy). The abundance of TreMs was evaluated by counting the number of TreMs per tree, while the diversity of TreMs was evaluated by means of the Shannon-Wiener index. We focused on the relationships between diversity and abundance of TreMs, and tree size (e.g., diameter, height, volume), and the time since the last harvest. Among the investigated stands, 2612 living trees, 457 standing dead trees and snags, and 1247 lying deadwood pieces were analysed. For living trees, a generalized linear mixed model was applied to test the effect of several variables on the abundance of TreMs per tree. Diameter at breast height (DBH) of tree stems influenced the abundance and diversity of TreMs. The time since the last harvest also significantly affected the probability that TreMs could be formed in a long-term perspective. The interaction of the predictors “DBH2” and “Years since the last harvest” generated a better model than the one in which the two variables were kept separate. Indeed, these two factors together would better represent the transition of a previously managed forest to a more natural state over time. This study might provide useful information to land managers committed to forestry practices towards sustainable management and biodiversity conservation, especially referring to survey and inventory of forests of high nature value.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity Indicators, Forest Structure, Old-growth Forests, Tree Microhabitats, Woody Debris</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 250-259 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3568-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3568-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3568-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marziliano PA, Antonucci S, Tognetti R, Marchetti M, Chirici G, Corona P, Lombardi F Research Articles 2021-05-21 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3568-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Are Mediterranean forest ecosystems under the threat of invasive species Solanum elaeagnifolium? https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3706-014 <p><b>Formozis G, Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas P</b></p><p><b>ARE MEDITERRANEAN FOREST ECOSYSTEMS UNDER THE THREAT OF INVASIVE SPECIES SOLANUM ELAEAGNIFOLIUM?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. is one of the most invasive plant species worldwide that colonizes crops and human disturbed lands, while it appears at the edge of forest ecosystems. Its control still remains an unsolved problem around the world. Understanding its distribution under predicted climate change, could contribute to an effective management and conservation of ecosystems in the future. This research was conducted in order to investigate the capacity of this species to invade Mediterranean forest ecosystems, and if the allelopathy effects of forest tree species could control its regeneration, thus contributing to a natural and biological management practice aimed to prevent the species from pervading into Mediterranean forest ecosystems. Results showed that S. elaeagnifolium can establish itself outside and along the forest edges, but not in a typical forest environment. The leaf extracts of Pinus brutia, Cupressus sempervirens, Quercus coccifera and Quercus pubescens significantly inhibited the germination of S. elaeagnifolium. Root regenerative ability of the cuttings was also significantly affected by the leaf extract treatments. P. brutia leaf extract had significantly the highest inhibitory activity on root regenerative ability of the species. Despite the promising findings of this study, absence of S. elaeagnifolium in Mediterranean forest ecosystems can be attributed to a combination of factors. In the context of climate change, especially in hot and dry Mediterranean areas, and the expected increase of forest disturbances (e.g., fires), the findings of the study could contribute towards the restriction of this invasive alien species by an appropriate management of forest ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Alien Species, Allelopathy, Forest Conservation, Plant Invasion, Weed Control</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 236-241 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3706-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3706-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3706-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Formozis G, Tsakaldimi M, Ganatsas P Research Articles 2021-05-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3706-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Commentaries & Perspectives: JRC study on harvested forest area: resolving key misunderstandings https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0059-014 <p><b>Grassi G, Cescatti A, Ceccherini G</b></p><p><b>JRC STUDY ON HARVESTED FOREST AREA: RESOLVING KEY MISUNDERSTANDINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A recent study on forest harvest in the EU (Ceccherini et al. 2020) reported a strong increase in clear-cut harvested area in recent years, based on remote sensing information. This triggered a heated debate and many critical comments. Apart from several fair and constructive criticisms, which were welcome, we found that some comments have been either not based on evidence or affected by serious misunderstandings. Here we clarify some technical aspects that were omitted or misrepresented in the public debate. Overall, the original study used in a scientifically correct way the best information available at that time. After the study was published, a previously undocumented inconsistency in the time series emerged in the original dataset used. After correcting for this inconsistency, updated results confirm an increase in clear-cut harvested area, but not as abrupt as originally reported. Contrary to what many critics say, this information should be seen as complementing and not necessarily contradicting country statistics, because the latter typically refer to total harvest (including thinning, etc.) and not clear-cut only. Finally, it should not be overlooked that the main aim of the original study was to offer a vision for integrating satellite data into the monitoring of forest resources. This was achieved: the JRC study showed the potential (and limitations) for high-resolution satellite maps to track the temporal evolution of clear-cut forest harvest in EU.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Harvested Forest Area, Remote Sensed Datasets, Global Forest Change (GFC), High-Resolution Satellite Maps</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 231-235 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0059-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0059-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0059-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Grassi G, Cescatti A, Ceccherini G Commentaries & Perspectives 2021-05-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0059-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Is there an effect of storage depth on the persistence of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) seeds? A seed burial experiment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3685-014 <p><b>Tiebel K, Huth F, Wagner S</b></p><p><b>IS THERE AN EFFECT OF STORAGE DEPTH ON THE PERSISTENCE OF SILVER BIRCH (BETULA PENDULA ROTH) AND ROWAN (SORBUS AUCUPARIA L.) SEEDS? A SEED BURIAL EXPERIMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Sorbus aucuparia L. (rowan) and Betula spp. (birch) are the most common of the early successional pioneer tree species in central Europe with the ability to form a soil seed bank. Little is known about the reasons for the high variations observed in the persistence in the soil of rowan and birch seeds. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of buried birch and rowan seeds to form short-term persistent soil seed banks and to analyse the influence of burial depth on seed persistence. An artificial seed burial experiment was initiated to study the persistence of birch seeds and rowan seeds, with and without pulp, stored at depths of 2, 5 and 10 cm in mineral soil over 2.5 years. The predicted maximum storability periods for buried birch seeds was 13 years, compared to 4.5 years for rowan seeds with pulp and 3.5 years without pulp. The lower storage capacity of rowan seeds was demonstrated by germinations in the darkness within soil of 3-22% of seeds without pulp and 4-48% of seeds with pulp. Germination percentages of birch and rowan with and without pulp did not differ between depths. Only burial duration had an effect for either tree species. Birch and rowan seeds are able to form short-term persistent soil seed banks. Birch accumulates a seed reserve in the soil over time, until a change in conditions conducive to germination occurs, while rowan seeds germinate promptly after overcoming seed dormancy. The pulp provides no benefits in relation to the persistence of rowan seeds; rather, it appears to act as a physical inhibitor of germination. Therefore, annual input of fresh seeds is required for the success of rowan. Seed input every few years seems sufficient to guarantee a minimum number of viable birch seeds.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil, Propagule Bank, Seed Longevity, Germination Within Soil, Pioneer Trees, Dormancy</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 224-230 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3685-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3685-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3685-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tiebel K, Huth F, Wagner S Research Articles 2021-05-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3685-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editorials: Obituary: Ervedo Giordano, silviculturalist and forest ecologist from the Mediterranean, open to the world and to international forestry https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0060-014 <p><b>Scarascia Mugnozza G</b></p><p><b>OBITUARY: ERVEDO GIORDANO, SILVICULTURALIST AND FOREST ECOLOGIST FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN, OPEN TO THE WORLD AND TO INTERNATIONAL FORESTRY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ervedo Giordano passed away in Rome on April 24, 2021. This note describes some of his major scientific contributions to research in silviculture and forest ecology, and sketches out the remarkable personality and character traits that he displayed throughout his life.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Silviculture, Forest Ecology, Mediterranean Forests, Italy</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 221-223 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0060-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0060-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0060-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Scarascia Mugnozza G Editorials 2021-05-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0060-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Determination of differences in temperature regimes on healthy and bark-beetle colonised spruce trees using a handheld thermal camera https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3531-014 <p><b>Majdák A, Jakuš R, Blaženec M</b></p><p><b>DETERMINATION OF DIFFERENCES IN TEMPERATURE REGIMES ON HEALTHY AND BARK-BEETLE COLONISED SPRUCE TREES USING A HANDHELD THERMAL CAMERA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study, we compared the daily temperature regimes of healthy uninfected trees in the interior of a forest stand and at the fresh forest edge with infested trees at the forest edge in an area affected by a bark beetle outbreak. We estimated the potential of a handheld thermal camera for early identification of bark-beetle infested trees. We show that infested trees have significantly higher trunk temperatures than uninfested trees, which is more visible on the shine side of the trunk, and we report the differences in temperature between the shine and shadow sides. The differences are more noticeable on a warm, bright, and sunny day than on cold and cloudy day. The different intensity of solar radiation does not affect the distinction between infested and uninfested trees. The handheld thermal camera shows potential for identifying bark-beetle infested trees by scanning tree trunks on bright sunny days.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bark-beetle Infested Trees, Handheld Thermal Camera, Incoming Solar Radiation, Norway Spruce, Solar Radiation Modelling, Temperature Differences</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 203-211 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3531-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3531-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3531-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Majdák A, Jakuš R, Blaženec M Research Articles 2021-05-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3531-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Density, extractives and decay resistance variabilities within branch wood from four agroforestry hardwood species https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3693-014 <p><b>Terrasse F, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Guibal D, Pignolet L, Candelier K</b></p><p><b>DENSITY, EXTRACTIVES AND DECAY RESISTANCE VARIABILITIES WITHIN BRANCH WOOD FROM FOUR AGROFORESTRY HARDWOOD SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Agroforestry practices like pruning trees to control the light flux to crops produce every year a large volume of branches which is valorized by farmers as mulching or energy fuel. However, according to the literature, the wood of branches shows higher rates of polyphenols than stem wood and this can open some new perspectives for branch exploitation. In this study, the wood properties (density, mechanical properties, extractive content and decay resistance) were determined on branches of different sizes from oak, chestnut, poplar and walnut trees collected in two agroforestry systems. These properties were evaluated according to the wood age and the sampling position along the radial and longitudinal axes of the branch. All samples were analyzed by NIR-Spectroscopy and a predicting model aimed to assess the branch wood properties has been developed. Wood characteristics largely vary between species and do not exactly follow the same trends from one species to another. Overall, hardwood density of branches is similar to that of trunks, the content in wood extractives follows similar evolutions, and the decay resistance of branch wood does not seem to be really impacted by its position along the branch. Reliable NIRS models were built to easily predict the wood density and extractives content of agroforestry branches. The extractives content and the decay resistance of branch hardwood appear to be substantially lower than those of trunks, which suggests a non-suitability of branch wood for developing high-valued green chemistry.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Agroforestry, Branches, NIR-Spectrometry, Wood Quality</p><p><i>iForest 14 (3): 212-220 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3693-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3693-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3693-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Terrasse F, Brancheriau L, Marchal R, Boutahar N, Lotte S, Guibal D, Pignolet L, Candelier K Research Articles 2021-05-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3693-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Mid-rotation fertilization and liming of Pinus taeda: growth, litter, fine root mass, and elemental composition https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3626-014 <p><b>Adam WM, Rodrigues VDS, Magri E, Motta ACV, Prior SA, Moraes Zambon L, Lima RLD</b></p><p><b>MID-ROTATION FERTILIZATION AND LIMING OF PINUS TAEDA: GROWTH, LITTER, FINE ROOT MASS, AND ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest floor litter can influence biogeochemical cycling and root growth in Pinus taeda systems, especially on low soil fertility sites. The impact of fertilization and liming on forest floor litter (quantity, elemental composition and root presence) was evaluated in a Pinus taeda stand in southern Brazil. A nutrient omission experiment was initiated in November 2008 on an 11 year-old Pinus taeda plantation. The experiment was a randomized block design with seven treatments and four blocks. The treatments were: complete (macro + micro + lime); minus macronutrients; minus micronutrients; minus K; minus Zn; minus lime; and control. In 2012, forest floor litter samples were collected, divided by layer (new litter, old litter, coarse fragmented forest layer > 2mm, fine fragment forest floor < 2mm, and fine roots) and analyzed for concentrations of Na, Al, and total nutrients. Results indicated that lime increased Ca and Mg concentrations, reduced Al toxicity, and improved fine root growth. An increase in fine roots was observed in treatments without K. There were large increases in Fe and Al as a function of litter age and increased Mn in fragmented litter when lime was applied. There was little variation in forest floor litter accumulation in all treatments. Elemental abundance was C>N>Fe>P>Ca>K>Mg>Mn under control conditions and C>N>Ca>Mg>P>Fe>Mn>K for the complete treatment. Occurrence of needle chlorosis, similar to that reported for Mg, and low growth under lime omission indicate that Mg was a major factor limiting growth. Fertilization and liming affected the bio-cycling of nutrients, Al toxicity, and root growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Nutrient Concentration, Litter, Ca:Al Ratio, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 195-202 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3626-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3626-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3626-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Adam WM, Rodrigues VDS, Magri E, Motta ACV, Prior SA, Moraes Zambon L, Lima RLD Research Articles 2021-04-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3626-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Developing stand transpiration model relating canopy conductance to stand sapwood area in a Korean pine plantation https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3291-014 <p><b>Park J, Cho S, Moon M, Ryu D, Kim HS</b></p><p><b>DEVELOPING STAND TRANSPIRATION MODEL RELATING CANOPY CONDUCTANCE TO STAND SAPWOOD AREA IN A KOREAN PINE PLANTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: With increasing concern for forest water use and anthropogenic alteration of forest structures, understanding the effects of structural changes in forests on transpiration is important. Our aim is to develop a stand transpiration model relating canopy conductance with stand sapwood area (SA) and environmental conditions for assessing the interannual variation in stand transpiration. The stand transpiration model is developed based on multiplicative empirical Gc estimations at eight Korean pine stands with different SAs. The model integrated the response of stomatal conductance to various environmental variables as vapor pressure deficit (D), photosynthetic active radiation (Q), air temperature (Ta), and soil water content (θ). The reference Gc (Gc at D=1kPa) and stomatal sensitivity to D was found to have a significant relationship with the SA, whereas other parameters like stomatal sensitivity to Q or Ta did not show significant relationships with it. The Gc model successfully reproduced changes in stand transpiration with changes in SA and climatic conditions. As this model uses SA, a simple and easily measurable structural variable, it can be easily applied to other Korean pine forests and can help estimate the spatial and temporal variations in stand transpiration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sapwood Area, Canopy Conductance, Stand Transpiration, Empirical Model</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 186-194 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3291-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3291-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3291-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Park J, Cho S, Moon M, Ryu D, Kim HS Research Articles 2021-04-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3291-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The impact of land use on future water balance - A simple approach for analysing climate change effects https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3540-014 <p><b>Herceg A, Kalicz P, Gribovszki Z</b></p><p><b>THE IMPACT OF LAND USE ON FUTURE WATER BALANCE - A SIMPLE APPROACH FOR ANALYSING CLIMATE CHANGE EFFECTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Regional climate change projections for Europe agree in predicting a statistically significant warming in all seasons. The most significant climate change effect is its impact on water cycle through altering precipitation patterns and evapotranspiration processes at multiple scales. The anticipated changes in the distribution and precipitation amounts together with continuously increasing temperatures may induce a higher rate of water consumption in plants, which can generate changes in soil moisture, groundwater, and the water cycle. Thus, climate change can cause changes in the water balance equations structure. A Thornthwaite-type monthly step water balance model was established to compare the water balance in three different surface land cover types: (i) a natural forested area; (ii) a parcel with mixed surface cover; (iii) an agricultural area. The key parameter of the model is the water storage capacity of the soil. Maximal rooting depth of the given area is also determinable during the calibration process using actual evapotranspiration (AET) and soil physical data. The locally calibrated model was employed for assessing future AET and soil moisture of selected land cover types using data from four bias-corrected regional climate models. The projections demonstrate increasing actual evapotranspiration values in each surface cover type at the end of the 21st century. Regarding the 10th percentile minimum soil moisture values, the forested area displayed an increasing trend, while the agricultural field and mixed parcel showed a strong decrease. The 30-year monthly means of evapotranspiration shows the maximum values in June and July, while the minimum soil moisture in September. Water stress analysis indicates water stress is expected to occur only in the agricultural field during the 21st century. The comparison of the three surface covers reveals that forest has the greatest soil water storage capacity due to the highest rooting depth. Thus, according to the projections for 21st century, less water stress is predicted to occur at the forested area compared to the other two surface covers which shows shallow rooting depth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Water Balance, Climate Change, Plant Available Water, Evapotranspiration, Soil Moisture, Water Stress</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 175-185 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3540-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3540-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3540-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Herceg A, Kalicz P, Gribovszki Z Research Articles 2021-04-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3540-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Perspectives of plantation forests in the sustainable forest development of China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3551-014 <p><b>Farooq TH, Shakoor A, Wu X, Li Y, Rashid MHU, Zhang X, Gilani MM, Kumar U, Chen X, Yan W</b></p><p><b>PERSPECTIVES OF PLANTATION FORESTS IN THE SUSTAINABLE FOREST DEVELOPMENT OF CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Modern forestry is gradually moving towards man-made forests on a large scale. Plantations with advanced forestry system have been introduced with the goal of sustainable forestry development and to enhance social, ecological, and economic benefits. Forest plantations with native and exotic species have been established in China and worldwide with shorter rotation cycles than natural forests. In this paper, we discuss the role and perspectives of plantation forests in the Chinese sustainable forest development, the evolution of various plantation programs, the ecological effects of plantations, and the measures to improve plantation forestry. The Chinese government has given substantial importance to nurturing plantation forest resources through various large scale afforestation programs. In 2019, the total area covered by plantations in China reached 79.54 million ha, with a stock volume of 3.39 billion m³ (59.30 m³ per ha); coniferous forests (26.11 million ha, 32.83%) and broad-leaved forests (26.45 million ha, 33.25%) are the dominant types. Plantations have been primarily distributed in the central and southern parts of the country. Plantations with fast-growing and high-yielding tree species facilitated Chinese afforestation activities and improved the administration of forest production, which effectively boosted the forest industry. Plantation forest resources offer many potential productive, economic, and social advantages, though they are also associated with a loss of biodiversity and climate change makes them likely susceptible to disease and insect attack. Appropriate forest management practices during planning, execution, and maintenance of plantations can contribute to the conservation, promotion, and restoration of biodiversity, with the final aim of attaining a balance between having forest plantations and natural forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chinese Fir, Poplar, Eucalyptus, National Forest Inventories of China, Ecological Implications</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 166-174 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3551-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3551-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3551-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Farooq TH, Shakoor A, Wu X, Li Y, Rashid MHU, Zhang X, Gilani MM, Kumar U, Chen X, Yan W Review Papers 2021-04-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3551-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Contrasted growth response of hybrid larch (Larix × marschlinsii), jack pine (Pinus banksiana) and white spruce (Picea glauca) to wood ash application in northwestern Quebec, Canada https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3597-014 <p><b>Bélanger N, Palma Ponce G, Brais S</b></p><p><b>CONTRASTED GROWTH RESPONSE OF HYBRID LARCH (LARIX × MARSCHLINSII), JACK PINE (PINUS BANKSIANA) AND WHITE SPRUCE (PICEA GLAUCA) TO WOOD ASH APPLICATION IN NORTHWESTERN QUEBEC, CANADA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The use of wood ash as a soil amendment in afforestation and reforestation efforts is increasing. While most studies suggest benefits or neutral results on tree growth and survival, a few studies indicate adverse effects. Hybrid larch, jack pine and white spruce were studied at three northwestern Quebec plantation sites after they received wood ash at two application rates. Soil chemical properties, foliar nutrients and seedling growth and mortality were monitored over a period of eight years. The response of soil to ash application was mostly observed in the forest floor and was more pronounced in year 3 than year 8, likely due to the acidifying nature of the boreal soils studied. Jack pine growth increased linearly with wood ash application rates, white spruce growth showed an inconsistent and delayed positive response under the higher application rate, and hybrid larch growth and survival were either increased or decreased under the lower application rate depending of site but decreased at all sites under the higher application rate. The divergence in growth response between tree species underlines a trade-off between species with rapid acquisition of resources (e.g., pine, larch) to species that use more conservative strategies and store nutrients in their tissues for longer periods (e.g., spruce). In the case of hybrid larch, it accumulated larger amounts of Mn in its needles under the higher application rate and thus, the high bioavailability of Mn appears to have been detrimental to its survival and growth. Its higher sensitivity to Mn addition from ash is likely due to its highly acquisitive (nutrients) nature compared to other coniferous species as well as the initial levels of available Mn levels in the soil. The contrasted growth responses reported here under similar growing conditions highlight the importance of identifying suitable species, sites and application rates to maximize the benefits of wood ash amendments for future tree plantations in the boreal forest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood Ash, Fertilization, Boreal Forest, Soil Properties, Foliar Nutrition, Tree Growth</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 155-165 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3597-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3597-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3597-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bélanger N, Palma Ponce G, Brais S Research Articles 2021-04-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3597-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Are we ready for a National Forest Information System? State of the art of forest maps and airborne laser scanning data availability in Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3648-014 <p><b>D’Amico G, Vangi E, Francini S, Giannetti F, Nicolaci A, Travaglini D, Massai L, Giambastiani Y, Terranova C, Chirici G</b></p><p><b>ARE WE READY FOR A NATIONAL FOREST INFORMATION SYSTEM? STATE OF THE ART OF FOREST MAPS AND AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA AVAILABILITY IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest planning, forest management, and forest policy require updated, reliable, and harmonized spatial datasets. In Italy a national geographic Forest Information System (FIS) designed to store and facilitate the access and analysis of spatial datasets is still missing. Among the different information layers which are useful to start populating a FIS, two are essential for their multiple use in the assessment of forest resources: (i) forest mapping, and (ii) data from Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS). Both layers are not available wall-to-wall for Italy, though different local sources of information potentially useful for their implementation already exist. The objectives of this work were to: (i) review forest maps and ALS data availability in Italy; (ii) develop for the first time a high resolution forest mask of Italy which was validated against the official statistics of the Italian National Forest Inventory; (iii) develop the first mosaic of all the main ALS data available in Italy producing a consistent Canopy Height Model (CHM). An on-line geographic FIS with free access to both layers from (ii) and (iii) was developed for demonstration purposes. The total area of forest and other wooded lands computed from the forest mask was 102.608.82 km2 (34% of the Italian territory), i.e., 1.9% less than the NFI benchmark estimate. This map is currently the best wall-to-wall forest mask available for Italy. We showed that only the 63% of the Italian territory (the 60% of the forest area) is covered by ALS data. These results highlight the urgent need for a national strategy to complete the availability of forest data in Italy.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: National Datasets, Forest Inventory, Forest Monitoring, Forest Mask, Airborne Laser Scanning, LiDAR</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 144-154 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3648-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3648-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3648-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> D’Amico G, Vangi E, Francini S, Giannetti F, Nicolaci A, Travaglini D, Massai L, Giambastiani Y, Terranova C, Chirici G Research Articles 2021-03-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3648-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modelling taper and stem volume considering stand density in Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3604-014 <p><b>Hirigoyen A, Navarro-Cerrillo R, Bagnara M, Franco J, Requin F, Rachid-Casnati C</b></p><p><b>MODELLING TAPER AND STEM VOLUME CONSIDERING STAND DENSITY IN EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS AND EUCALYPTUS DUNNII</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus dunnii are the most planted tree species in Uruguay. Anticipating information about the quantity and quality of wood is important for managing intensive forest plantation. The estimate of merchantable and total wood volume is an essential tool in forest planning and management. The aim of this study was to evaluate four systems of taper and merchantable volume that consisted in a taper, a merchantable volume and a total tree volume function. A modified second-order continuous autoregressive error structure corrected the inherent serial autocorrelation of different observations in one tree. Taper and volume equations were fitted simultaneously after autocorrelation correction by full information maximum likelihood method. The segmented system proposed by Fang et al. (2000) produced the best fit as it explained more than 98% of the taper, merchantable volume and total volume variability for both species. In addition, precision of the segmented system was compared with and without incorporating stand density as a variable. Results of this analysis showed that for E. grandis, the predictive accuracy of the model was improved by including the stand density variable, whereas for E. dunnii this variable was not statistically significant. This modelling framework provides an improvement in taper and tree volume predictions for E. dunnii and E. grandis in Uruguay. The possibilities offered by this methodology could be of interest for its application in countries where fast growing plantations are managed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Compatible Systems, Taper, Simultaneous Estimation, Intensive Silviculture, Eucalyptus</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 127-136 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3604-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3604-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3604-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Hirigoyen A, Navarro-Cerrillo R, Bagnara M, Franco J, Requin F, Rachid-Casnati C Research Articles 2021-03-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3604-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Modeling of time consumption for selective and situational precommercial thinning in mountain beech forest stands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3556-014 <p><b>Arnič D, Krč J, Diaci J</b></p><p><b>MODELING OF TIME CONSUMPTION FOR SELECTIVE AND SITUATIONAL PRECOMMERCIAL THINNING IN MOUNTAIN BEECH FOREST STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Rationalization and optimization of work is becoming increasingly important in the European forestry sector. In this study a tool for modeling three different precommercial thinning approaches in young beech mountain stands was developed based on several field studies. The simulation examines three primary types of precommercial thinning: selective thinning and two types of situational thinning. We studied the impact of the number of candidates/crop trees and the impact of harvesting intensity on the structure and consumption of productive time. We found that in terms of costs situational precommercial thinning is more rational than selective precommercial thinning, that harvesting intensity has a significant impact on time consumption and that the number of candidates or crop trees has a significant impact on time consumption as well as on the relationships between main and auxiliary productive time. The modeling has shown that situational thinning is an alternative to selective thinning and that, in addition to requiring smaller and more efficient harvesting machines, it offers a cost-effective and ergonomic option (more walking, less chainsaw operation) for the pre-commercial thinning of young forest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Precommercial Thinning, Selective Thinning, Situational Thinning, Modeling, Crop Tree</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 137-143 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3556-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3556-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3556-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Arnič D, Krč J, Diaci J Research Articles 2021-03-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3556-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Long-term effects of thinning and mixing on stand spatial structure: a case study of Chinese fir plantations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3489-014 <p><b>Li Y, Xu J, Wang H, Nong Y, Sun G, Yu S, Liao L, Ye S</b></p><p><b>LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF THINNING AND MIXING ON STAND SPATIAL STRUCTURE: A CASE STUDY OF CHINESE FIR PLANTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The regular planting and periodic harvesting of a single tree species are features of plantations, which are associated with a reduction of biodiversity. Such plantations are strongly encouraged to be converted into mixed forests. However, the spatial structure dynamics of plantations during the conversion process are poorly understood. In subtropical regions, thinned forest of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook.) and mixed forest of Chinese fir and Michelia macclurei Dandy are considered two ideal modes of plantation management. In this study, we analyzed the spatial structure dynamics of two forest stands and their six main tree populations over a rotation of 27 years, using spatial point analyses. We found that Chinese fir and M. macclurei had a regular distribution pattern (scale, r = 0-1 m) in the early stages of planting (1993), and Chinese fir maintained this pattern after experiencing self-thinning and selective cutting. In addition, non-planted tree species (i.e., natural regeneration of late-seral species, NRLSS) displayed significantly intraspecific clumping, which resulted in the distribution patterns of the forest stands changing from regular to aggregated (r = 0-5.5, 1-20 m), and the species distribution of mixed forest changed from random to clumped (r = 0-20 m). Moreover, during the management period (1993-2018), individuals were significantly differentiated in terms of size, and some small trees in the thinned forest were aggregated together. For the NRLSS, the diameter at breast height was randomly distributed (r = 0-20 m). Furthermore, Chinese fir and M. macclurei were separated at r = 0-1 m in the planting stage, but any pair of the six main populations in the thinned forest and mixed forest were randomly correlated over a rotation. Finally, the nearest neighbor distance of the stands became shorter after conversion, while the values for Chinese fir increased. After 25 years, the mixed plantation and the thinned plantation had a complex spatial structure. They develop towards natural forests and could be used as a template for future plantation management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chinese Fir, Distribution Pattern, Mixed Forest, Plantation, Spatial Correlation, Thinning</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 113-121 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3489-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3489-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3489-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Li Y, Xu J, Wang H, Nong Y, Sun G, Yu S, Liao L, Ye S Research Articles 2021-03-08 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3489-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of low-impact logging on understory birds in the Brazilian Amazon https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3435-014 <p><b>Soares JC, Amaral AO, De Moura RS, Cerboncini RA, Klemann Junior L</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF LOW-IMPACT LOGGING ON UNDERSTORY BIRDS IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tropical forests have a great potential for the exploitation of natural resources. Among the economic activities that depend on forest resources, timber production is the most important one. Nevertheless, these activities may negatively affect wildlife, the availability of natural resources, and ecosystem process. Here we analysed the effects of low-impact logging on understory bird species richness, number of individuals captured, species composition, and assemblage structure in central Brazilian Amazon. We compared logged and unlogged areas over a period of three years (from August 2014 to May 2017). We captured a total of 180 birds and 42 species (20 families) in the logged area and 226 birds and 49 species (20 families) in the unlogged area. Bird assemblage structure in the logged area changed more intensely over the three years of study and became more similar to the assemblage found in the unlogged area. The degree of similarity (Jaccard’s index) in species composition between logged and unlogged areas increased from 18% in the third year to 39% in the fifth year after logging. The results suggest that the minor effects of low-impact logging were reduced a few years after the disturbance, probably due to ecological succession. The proximity of logged and unlogged areas and the reduced impact in the study site may facilitate the recovery of the bird assemblage after the disturbance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity, Conservation, Environmental Disturbance, Forest Resources, Sustainable Development</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 122-126 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3435-014<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3435-014" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3435-014</a></p><hr size="1"/> Soares JC, Amaral AO, De Moura RS, Cerboncini RA, Klemann Junior L Research Articles 2021-03-08 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3435-014 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tracing the acclimation of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations to climatic stress by analyzing the antioxidant system https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3542-013 <p><b>Visi-Rajczi E, Hofmann T, Albert L, Mátyás C</b></p><p><b>TRACING THE ACCLIMATION OF EUROPEAN BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L.) POPULATIONS TO CLIMATIC STRESS BY ANALYZING THE ANTIOXIDANT SYSTEM</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Through a common garden (provenance) experiment, we investigated the metabolic responses to climatic stress with regard to the acclimation potential of different European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) populations. Selected enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were analyzed in leaves. Peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activity, total protein content as well as ABTS [2.2’-azino-bis-(3-etylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulphonic acid] antioxidant capacity were measured in the leaves of selected populations. Major leaf polyphenols were identified and their relative amounts were compared. Significant correlations were found between phenotypic (diameter growth) response to simulated climatic stress and the activity (and amount) of selected chemical components. The concentrations of certain polyphenols, POD enzyme activity, and total protein content may be chemical indicators of the acclimation potential of populations and may contribute to the forecasting of climate change effects, which can aid in the selection of suitable propagation material for adaptive silviculture.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Beech, Drought Stress, Antioxidants, Phenotypic Plasticity, Provenance Trial, Climate Change</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 95-103 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3542-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3542-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3542-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Visi-Rajczi E, Hofmann T, Albert L, Mátyás C Research Articles 2021-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3542-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Climate change impacts on spatial distribution, tree-ring growth, and water use of stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) forests in the Mediterranean region and silvicultural practices to limit those impacts https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3385-013 <p><b>Mechergui K, Saleh Altamimi A, Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi S</b></p><p><b>CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACTS ON SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION, TREE-RING GROWTH, AND WATER USE OF STONE PINE (PINUS PINEA L.) FORESTS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION AND SILVICULTURAL PRACTICES TO LIMIT THOSE IMPACTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) has been cultivated since centuries in Mediterranean areas for its products and economic benefits, including edible pine nuts, timber, mushrooms, firewood, and grazing. However, current management objectives of stone pine stands also include recreational use, biodiversity conservation, protection from soil erosion, and CO2 fixation. Stone pine stands are considered to be among the ecosystems most vulnerable to climate change, and the current increase in drought frequency in the Mediterranean Basin has been shown to negatively impact their long-term establishment. Understanding the effects of climate change on the distribution, tree-ring growth and water use of stone pine forests can help assessing the adaptive capacity of the species, and developing management programs aimed at its conservation. This paper reviews the impacts of climate change on stone pine in the Mediterranean region. The high sensitivity of stone pine to climate change has been widely demonstrated in that: (i) climatic models predict the loss of suitable habitats and the shift of its geographical distribution in the next future; (ii) tree-ring analysis showed that winter and spring rainfalls have positive effects on growth, whereas high spring temperature has a negative effect; (iii) the strategy of stone pine to cope with water deficit affects the processes regulating its growth, including wood formation, leading to peculiar tree-ring anatomical features such as intra-annual density fluctuations. The silvicultural interventions and the most effective management strategies for stone pine forests are reviewed and discussed in the context of current climate change in the Mediterranean Basin.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stone Pine, Climate Change, Spatial Distribution, Tree-ring, Silvicultural Practices, Mediterranean Area</p><p><i>iForest 14 (2): 104-112 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3385-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3385-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3385-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mechergui K, Saleh Altamimi A, Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi S Review Papers 2021-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3385-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus stoichiometry controls interspecific patterns of leaf litter-derived dissolved organic matter biodegradation in subtropical plantations of China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3609-013 <p><b>Wu PP, Ding YD, Li SL, Sun XX, Zhang Y, Mao R</b></p><p><b>CARBON, NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS STOICHIOMETRY CONTROLS INTERSPECIFIC PATTERNS OF LEAF LITTER-DERIVED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER BIODEGRADATION IN SUBTROPICAL PLANTATIONS OF CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Leaching of leaf litter is the primary source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in forest soils. However, the interspecific variations of litter-derived DOM characteristics and biodegradation and their controlling factors remain unclear in subtropical plantations. Using fresh leaf litter of two broadleaf trees (Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba) and two coniferous trees (Pinus massoniana and P. elliottii) in subtropical plantations of China, we assessed the effects of tree species on the amounts and properties of litter-derived DOM with a short-term leaching experiment, and examined the interspecific variation of DOM biodegradation using a 56-day laboratory incubation method. Broadleaf tree litter generally leached higher amounts of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved total nitrogen (DTN), and dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) than coniferous tree litter. Compared with coniferous trees, broadleaf trees had higher DOM aromaticity and molecular weight, but lower DOC:DTP and DTN:DTP ratios in the litter leachates. Despite greater DOM aromaticity and molecular weight, broadleaf trees had higher litter-derived DOM biodegradation than coniferous trees because of the relatively lower DOC:DTP and DTN:DTP ratios. These results indicate the distinct patterns of litter-derived DOM characteristics and biodegradation between broadleaf and coniferous trees, and also highlight the predominant role of C:N:P stoichiometry in driving the interspecific variation of litter-derived DOM biodegradation in subtropical plantations of China.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Broadleaf Trees, Coniferous Trees, DOM Aromaticity, DOM Molecular Weight, Leaching</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 80-85 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3609-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3609-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3609-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wu PP, Ding YD, Li SL, Sun XX, Zhang Y, Mao R Research Articles 2021-02-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3609-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Method for classifying sites to Atlantic Rainforest restoration aiming to increase basin’s streamflows https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3658-013 <p><b>Cecílio RA, Oliveira-Ravani LT, Zanetti SS, Mendes HDA</b></p><p><b>METHOD FOR CLASSIFYING SITES TO ATLANTIC RAINFOREST RESTORATION AIMING TO INCREASE BASIN’S STREAMFLOWS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We propose a method to classify priority sites for Atlantic Rainforest restoration aiming to increase basin streamflows. The Rainfall Forest to Water Production (RFWP) method uses multicriteria analysis supported by GIS techniques and hydrological modeling. The method was applied to the Itapemirim River Basin, southeastern Brazil. The application of RFWP provided a map of areas with different priority for forest restoration by overlapping standardized numerical criteria with different weights (climatological, soil type/land use, and relief). The results indicated the influence of the wide distribution of the restoration sites on the streamflows. The RFWP proved to be suitable for the spatial analysis of the effect of different restoring areas on streamflows. Based on simulated scenarios, an increase in the native forest cover by restoration up to 27.6% of the basin area is expected to significantly enhance water production. The priority areas where forest restoration could better contribute to increase streamflows were delineated, especially at high altitude and in pastures, which are mostly in degraded conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: GIS Application, Streamflow, Hydrologic Modeling, DHSVM</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 86-94 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3658-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3658-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3658-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cecílio RA, Oliveira-Ravani LT, Zanetti SS, Mendes HDA Research Articles 2021-02-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3658-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Response of soil bacterial communities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in an age-sequence of subtropical forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3655-013 <p><b>Dai Y, Wang H, Chen M, Wang D, Cao X, Chu B, Xu X</b></p><p><b>RESPONSE OF SOIL BACTERIAL COMMUNITIES TO NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS ADDITIONS IN AN AGE-SEQUENCE OF SUBTROPICAL FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: With global nitrogen (N) deposition continuously increasing, few reports exist describing how soil bacteria respond at the molecular level to long-term addition of excess N in variously aged forests. To reveal the responses of soil bacteria to the elevated N, an experiment was conducted with a chronic nutrient addition within differently aged stands (46-, 78-, and 200-years-old) in the northern subtropical China since 2011, including three treatments, CK (no N nor phosphorus (P) additions), N treatment (N, 100 kg N ha-1), and N with P (N+P, 100 kg N ha-1 + 50 kg P ha-1) to examine potential P limitation under N deposition. Metagenomic sequencing was used to examine the snapshot responses of soil bacterial communities. Soil moisture and texture, ammonium, nitrate, SOC (soil organic carbon), TN (soil total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus), DOC (dissolved organic carbon), DON (dissolved organic nitrogen) were measured to explain the influence mechanism of forest age and fertilization on changes of microbial community. Following N addition, soil bacterial community diversity and most dominant phyla increased, but they showed a decrease with increasing stand age. The effects of fertilization on the same taxa were variable across forest ages. Soil bacterial community responded differently in 7-year fertilization, with distinct shift in 46-year-old forest and adaptability to long-term N addition in the 200-year-old forest. Soil texture and moisture, DOC, DON, pH, SOC/TN and TP were significantly correlated with bacterial community across stand ages, while N fertilization affected the bacterial community mostly via inducing soil moisture, NO3--N, DOC and pH in the 46-year-old forest, whose effects decreased with increasing stand age. Our results suggest that due to the variation of soil physicochemical properties among forest ages, soil bacterial communities are more stable and resilient to N deposition with increasing the age of stands. Soil bacterial communities might not encounter P limitation following the long-term addition of N in the subtropics.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Nitrogen Deposition, Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaved Forest, Forest Age, Metagenomic, Soil Bacterial Community</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 71-79 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3655-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3655-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3655-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Dai Y, Wang H, Chen M, Wang D, Cao X, Chu B, Xu X Research Articles 2021-02-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3655-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Aboveground tree biomass of Araucaria araucana in southern Chile: measurements and multi-objective optimization of biomass models https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3492-013 <p><b>Kutchartt E, Gayoso J, Pirotti F, Bucarey A, Guerra J, Hernández J, Corvalán P, Drápela K, Olson M, Zwanzig M</b></p><p><b>ABOVEGROUND TREE BIOMASS OF ARAUCARIA ARAUCANA IN SOUTHERN CHILE: MEASUREMENTS AND MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION OF BIOMASS MODELS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Estimating carbon stocks in wooded systems is crucial to quantify national greenhouse gas balance estimates. However, inaccurate estimates are likely due to the divergent architecture of many species. The monkey puzzle tree Araucaria araucana, with its umbrella-like architecture is a vivid example. This species, often found in monodominant stands at high elevations, is the greatest carbon reservoir in the landscape, hence estimating its carbon storage is crucial. To provide the necessary basis for these estimations, we documented the variation in basic density and moisture content along the stem profile, identified the most suitable biomass estimation models, and quantified biomass allocation for three age ranges. We measured, felled, weighed, and separated trees into three categories: stem wood, stem bark, and foliage (branches + scaly leaves). The log-linear form of the simple allometric equation Y = aXb, based on diameter at breast height as the explanatory variable, covered a large part of the variation and showed good cross-validation performance (>0.96). Models using more covariates achieved lower absolute errors, but the estimation of the additional model parameters was associated with greater uncertainty. A multi-objective model comparison revealed that the best additional covariate to further improve biomass estimation was total tree height. The mean absolute percentage error was 9.8% for the total aboveground biomass, 8% for stem wood, 12% for stem bark and 24% for foliage. Changes in biomass distribution among tree components were related to age. For older trees, there was a relative increase in stem wood, a decreased proportion of foliage, but no change in stem bark. The proportion of stem bark biomass is similar to that of Araucaria angustifolia, but higher than in other conifers and most trees in general. Our results provide key properties for A. araucana and general guidance for the selection of easily-measurable variables allowing for excellent predictive power for local biomass estimation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Monkey Puzzle Tree, Carbon Stocks, Forest Modelling, Multicriteria Optimization, Allometry</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 61-70 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3492-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3492-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3492-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kutchartt E, Gayoso J, Pirotti F, Bucarey A, Guerra J, Hernández J, Corvalán P, Drápela K, Olson M, Zwanzig M Research Articles 2021-02-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3492-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Role of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance on the long-term rising of intrinsic water use efficiency in dominant trees in three old-growth forests in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3414-013 <p><b>Palandrani C, Motta R, Cherubini P, Curović M, Dukić V, Tonon G, Ceccon C, Peressotti A, Alberti G</b></p><p><b>ROLE OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND STOMATAL CONDUCTANCE ON THE LONG-TERM RISING OF INTRINSIC WATER USE EFFICIENCY IN DOMINANT TREES IN THREE OLD-GROWTH FORESTS IN BOSNIA-HERZEGOVINA AND MONTENEGRO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Old-growth forests have an important role in maintaining animal and plant diversity, are important carbon (C) reservoirs and are privileged sites to study long-term plant physiological responses, long-term forest dynamics and climate change impact on forest ecosystems. Several studies have highlighted how old-living trees undergo age-related declines with hydraulic limitations and reduction in photosynthesis, though some recent works have suggested that such a decline is not always observed. Our study aims at understanding the role of atmospheric CO2 increase on tree C uptake and stomatal conductance (gs) in old-living trees by analysing the long-term patterns of tree growth and intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) in three old-growth forests in the Balkans (Bosnia-Herzegovina and Montenegro), using dendrochronology and isotopic analysis. We hypothesised a long-term increase in iWUE in the studied old-growth forests, mostly related to enhanced photosynthesis rather than reduced stomatal conductance. Tree cores were sampled from dominant silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) trees in each forest. Tree-ring widths were measured and basal area increments (BAI) were assessed for each sampled tree and, from the six longest chronologies, five decades were chosen for cellulose extraction, its isotopic analysis (δ13C, δ18O), iWUE and leaf water 18O evaporative enrichment above the source water (Δ18OL) determination. We observed a continuous and significant increase in iWUE from 1800 to 2010 in the sampled dominant trees at all the three old-growth forests. Our BAI data and our estimates of Δ18OL across the study period support the idea that enhanced photosynthesis rather than reduced stomatal conductance is the major driver of the measured iWUE increase. Thus, our results support some recent findings challenging the hypothesis that iWUE in forests is primarily the result of a CO2-induced reduction in stomatal conductance as well as the so called hydraulic limitation hypothesis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Old-growth Forests, Intrinsic Water-Use Efficiency (iWUE), Basal Area Increment, Stable C Isotopes, Atmospheric CO2 Increase</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 53-60 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3414-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3414-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3414-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Palandrani C, Motta R, Cherubini P, Curović M, Dukić V, Tonon G, Ceccon C, Peressotti A, Alberti G Research Articles 2021-01-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3414-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Not all long-distance-exploration types of ectomycorrhizae are the same: differential accumulation of nitrogen and carbon in Scleroderma and Xerocomus in response to variations in soil fertility https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3594-013 <p><b>Trocha LK, Bulaj B, Durska A, Frankowski M, Mucha J</b></p><p><b>NOT ALL LONG-DISTANCE-EXPLORATION TYPES OF ECTOMYCORRHIZAE ARE THE SAME: DIFFERENTIAL ACCUMULATION OF NITROGEN AND CARBON IN SCLERODERMA AND XEROCOMUS IN RESPONSE TO VARIATIONS IN SOIL FERTILITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Long-distance-exploration type (LDET) ectomycorrhizae have been reported to be best adapted to infertile soils, but variation within LDET ectomycorrhizae have not been thoroughly examined. Concentrations of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in LDET ectomycorrhizae were examined in Xerocomus-Pinus sylvestris and Scleroderma-Quercus petraea ectomycorrhizae. The study determined how concentrations of these elements vary in ectomycorrhizae in fertile (organic, uppermost mineral) and infertile (brunic) soil layers. The organic horizon in both Scots pine and sessile oak forest soils had the highest mineral status and exchange cations. In contrast, low mineral concentrations, high base saturation, and pH were characteristic of the brunic horizon in both forest stands. Xerocomus ectomycorrhizae had a higher concentration of N in the fertile (organic and uppermost mineral) soil horizons (3.4%) than in the infertile (brunic) soil horizon (2.2%). N concentration in Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae varied from 2.8%-3.0 % and did not differ between the studied soil horizons. The mean concentration of carbon in Xerocomus ectomycorrhizae varied from 29%-46% in Scots pine stands and from 41%-44% in Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae in sessile oak stands. The concentration of carbon in both Xerocomus and Scleroderma ectomycorrhizae was significantly higher in the fertile horizons (organic and uppermost mineral) compared to the brunic (infertile) horizon. In summary, the analysis conducted in the present study indicates that the LDET ectomycorrhizae, Xerocomus and Scleroderma, possess inherent variations in C and N content to manage soil resources.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ectomycorrhiza, Soil Interaction, Soil Nitrogen, Nitrogen Utilization, Ectomycorrhizal Adaptation, Soil Chemistry</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 48-52 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3594-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3594-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3594-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Trocha LK, Bulaj B, Durska A, Frankowski M, Mucha J Short Communications 2021-01-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3594-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Large-scale spatial distribution of deer browsing damage to young tree plantations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3387-013 <p><b>Suzuki KK, Watanabe Y, Kubota T, Kuwano Y, Kawauchi Y, Yamagawa H, Yasuda M, Kondoh H, Nomiya H, Oka T</b></p><p><b>LARGE-SCALE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF DEER BROWSING DAMAGE TO YOUNG TREE PLANTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The economic loss caused by herbivore browsing in forest plantations is a concerning problem in many areas around the world. Information on the spatial distribution of browsing damage is important for forest owners when selecting locations for new plantations, because planting trees in areas of high browsing pressure increases economic losses. Although it is difficult to survey browsing damage across large areas, sporadic sampling data on browsing damage are often collected by foresters, governments, and researchers. Thus, in this study, we applied a generalized additive model (GAM) for analysis of sporadic data to reveal large-scale spatial variation in deer (Cervus nippon) browsing damage. A map of browsing pressure produced by a GAM that used years after planting (plantation age) and location as independent factors showed a few areas of high browsing pressure. In addition, browsing damage increased with increasing plantation age, and plantation stands aged 2+ years showed more browsing damage. Areas with high browsing damage estimated based on plantation stands aged 2+ years generally coincided with areas of high deer abundance, with some exceptions. Thus, this model reflects large-scale browsing damage relatively well and will help forest owners to avoid locating new plantations in areas of high browsing pressure.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cervus nippon, Deer Browsing Damage, Forest Management, Generalized Additive Model, Plantation</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 34-40 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3387-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3387-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3387-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Suzuki KK, Watanabe Y, Kubota T, Kuwano Y, Kawauchi Y, Yamagawa H, Yasuda M, Kondoh H, Nomiya H, Oka T Research Articles 2021-01-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3387-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The economic value of fire damages in Tuscan agroforestry areas https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3607-013 <p><b>Fagarazzi C, Fratini R, Montanino M, Viccaro M, Cozzi M, Romano S, Riccioli F</b></p><p><b>THE ECONOMIC VALUE OF FIRE DAMAGES IN TUSCAN AGROFORESTRY AREAS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Tuscan Region (Central Italy) spends about 12 million euros every year in the prevention and suppression of forest fires. In this context, this study aims to analyse the economic and environmental benefits derived from fire suppression activities. Starting from a case study of a real fire event in Tuscany, we simulated three hypothetical scenarios (with different fire durations) without fire extinction activities planned by using the open source software FARSITE. Benefits derived from fire extinction activities can be quantified as the avoided damage, which has been calculated through the estimation of the total economic value of forests not destroyed by fire thanks to the extinction action. The avoided damage is represented by the difference between values of forest areas burned by the real fire event and those burned by simulated fire. By providing an economic estimation of avoided damages, our results confirm that forest fire services and forest management have a high impact on both the economy and the environment.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Damage, FARSITE, Total Economic Value, Fire Simulation, GIS</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 41-47 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3607-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3607-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3607-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fagarazzi C, Fratini R, Montanino M, Viccaro M, Cozzi M, Romano S, Riccioli F Research Articles 2021-01-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3607-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dynamics of humus forms and soil characteristics along a forest altitudinal gradient in Hyrcanian forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3444-013 <p><b>Bayranvand M, Akbarinia M, Salehi Jouzani G, Gharechahi J, Alberti G</b></p><p><b>DYNAMICS OF HUMUS FORMS AND SOIL CHARACTERISTICS ALONG A FOREST ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN HYRCANIAN FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Humus forms are good indicators of environmental conditions and thus important in forest ecological processes. Altitudinal gradients are considered as natural laboratory for evaluating soil ecological processes and humus form distribution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the macromorphology of humus forms along an altitudinal gradient (0-2000 m a.s.l.) covered with plain forest, mixed and pure forests and forest-grassland ecotone, in Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. In total, 225 humus profiles were evaluated. Forest stand variables including tree density, basal area, crown density, and height, forest floor and soil physico-chemical properties along with biological features were measured. We found that altitudinal gradients influence both humus forms distribution and soil properties but with different mechanisms. While soil properties (i.e., temperature, pH, CaCO3, soil N content, soil C/N and microbial biomass N) were significantly correlated with altitude, the forest floor properties were more influenced by tree species composition. Particularly, the abundance of Mull was decreased in plain mixed forests compared to mountain pure forests, whereas the frequency of Amphi was increased. Moreover, Oligomull and Leptoamphi were abundant in mixed beech forests, while Eumacroamphi, Eumesoamphi and Pachyamphi were only observed in pure beech forests. Such a distribution influenced soil fertility where higher values of nitrogen (N), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) and pH were observed at lower altitudes under mixed forests compared to pure forests at higher altitudes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Altitude Gradient, Plant-humus-soil Relationships, Humus Systems, Soil Microbial Biomass</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 26-33 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3444-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3444-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3444-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bayranvand M, Akbarinia M, Salehi Jouzani G, Gharechahi J, Alberti G Research Articles 2021-01-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3444-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of total extractive content of wood from planted and native forests by near infrared spectroscopy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3472-013 <p><b>Teixeira Mancini L, Guedes Ramalho FM, Trugilho PF, Gherardi Hein PR</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF TOTAL EXTRACTIVE CONTENT OF WOOD FROM PLANTED AND NATIVE FORESTS BY NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of multivariate models using Near infrared (NIR) spectra for predicting total extractives content of solid and powdered wood of planted and native species from tropical savanna. NIR spectra were recorded on the milled wood and radial surface of solid wood specimens of Cedrela sp., Jacaranda sp., Apuleia sp., Aspidosperma sp. and clones of Eucalyptus hybrids via an integrating sphere and fiber optics probe. NIR spectral signatures were evaluated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and then associated to the total extractive content quantified by extraction in toluene/ethanol (2:1) solutions, pure ethanol and hot water by Partial Least Squares (PLS) regressions. PCA revealed that NIR spectra measured in solid wood by integrating sphere gave a better discrimination of wood species. A global PLS model was developed based on NIR obtained by integrating sphere with satisfactory estimations both for solid wood (R²cv= 0.87, RMSECV= 1.08%) and wood powder (R²cv= 0.85, RMSECV= 1.19%). An independent test-set validation was performed with 25% of the samples and yielded R²p= 0.93 and RMSEP= 0.95% (for solid wood) and R²p= 0.87 and RMSEP= 1.40% (for wood powder). Both models can be applied for rapid screenings, though models developed from NIR spectra by integrating sphere on solid wood are considered more suitable for rapid predictions of extractive content in unknown wood specimens.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Lumber, Multivariate Analysis, Non-destructive Testing, Test Set Validation, Wood Chemistry</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 18-25 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3472-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3472-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3472-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Teixeira Mancini L, Guedes Ramalho FM, Trugilho PF, Gherardi Hein PR Research Articles 2021-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3472-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Species interactions in pure and mixed-species stands of silver fir and European beech in Mediterranean mountains https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3476-013 <p><b>Versace S, Garfì V, Dalponte M, Febbraro Mirko D, Frizzera L, Gianelle D, Tognetti R</b></p><p><b>SPECIES INTERACTIONS IN PURE AND MIXED-SPECIES STANDS OF SILVER FIR AND EUROPEAN BEECH IN MEDITERRANEAN MOUNTAINS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Interactions between tree species determine the dynamics of forest communities. Spatial and temporal changes in resource availability, variation in species composition and spatial distribution of trees may alter competitive interactions between species and, therefore, affect tree growth and forest productivity. In this study, we analyzed the intra and inter-specific interactions between European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) in southern Italy (Molise and Calabria regions), and how these interactions affect basal area increments in mixed-species and pure stands. Results showed that intra-specific interactions have a negative effect on the basal area increment, both in pure and mixed-species stands of Molise and Calabria. Basal area increment was higher influenced by intra-specific interactions in pure stands than in mixed-species stands. Silver fir in Molise showed higher basal area increment in mixed-species stand, probably in relation with stand structure and space occupation that resulted in less competition between individual trees. European beech showed high values of intra-specific interactions in pure stands, likely related to the low self-tolerance of this species and to the spatial arrangement of trees, due to canopy closure. The absence of inter-specific interactions in mixed-species stands could be explained by the sub-dominant position of European beech, which may have limited the benefit derived from niche separation and complementarity for silver fir.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abies alba Mill., Fagus sylvatica L., Intra-specific Interactions, Inter-specific Interactions, Stand Productivity, Tree Growth</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 1-11 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3476-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3476-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3476-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Versace S, Garfì V, Dalponte M, Febbraro Mirko D, Frizzera L, Gianelle D, Tognetti R Research Articles 2021-01-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3476-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Interaction between planting spacing and wood properties of Eucalyptus clones grown in short rotation https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3574-013 <p><b>Soares Brito A, Baptista Vidaurre G, da Silva Oliveira JT, Missia Da Silva JG, Ferreira Oliveira R, Dias Júnior AF, Chaves Arantes MD, Cabral Moulin J, Valin M, De Siqueira L, Valverde Zauza EA</b></p><p><b>INTERACTION BETWEEN PLANTING SPACING AND WOOD PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES GROWN IN SHORT ROTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Wood quality results from the interaction between the genotype of trees and the silvicultural conditions to which they were subjected. Based on this interaction, research on the factors that add value to the woody raw material has an impact on the production of various forest products. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different planting spacings (3×1, 3×2, 3×3 and 3×4 m) on the wood properties of three 4-year-old Eucalyptus clones. The wood of each clone was evaluated based on basic density, dry mass, anatomy, structural chemical composition, ash content and higher heating value. For at least one of the three clones studied, the planting spacing explained the variations in the basic density, dry mass, diameter and frequency of vessels and wall thickness of the wood fibers. Regardless of the eucalyptus clone, the area of vessels, the length and fraction of the fiber wall, as well as the contents of extractives, lignin, ash and the higher heating value of the wood were not influenced by the planting spacing. In summary, the change in the useful area alters the properties of wood in eucalyptus genetic materials in different ways and intensities at 4 years old.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood Quality, Useful Area for Planting, Eucalyptus Genetic Materials, Harvesting Age</p><p><i>iForest 14 (1): 12-17 (2021)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3574-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3574-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3574-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Soares Brito A, Baptista Vidaurre G, da Silva Oliveira JT, Missia Da Silva JG, Ferreira Oliveira R, Dias Júnior AF, Chaves Arantes MD, Cabral Moulin J, Valin M, De Siqueira L, Valverde Zauza EA Research Articles 2021-01-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3574-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of inorganic salts on biomass production, biochemical composition, and bioethanol production of Populus alba https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3438-013 <p><b>Sim SJ, Yong SH, Park D, Choi E, Seol Y, Song HJ, Jeong MJ, Kim HG, Choi MS</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF INORGANIC SALTS ON BIOMASS PRODUCTION, BIOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION, AND BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION OF POPULUS ALBA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Inorganic salts are very important for the biosynthesis of major components such as cellulose and lignin. In order to investigate biomass production, major components of the biosynthesis of plant cell wall and the bioethanol production of Populus alba, we examined the effect of inorganic salts on in vitro culture systems without specific mineral salts. The medium without H2PO4- was supportive for Populus alba shoot growth, while the absence of NH4+ resulted in poor shoot growth. The medium without H2PO4- and Fe3+ inhibited above-ground biomass production, whereas NH4+ and K+ deprivation led to an enhancement of the same. The root/shoot ratio of Populus alba in the medium without H2PO4- was high compared with plants cultured in the control medium. H2PO4- is deeply involved in lignin biosynthesis, and its removal has been shown to reduce the biosynthesis of lignin. Plants grown on nitrate-free medium were found to be good for enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production. The plants grown in the medium without NO3- showed 72.0% enzyme digestibility, and the yield of ethanol showed 9.58% ethanol productivity after 12 hours. These results can be used as the basis for producing high-quality biomass for future bioethanol production.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Enzymatic Hydrolysis, Fermentation, Inorganic Salts, In vitro Culture, Populus alba</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 566-574 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3438-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3438-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3438-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sim SJ, Yong SH, Park D, Choi E, Seol Y, Song HJ, Jeong MJ, Kim HG, Choi MS Research Articles 2020-12-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3438-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Magnolia grandiflora L. shows better responses to drought than Magnolia × soulangeana in urban environment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3596-013 <p><b>Vastag E, Orlović S, Konôpková A, Kurjak D, Cocozza C, Pšidová E, Lapin K, Kesić L, Stojnić S</b></p><p><b>MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA L. SHOWS BETTER RESPONSES TO DROUGHT THAN MAGNOLIA × SOULANGEANA IN URBAN ENVIRONMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Drought tolerance is becoming an increasingly important criterion for the selection of tree species, especially in urban areas characterized by low water availability. Apart from drought tolerance, the introduction of non-native species should be considered for new planting programs under such conditions to enhance the resilience of urban forests. The present study is aimed at evaluating the in situ physiological responses of Magnolia grandiflora and Magnolia × soulangeana to severe drought that frequently occurs in urban environments in the Southeastern Europe. Transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, water-use efficiency and intrinsic water-use efficiency showed notable differences both between species and between the measured periods (wet and dry). Among the chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, effective photochemical quantum yield of PS II, quantum yield of light-induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, quantum yield of non-regulated heat dissipation, fluorescence emission and index of susceptibility of leaves to light stress revealed significant differences both between the two species and the periods of measurements. The reduction of net photosynthesis in both magnolia species occurs as the result of non-stomatal limitation obtained by the reduction of electron transport rate coupled with simultaneous increase in intercellular CO2 concentration. Moreover, M. grandiflora was the species less vulnerable to water shortage conditions, while M. soulangeana exhibited a photosynthetic capacity sensitive to drought-induced stress. M. grandiflora can therefore be considered as a promising alternative to M. soulangeana for urban sites under the predicted climate change scenarios.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Drought, Leaf Gas Exchange, Photosynthesis, Urban Tree Selection</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 575-583 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3596-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3596-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3596-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vastag E, Orlović S, Konôpková A, Kurjak D, Cocozza C, Pšidová E, Lapin K, Kesić L, Stojnić S Research Articles 2020-12-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3596-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Controlling soil total nitrogen factors across shrublands in the Three Rivers Source Region of the Tibetan Plateau https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3533-013 <p><b>Nie X, Wang D, Yang L, Zhou G</b></p><p><b>CONTROLLING SOIL TOTAL NITROGEN FACTORS ACROSS SHRUBLANDS IN THE THREE RIVERS SOURCE REGION OF THE TIBETAN PLATEAU</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Alpine shrublands in the Three Rivers Source Region (TRSR) store substantial soil total nitrogen (N); however, limited information is available regarding its storage and controlling factors. To quantify the storage and controlling factors of soil total N stock, we analysed 66 soil profiles from samples obtained from 22 shrubland sites located across the TRSR on the Tibetan Plateau. Analytical methods, such as ordinary least squares regression, one-way analysis of variance, curve estimation, and variation partitioning were used to evaluate the effects of soil characteristics (soil organic carbon), vegetation characteristics (community types and ground cover of shrublands), climatic factors (mean annual temperature - MAT), and topographical features (slope) on soil N stock. Our results showed that soil N storage at a soil depth interval of 0-100 cm was 63.10 ± 27.41 Tg (Tg = 1012 g), with an average soil N stock of 2.44 ± 1.06 kg m-2 in the TRSR shrublands. Although the type of vegetation community had a small effect on soil N stock, the latter increased with increasing shrubland ground cover and soil organic carbon. However, soil N stock decreased with increasing topographical slope and MAT. Furthermore, changes in MAT primarily affected the N stock of topsoil. Among all the controlling factors, soil organic carbon explained most of the variation in the soil N stock. Considering the effects of global warming, an increase in MAT has decreased the soil N stock. Long-term monitoring of changes in soil N stock should be conducted to improve the precise estimation of soil N storage across the shrublands in the TRSR of the Tibetan Plateau.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil N Storage, Ground Cover, SOC, MAT, Alpine Shrublands, Tibetan Plateau</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 559-565 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3533-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3533-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3533-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Nie X, Wang D, Yang L, Zhou G Research Articles 2020-11-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3533-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Soil fungal communities across land use types https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3231-013 <p><b>Balami S, Vašutová M, Godbold D, Kotas P, Cudlín P</b></p><p><b>SOIL FUNGAL COMMUNITIES ACROSS LAND USE TYPES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Land use change is one of the major causes of biodiversity loss, mostly due to habitat change and fragmentation. Belowground fungal diversity is very important in terrestrial ecosystems, however, the effect of land use change on soil fungal community is poorly understood. In this review, a total of 190 studies worldwide were analyzed. To monitor the effect of land use change, different fungal parameters such as richness, diversity, community composition, root colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, spore density, ergosterol, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) content and AM fungal glomalin related soil protein (GRSP) were studied. In general, results from analyzed studies often showed a negative response of fungal quantitative parameters after land use change from less-intensive site management to intensive site management. Land use change mostly showed significant shifts in fungal community composition. Considering land use change types, only 18 out of 91 land use change types were included in more than 10 studies, conversion of primary and secondary forest to various, more intensive land use was most often represented. All these 18 types of land use change influenced fungal community composition, however, the effects on quantitative parameters were mostly inconsistent. Current knowledge is not sufficient to conclude general land use impacts on soil fungi as the reviewed studies are fragmented and limited by the local context of land use change. Unification of the methodology, detailed descriptions of environmental factors, more reference sequences in public databases, and especially data on ecology and quantitative parameters of key fungal species would significantly improve the understanding of this issue.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Fungi, Land Use Change, Fungal Diversity, Species Composition, Mycorrhizal Fungi</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 548-558 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3231-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3231-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3231-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Balami S, Vašutová M, Godbold D, Kotas P, Cudlín P Review Papers 2020-11-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3231-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The natural recovery of disturbed soil, plant cover and trees after clear-cutting in the boreal forests, Russia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3371-013 <p><b>Ilintsev A, Bogdanov A, Nakvasina E, Amosova I, Koptev S, Tretyakov S</b></p><p><b>THE NATURAL RECOVERY OF DISTURBED SOIL, PLANT COVER AND TREES AFTER CLEAR-CUTTING IN THE BOREAL FORESTS, RUSSIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study aims to determine the impact of forest harvesting machinery on the temporarily moist soil of spruce forests (Picea abies Karst.) during the summer. For research purposes, we investigated 23 sites of the boreal forest in the European North of Russia (Arkhangelsk region) where logging operations had been carried out using harvesters and forwarders (CTL, cut-to-length harvesting). In the 15 years after logging, the sites were monitored for changes in physical soil properties and the depth/width of ruts and vegetation. In freshly cut areas, the depth of the ruts was linked to the amount of logging residue that had been used to strengthen skidding trails. After 15 years, the ruts were smooth but had not disappeared entirely. The average depth of the ruts decreased from 36 cm to 18 cm during the period under review. At a depth of 0-10 cm, the soil bulk density of the section between the control area and the wheel track increased by 19-27% within the first two years. At a depth of 10-20 cm, the soil bulk density only increased by 16-17% within the two-year period. After 15 years, the soil bulk density had decreased to the extent that there were no signs of heavy machinery movement. The natural restoration of vegetation in the ruts was affected by the presence of stagnant water in the initial post-logging period. Ruderal species and species with broad ecological amplitude to environmental factors grew over the skid trails. 15 years after logging, this overgrowth had stabilised, with the biodiversity level in the control area approaching its pre-logging state. Primarily, the renewal of the cutting areas occurred through species such as birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and aspen (Populus tremula L.). The highest amount of undergrowth (more than 30.000 ha-1) was detected 6-8 years after logging. This then decreases in areas that were cut down earlier. There are environmental consequences of clear-cutting (using the CTL system) on temporarily moist soil. To prevent the formation of deep ruts, it is recommended to leave 15-20 kg m-2 of felling residue.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Clear-cuttings, Soil Disturbance, Rutting, Vascular Species, Natural Tree Regeneration</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 531-540 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3371-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3371-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3371-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ilintsev A, Bogdanov A, Nakvasina E, Amosova I, Koptev S, Tretyakov S Research Articles 2020-11-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3371-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The analytic hierarchy process for selection of suitable trees for Mexico City https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3481-013 <p><b>Bravo-Bello JC, Martínez-Trinidad T, Romero-Sanchez ME, Valdez-Lazalde JR, Benavides-Meza H</b></p><p><b>THE ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS FOR SELECTION OF SUITABLE TREES FOR MEXICO CITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Urban foresters require methodologies that help to select tree species for urban environments, mainly in places where there is a large number of potential species such as the Valley of Mexico. We applied the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to select suitable native tree species that are under-represented or non-existent in Mexico City trees. Through bibliographic research, the selection criteria and the list of trees to be evaluated were selected; later, a group of specialists in urban forestry and arboriculture determined by pair-wise comparison matrices the specific weight of each selection criterion, while a set of taxonomists evaluated the rating of each attribute for each species. Finally, for practical purposes, the synthesis of both evaluations resulted in a ranking of 15 tree species according to their degree of aptitude suggested for Mexico City. According to results, Buddleja cordata, Quercus glaucoides and Litsea glaucescens obtained the highest degree of suitability as a large, medium and small-size species, respectively. The AHP proved to be an appropriate methodology to solve a complex problem through multiple criteria evaluation by diverse specialists in the subject. The implementation of the results contributes to the selection process of suitable tree species for urban environments.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Multi-criteria Analysis, Native Species, Urban Environment, Urban Tree Diversity, Valley of Mexico</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 541-547 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3481-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3481-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3481-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bravo-Bello JC, Martínez-Trinidad T, Romero-Sanchez ME, Valdez-Lazalde JR, Benavides-Meza H Research Articles 2020-11-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3481-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Harmonized dataset of surface fuels under Alpine, temperate and Mediterranean conditions in Italy. A synthesis supporting fire management https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3587-013 <p><b>Ascoli D, Vacchiano G, Scarpa C, Arca B, Barbati A, Battipaglia G, Elia M, Esposito A, Garfì V, Lovreglio R, Mairota P, Marchetti M, Marchi E, Meytre S, Ottaviano M, Pellizzaro G, Rizzolo R, Sallustio L, Salis M, Sirca C, Valese E, Ventura A, Bacciu V</b></p><p><b>HARMONIZED DATASET OF SURFACE FUELS UNDER ALPINE, TEMPERATE AND MEDITERRANEAN CONDITIONS IN ITALY. A SYNTHESIS SUPPORTING FIRE MANAGEMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Surface biomass characterization plays a key role in wildfire management. It allows classifying vegetation fuels flammability for fire risk analysis, to define silvicultural prescriptions for fire hazard reduction, to plan prescribed burning, or to model fire behavior and its effects, such as greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions. To facilitate fuel classification and analysis of potential fire behavior and effects in Italy, we harmonized 634 measurements of surface wildland fuels from Alpine, temperate and Mediterranean environments. The dataset provides quantitative data for duff, fine dead fuels and downed woody material, live grasses and shrubs fuel components. Surface fuel data were harmonized by subdividing loads (Mg ha-1) to standard size classes for dead (0-6, 6-25 and 25-75 mm) and live (0-6, 6-25 mm) fuels, collecting percent cover and depth/height (cm) of the various fuel components, and classifying observations into 19 fuelbed categories. To ensure comparability with existing vegetation classification systems, we classified each observation according to the European Fuel Map, the Corine Land Cover classes (level IV), the European Forest Types, and the forest categories of the Italian National Forest Inventory. The dataset and a photo description of each fuelbed category are available as Supplementary material. This dataset is the first step to develop several products at the national scale such as: (i) fuel type classification and mapping; (ii) carbon stock and wildfire emission estimates; (iii) calibration of fuel models for the simulation of fire behavior and effects.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wildfire, Fire Behavior, Simulation, Fuel Types, Emissions</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 513-522 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3587-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3587-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3587-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ascoli D, Vacchiano G, Scarpa C, Arca B, Barbati A, Battipaglia G, Elia M, Esposito A, Garfì V, Lovreglio R, Mairota P, Marchetti M, Marchi E, Meytre S, Ottaviano M, Pellizzaro G, Rizzolo R, Sallustio L, Salis M, Sirca C, Valese E, Ventura A, Bacciu V Research Articles 2020-11-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3587-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of environmental gradients on leaf morphological traits in the Fandoghlo forest region (NW Iran) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3391-013 <p><b>Jahdi R, Arabi M, Bussotti F</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON LEAF MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS IN THE FANDOGHLO FOREST REGION (NW IRAN)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of altitude, the position of the trees along a gradient of canopy cover, and the orientation of their crown on leaf traits of 18 deciduous woody species belonging to 10 families in the Fandoglo forest region in Ardabil, North West of Iran. We measured eight leaf traits (leaf width, length, area, thickness, water content, leaf mass per area, specific leaf area, and dry matter concentration) of trees sampled at sites subjected to different light regimes (forest edge, forest understory, and isolated trees). All traits were measured on more than 3600 leaves from 90 trees sampled in two altitudinal ranges (low: 1300-1500 m a.s.l.; high: 1500-1700 m a.s.l.). A two-way ANOVA and t-test for independent samples were applied to test for differences in leaf traits between different altitudes and degree of canopy cover. The results confirmed that species’ leaf traits were more strongly correlated with the altitude and canopy cover rather than the orientation of the crown. No relationship between leaf traits and crown orientation was detected. All leaf traits had significantly higher values at low than at high elevation, indicating that environmental factors such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, temperature, light, irradiance, and wind deeply impact on foliar morphology and function; however, water content and specific leaf area showed an opposite trend. Also, species with different positions along the gradient of canopy cover could have different responses to elevation. Our results indicate that the variation of functional (morphological and physiological) traits in different tree species are affected by altitude and light regime. This might provide a theoretical basis for afforestation and forest management activities in the Fandoghlo forest region.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaf Morphological Traits, Fandoglo Forest Region, Altitude, Tree Position, Crown Orientation</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 523-530 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3391-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3391-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3391-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jahdi R, Arabi M, Bussotti F Research Articles 2020-11-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3391-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Phytopathogenic fungi in forest nurseries of Middle Siberia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3507-013 <p><b>Sheller MA, Shilkina EA, Ibe AA, Razdorozhnaya TY, Sukhikh TV</b></p><p><b>PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN FOREST NURSERIES OF MIDDLE SIBERIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The paper presents the results of phytopathogenic fungi determination in bare-root forest nurseries of Middle Siberia. Genetic analysis of pathogenic microflora of Pinus sylvestris L., Pinus sibirica Du Tour and Picea obovata Ledeb. seedlings allowed identification of 17 genera of micromycetes: Phoma Sacc., Lophodermium Chevall., Sclerophoma Höhn. (teleomorph Sydowia Bres.), Cladosporium Link, Alternaria Nees, Typhula (Pers.) Fr. etc. Most frequently detected fungi represented genera Phoma (23.7 %) and Lophodermium (23.6 %). Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings harboured the highest diversity of fungal taxa. Seven genera of microscopic fungi (Phoma sp., Didymella sp., Alternaria sp., Cladosporium sp., Lophodermium sp., Gremmenia sp., Sclerophoma sp.) were detected in all studied forest zones: taiga, forest-steppe and Southern-Siberian mountain. The obtained results demonstrate the usefulness of DNA analysis for the identification of phytopathogenic fungi in forest nurseries of Middle Siberia with several implications for increasing the efficacy of forest management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forestry, Forest Nurseries, Phytopathogens, Conifers, DNA analysis, ITS Region, Phytopathological Monitoring</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 507-512 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3507-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3507-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3507-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sheller MA, Shilkina EA, Ibe AA, Razdorozhnaya TY, Sukhikh TV Research Articles 2020-11-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3507-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil water deficit as a tool to measure water stress and inform silvicultural management in the Cape Forest Regions, South Africa https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3059-013 <p><b>Scheepers GP, Du Toit B</b></p><p><b>SOIL WATER DEFICIT AS A TOOL TO MEASURE WATER STRESS AND INFORM SILVICULTURAL MANAGEMENT IN THE CAPE FOREST REGIONS, SOUTH AFRICA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: An understanding of variations in water availability to plantation forests on a spatial and temporal scale is essential when designing risk averse and site-specific silvicultural management regimes. Various indices of site water availability were compared to each other and to an independent, unbiased estimate of stand productivity potential, namely site index, across the Tsitsikamma, Knysna and Boland forestry regions of South Africa. This was done to find the balance between water availability indices requiring intensive data inputs (that may be very accurate) and indices with lower input data requirements (but may sacrifice some accuracy). The following indices of water availability (in order from low to higher input data requirements) were tested: Mean Annual Precipitation (MAP); Aridity Index (AI), i.e., MAP as a fraction of mean annual potential evapotranspiration (Ep); Moisture Growing Season (MGS), i.e., the Julian days where long-term MAP exceeds 0.3 times Ep; Water Deficit (WD), an estimate based on a rudimentary water balance with relatively low data inputs. The first three estimates use only climatic variables while the WD incorporates soil water storage capacity to run a water balance calculation. Results showed that both regional climatic variability and soil properties significantly affected the level of water availability, and hence also the potential productivity of pine stands. The shallow and sandy soils from the Knysna and Boland regions exhibited rapid water depletion during periods of decreased precipitation and seasonal shifts, however, the large WD’s (up to 345 mm year-1) observed in several of these sites rapidly changed to surplus values following only one month of high precipitation. Sites from the Tsitsikamma region had significantly larger water retention capabilities and this was attributed to the regional soil properties and climatic conditions. Temporal variations in the WD were also quantified. The WD estimates correlated significantly (r = -0.80, p<0.001) to the respective site indices from sites across all regions. These results underscore the importance of soil water availability on plantation productivity, especially in moderately dry regions or in areas with either shallow soils or a seasonal rainfall pattern. We conclude that the WD is a fairly accurate estimate of site-specific water availability with relatively low data requirements. The WD estimates are far superior to currently used indices of water availability in Southern Africa and has data input requirements that are currently readily available for most plantation forest sites.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Water Availability, Climatic Gradient, Slash Pine, Monterey Pine, Edaphic Properties</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 473-481 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3059-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3059-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3059-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Scheepers GP, Du Toit B Research Articles 2020-11-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3059-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysing species abundance distribution patterns across sampling scales in three natural forests in Northeastern China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3211-013 <p><b>Tan L, Zhang P, Zhao X, Fan C, Zhang C, Yan Y, Von Gadow K</b></p><p><b>ANALYSING SPECIES ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS ACROSS SAMPLING SCALES IN THREE NATURAL FORESTS IN NORTHEASTERN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding how and why species abundance distributions (SADs) vary with sampling scale has been a long-standing issue in ecology. By fitting various SAD models with observations collected in three large forest field plots, the objective of this study is to explore how the shape of SADs and the predictive ability of SAD models vary with sampling scales. Based on a large dataset collected in the Changbaishan, Jiaohe and Liangshui forests in northeastern China, observed SADs were compared with SADs estimated using five different models (log-normal, broken stick, Zipf, niche preemption and neutral model) at four sampling scales (10 × 10 m, 30 × 30 m, 60 × 60 m and 90 × 90 m). The results show that the studied SADs are scale dependent. Niche-based models provided a better fit at small sample sizes, the predictive ability decreasing with increasing sampling scale. The neutral model performed better at large sample sizes, the predictive ability increasing with increasing sampling scale. We identify the models that provided the best fit to observed species abundance distributions across spatial scales, and conclude that there is not one best SAD model for all spatial scales. Future studies should consider the scale effects on the species abundance distribution.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Community Ecology, Neutral Theory, Niche Theory, Scale Effects, Species Abundance Distribution, Temperate Forest, Woody Plants</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 482-489 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3211-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3211-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3211-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tan L, Zhang P, Zhao X, Fan C, Zhang C, Yan Y, Von Gadow K Research Articles 2020-11-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3211-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Biochar amendment regulated growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of conifer in red soil https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3416-013 <p><b>Tarin Muhammad Waqqas K, Fan L, Cai Y, Tayyab M, Chen L, He T, Rong J, Zheng Y</b></p><p><b>BIOCHAR AMENDMENT REGULATED GROWTH, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF CONIFER IN RED SOIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The addition of Biochar (BC) into the soil is expected to improve soil physicochemical properties and plant growth. However, few studies have verified such an effect on the growth and physiological characteristics of conifers. The current study aims to assess the efficacy of novel physiological parameters as an indicator for assessing the impact of hardwood biochar (BH) on the development of Fokienia hodginsii seedlings to strengthen our understanding of the impacts of the BH on soil to optimize the achievement of BC-based restoration projects. The BH was applied to the soil under four different levels (0, 5, 20, and 80 g Kg-1 of soil) to assess their influence on the leave’s photosynthetic pigments, photosynthesis (Pn), and biochemical traits of F. hodginsii seedlings in four different seasons, and on biomass and soil physicochemical properties at final harvest under greenhouse conditions for one year. In the first two seasons, BH20 and BH80 amended seedlings responded with an improved photosynthetic rate with more production of photosynthetic pigments and biochemical attributes. However, none of the BC doses increased the Pn of seedlings in the final season. Nonetheless, after one year a rise in soil pH as well as P and K availability resulted in a maximum 25% increase in biomass of F. hodginsii under BH80 amendments. Our findings reveal that the incorporation of BH (20 and 80 g kg-1 of soil) has a substantial positive effect on seedling biomass and soil fertility. However, the application of BH into acidic soils may be effective in restoring degraded soils if initially combined with fertilizers. We recommend a careful approach to the selection of BC because its influence may vary between different soil types, plant species, and BC feedstocks.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fokienia hodginsii, Hardwood Biochar, Restoration, Photosynthesis</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 490-498 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3416-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3416-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3416-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tarin Muhammad Waqqas K, Fan L, Cai Y, Tayyab M, Chen L, He T, Rong J, Zheng Y Research Articles 2020-11-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3416-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating the distribution characters of Larix kaempferi in response to climate change https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3570-013 <p><b>Wu C, Shen J, Chen D, Du C, Sun X, Zhang S</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING THE DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERS OF LARIX KAEMPFERI IN RESPONSE TO CLIMATE CHANGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A better understanding of the distribution of suitable habitats of Larix kaempferi and its environmental constraints is crucial to know how global climate change will affect its growth and future dynamics. We simulated global suitable distribution areas of L. kaempferi under current and future climates, using different representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios, to evaluate the main factors affecting its geographical distribution. The results showed that under current climate conditions the suitable distribution areas of L. kaempferi are concentrated in Europe and Asia, followed by North America. The “Germany-Sweden-Britain” (19.42% of the total worldwide area) and “China-Japan-North Korea” (43.11%) regions are the cores for L. kaempferi distribution. The suitable distribution area for L. kaempferi is large in China (33.75% of the total area). The suitable distribution areas in Asia, Europe, and China decreased and shifted northward in the RCP scenarios. The main climatic factors affecting the distribution of L. kaempferi were the annual mean temperature, mean temperature of the coldest quarter, annual mean precipitation, and precipitation in the driest month. L. kaempferi could adapt or move to higher latitudes/altitudes to cope with climate change. Our results contribute to the introduction, cultivation, and management of L. kaempferi and potentially of other deciduous gymnosperms.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Suitable Distribution Areas, Maxent Model, Environmental Variable, RCPs, Cultivation and Management</p><p><i>iForest 13 (6): 499-506 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3570-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3570-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3570-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wu C, Shen J, Chen D, Du C, Sun X, Zhang S Research Articles 2020-11-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3570-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Shifts in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition of Betula alnoides along young, middle-aged plantation and adjacent natural forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3515-013 <p><b>Jing Y, Li T, Cui H, Li L, Allen SC, Chen L, Li Y, Zhao Z</b></p><p><b>SHIFTS IN THE ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION OF BETULA ALNOIDES ALONG YOUNG, MIDDLE-AGED PLANTATION AND ADJACENT NATURAL FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Betula alnoides is a fast-growing and native timber species prevalently planted in tropical and subtropical areas of southern China. Despite the large-scale development of B. alnoides plantations, knowledge of its association with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is limited. In the present study, we chose young (3-year-old sapling, P3y) and middle-aged (12-year-old stand, P12y) B. alnoides plantations and adjacent native forest (N) in the Puwen Tropical Forest Experimental Station located in Xishuangbanna prefecture of Yunnan Province, southwestern China, as study materials and explored the change in AMF community composition in the plantation chronosequence. In addition, we combined morphological methods and Illumina MiSeq sequencing techniques to analyze rhizosphere soil AMF. The results indicated that the AMF richness and diversity indexes of B. alnoides at two ages tended to be similar to those of natural growing trees in native forest. However, the specific AM fungal compositions were distinctly different, providing evidence of the conservation value of the native forest, which harbors a unique AMF diversity. Hierarchical cluster analysis further revealed that the AMF community composition of trees in the mid-aged stand (P12y) was more similar to that of naturally growing B. alnoides (N) than that of the young-aged trees (P3y), which proved the considerable resilience of AMF to the establishment of the B. alnoides plantation. A set of at least five soil properties (available phosphorus, available nitrogen, organic matter, total nitrogen and silt content) was found to play a significant role in shaping the AMF communities. These results contribute to the understanding of the impacts of B. alnoides plantations on AMF diversity and composition. Such information is critical for the efficient planting and sustainable management of B. alnoides plantations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi, Betula alnoides, Plantation, Native Forest</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 447-455 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3515-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3515-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3515-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jing Y, Li T, Cui H, Li L, Allen SC, Chen L, Li Y, Zhao Z Research Articles 2020-10-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3515-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Diversity of saproxylic beetle communities in chestnut agroforestry systems https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3478-013 <p><b>Parisi F, Lombardi F, Marziliano PA, Russo D, De Cristofaro A, Marchetti M, Tognetti R</b></p><p><b>DIVERSITY OF SAPROXYLIC BEETLE COMMUNITIES IN CHESTNUT AGROFORESTRY SYSTEMS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) has been exploited over the centuries for different uses. Nowadays, chestnut is mostly managed as coppice or orchard, creating a matrix of different forest structures. In particular, saproxylic species may provide information to correlate forest naturalness with stand structure. In this study, we evaluated how different management methods might influence the diversity of beetles hosted in chestnut agroforestry systems. Three management options were considered: young and mature coppice stands, and the traditional fruit orchard. Microhabitats occurring on veteran trees were also surveyed to investigate their effect on saproxylic communities, in the fruit orchard. The study area is located in Southern Italy, Aspromonte National Park, where Coleoptera were collected using window flight traps and the stand structural traits were also quantified. In the fruit orchard, a census of the occurring microhabitats was also realized. We used the following diversity indeces (α-diversity) to assess the state of conservation of the analysed forests: (i) Shannon Index; (ii) Margalef’s Richness index; (iii) Equitability index; (iv) Dominance index. Results revealed that forest management have a fundamental role in influencing the diversity of Coleoptera communities and saproxylic beetles. A lower species richness was observed in the mature coppice in comparison with the young coppice and fruit orchard. Nevertheless, these agroforestry systems, reflecting differentiated structural traits, allowed the development of highly specialized and threatened species (34.3% included in IUCN risk categories), with important contribution to conservation of biodiversity in the rural landscape. Finally, the abundance and diversity of microhabitats in the traditional fruit orchard had positive effects on many saproxylic beetle families. These beetle communities, particularly saproxylic species, can be used as excellent bioindicators in actively managed agroforestry systems, suggesting sustainable forest management options for chestnut, while the conservation of veteran trees rich in microhabitats can be considered fundamental for preserving many endangered insects.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Apennines, α-diversity, Biodiversity Indicators, Chestnut Orchards, Coppice Stands, Forest Management, Threatened Species</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 456-465 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3478-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3478-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3478-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Parisi F, Lombardi F, Marziliano PA, Russo D, De Cristofaro A, Marchetti M, Tognetti R Research Articles 2020-10-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3478-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Investigations on yellowing of chestnut crowns in Trentino (Alps, Northern Italy) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3488-013 <p><b>Bertoldi D, Miorelli P, Pedrazzoli F, Delugan S, Deromedi M, Maresi G</b></p><p><b>INVESTIGATIONS ON YELLOWING OF CHESTNUT CROWNS IN TRENTINO (ALPS, NORTHERN ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Yellowing of part or the whole canopy of chestnut trees was observed during the summer of 2014 in the areas of Tenno, Pranzo and Drena in Trentino, where chestnut cultivation is traditional on the lateral moraine deposit in a context of a prevalent limestone lithological substrate. Symptoms were observed on chestnut trees of different ages, either grafted or not, scattered or in stripes along the maximum slope. Investigations were carried out in the form of field surveys, chemical and molecular analyses of soil and leaves and greenhouse trials, to assess the damage evolution and its causes. No known pathogens emerged during the field surveys, and laboratory tests excluded the presence of phytoplasma infections. A comparison of yellow and asymptomatic leaves evidenced significant deficiencies of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) in the yellow leaves, though the level of the two nutrients was the same in the soil below green and yellowed trees. Experimental run-off trials in the greenhouse reproduced the foliage damage with a continuous basic water regime; open-field fertilizations with Mn and Fe led to a slightly recovery on the part of some treated leaves, thus confirming the hypothesis of a probable, sudden deficiency of the mentioned microelements. A possible explanation of this phenomenon could be, on one side, the high precipitation level of 2014, and, on the other side, the previous outbreaks of the Asian chestnut gall wasp, that had reduced foliage volume and thus the organic substance in the soil. The natural recovery from symptoms was clearly visible in trees after four years in a context of normal rainfall regime and increasing organic acid in the soil, after effective biological control of wasp. Even if related to a particular and rare geological condition, this is the first description of Mn deficiency in Castanea sativa.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chestnut Yellowing, Castanea sativa, Phytoplasmas, Foliar Deficiencies, Manganese</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 466-472 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3488-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3488-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3488-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bertoldi D, Miorelli P, Pedrazzoli F, Delugan S, Deromedi M, Maresi G Research Articles 2020-10-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3488-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: The effects of salicylic acid, oxalic acid and chitosan on damping-off control and growth in Scots pine in a forest nursery https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3244-013 <p><b>Soltys A, Studnicki M, Zawadzki G, Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECTS OF SALICYLIC ACID, OXALIC ACID AND CHITOSAN ON DAMPING-OFF CONTROL AND GROWTH IN SCOTS PINE IN A FOREST NURSERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Modern forestry in the European Union and in Poland is in constant search of environment-friendly technological solutions. These also relate to nursery production, in which attempts are made to apply non-chemical plant-protection products. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of salicylic acid, oxalic acid and chitosan (applied in the form of Beta-chikol®) in controlling damping-off and promoting the growth of Scots pine seedlings under nursery conditions. All the substances were used in seed treatment and in the form of foliar spray, 4 times during the growing season, in the following concentrations: salicylic acid 1% and 2%, oxalic acid 0.5% and 1%, and chitosan 2%. Seedlings were inventoried three times: 3 and 6 weeks after seed sowing, and at the end of the growing season. All seedlings were counted in 1-metre segments of individual rows of the seedbed. At the end of the growing season, parameters of seedling growth like shoot length, root-collar diameter, root length and the dry mass of above-ground parts were determined. The growth of pine seedlings was found to be stimulated by both chitosan and oxalic acid, while salicylic acid proved inhibitory to growth when present at 2% concentration, and showed no detectable influence on biometric parameters at 1% concentration. Numbers of seedlings germinating per 1-metre segment were significantly greater than in the (unprotected) control, where chitosan was applied. Likewise, oxalic acid applied at both concentrations was associated with greater numbers of germinating pine seedlings than in the control, albeit the statistical significance of this difference was achieved only 6 weeks after seed sowing, and only with the 0.5% concentration. Numbers of seedlings per metre-long segment were significantly lower in response to both concentrations of salicylic acid applied. Both chitosan (applied as Beta-chikol®) and 0.5% oxalic acid resulted in seedling protection against damping-off and enhanced growth, whereas the applied concentrations of salicylic acid were presumably excessive, hence the negative impact on both germination and growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Biostimulants, Induced Resistance, Pinus sylvestris, Growth Stimulation, Disease Control</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 441-446 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3244-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3244-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3244-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Soltys A, Studnicki M, Zawadzki G, Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M Short Communications 2020-09-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3244-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Remote sensing of american maple in alluvial forests: a case study in an island complex of the Loire valley (France) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3237-013 <p><b>Martin H, Monnet JM, De Boisvilliers M, Chevalier R, Villar M</b></p><p><b>REMOTE SENSING OF AMERICAN MAPLE IN ALLUVIAL FORESTS: A CASE STUDY IN AN ISLAND COMPLEX OF THE LOIRE VALLEY (FRANCE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Due to their particular topographic position between land and river, riparian forests are ecosystems rich in biodiversity. In France, along the Middle Loire (from Nevers to Angers), Black poplar (Populus nigra L.) forests are often in mixtures with the American maple (Acer negundo L.), introduced into the country in the 18th century. We tested the detectability of American maple by LiDAR and very high-resolution multispectral imagery on an island complex. We found that coupling the point cloud height standard deviation with a vegetation index in the red, green and blue spectrums discriminated American maple with a success rate of more than 90%.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Acer negundo, American Maple, Box Elder, Populus nigra, Black Poplar, Airborne Laser Scanning, Remote Sensing, Exogenous Woody Species, Loire River</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 409-416 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3237-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3237-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3237-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Martin H, Monnet JM, De Boisvilliers M, Chevalier R, Villar M Technical Reports 2020-09-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3237-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree volume modeling for forest types in the Atlantic Forest: generic and specific models https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3495-013 <p><b>Cysneiros VC, Gaui TD, Silveira Filho TB, Pelissari AL, Machado SDA, De Carvalho DC, Moura TA, Amorim HB</b></p><p><b>TREE VOLUME MODELING FOR FOREST TYPES IN THE ATLANTIC FOREST: GENERIC AND SPECIFIC MODELS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: National Forest Inventories are important primary data sources for large-scale forest resource surveys, in which volume estimates of sampled trees are essential for quantitative analysis. Volume prediction models in natural forests are scarce in Brazil due to legal restrictions for cutting trees, especially in the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to fit volume models for the main forest types and timber species of the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro state, considering two hypotheses: (I) generic volume models provide greater generalizability of estimates; however, (II) they may reduce the accuracy of forest type- and species-specific predictions. Four linear models with logarithmic transformation of variables were evaluated to fit volume models for generic and specific datasets, which correspond to the main forest types and timber species. Goodness-of-fit statistics were calculated to compare the accuracy and efficiency of the models, and selected models were validated through leave-one-out cross-validation procedures. The estimates obtained by generic and specific models were compared by non-parametric hypothesis tests. Generic models showed similar predictions to the specific models for forest types and timber species, with similar potential for stem and total volume predictions. Therefore, generic models can be used for Atlantic Forests in Rio de Janeiro state, while specific models are recommended to obtain more detailed local estimates.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Allometric Models, National Forest Inventory, Non-destructive Methods, Goodness-of-fit, Stem and Total Volume</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 417-425 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3495-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3495-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3495-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cysneiros VC, Gaui TD, Silveira Filho TB, Pelissari AL, Machado SDA, De Carvalho DC, Moura TA, Amorim HB Research Articles 2020-09-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3495-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatial modeling of the ecological niche of Pinus greggii Engelm. (Pinaceae): a species conservation proposal in Mexico under climatic change scenarios https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3491-013 <p><b>Martínez-Sifuentes AR, Villanueva-Díaz J, Manzanilla-Quiñones U, Becerra-López JL, Hernández-Herrera JA, Estrada-Ávalos J, Velázquez-Pérez AH</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL MODELING OF THE ECOLOGICAL NICHE OF PINUS GREGGII ENGELM. (PINACEAE): A SPECIES CONSERVATION PROPOSAL IN MEXICO UNDER CLIMATIC CHANGE SCENARIOS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Pinus greggii is a species of socio-economic importance in terms of wood production and environmental services in Mexico, though it is restricted by particular environmental conditions to the Sierra Madre Occidental. Species distribution models are geospatial tools widely used in the identification and delineation of species’ distribution areas and zones susceptible to climate change. The objectives of this study were to: (i) model and quantify the environmentally suitable area for Pinus greggii in Mexico, and possible future distributions under four different scenarios of climate change; (ii) identify the most relevant environmental variables that will possibly drive changes in future distribution; and (iii) to propose adequate zones for the species’ conservation in Mexico. Some 438 records of Pinus greggii from several national and international databases were obtained, and duplicates were discarded to avoid overestimations in the models. Climatic, edaphic, and topographic variables were used and 100 distribution models for current and future scenarios were generated using the Maxent software. The best model had an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.88 and 0.93 for model training and validation, respectively, a partial ROC of 1.94, and a significant Z test (p<0.01). The current estimated suitable area of Pinus greggii in Mexico was 617,706.04 ha. The most relevant environmental variables for current distribution were annual mean temperature, mean temperature of coldest quarter, and slope. For the 2041-2060 models, annual mean temperature, precipitation of coldest quarter, and slope were the most important drivers. The use of climatic models allowed to predict a future decrease in suitable habitat for the species by 2041-2060, ranging from 48,403.85 (7.8% - HadGEM2-ES RCP 8.5 model) to 134,680.17 ha (21.8% - CNRM-CM5 RCP 4.5). Spatial modeling of current and future ecological niche of Pinus greggii also allowed to delineate two zones for in situ conservation and restoration purpose in northeastern (Nuevo Leon) and central (Hidalgo) Mexico.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Conservation, Climate Change, MaxEnt, Sierra Madre Oriental, Pinus greggii</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 426-434 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3491-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3491-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3491-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Martínez-Sifuentes AR, Villanueva-Díaz J, Manzanilla-Quiñones U, Becerra-López JL, Hernández-Herrera JA, Estrada-Ávalos J, Velázquez-Pérez AH Research Articles 2020-09-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3491-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Wildfire and harvesting effects on carbon dynamics in an oak-pine mixed forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3312-013 <p><b>Kaptanoglu AS, Namli A</b></p><p><b>WILDFIRE AND HARVESTING EFFECTS ON CARBON DYNAMICS IN AN OAK-PINE MIXED FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: CO2 emission to the atmosphere is the main cause of global warming. The impacts of land-use changes for agriculture and urbanisation, deforestation, and fire disturbance are attributed to the increase in CO2 emissions. Soil respiration, largely due to microbial activity, is one of the CO2 sources being released to the atmosphere. In this regard, several soil parameters related with carbon cycle, including organic matter, total N, C/N ratio, CO2 efflux, microbial biomass C (Cmic), the Cmic/Corg ratio, the metabolic quotient qCO2, and β-D glucosidase activity, were determined in a burned (harvested, H; non-harvested, NH), and its adjacent unburned (UB), mixed oak-pine forest to estimate the effects of burning and removal of residual woods. The Cmic increased gradually with burning and harvesting after Month 9, and sharp increases were observed in all areas, likely due to the abundant rainfall after Month 12. CO2 efflux decreased in the burned areas at Months 4 and 6; however, this reversed in Month 9. In spite of non-significant differences, we detected higher CO2 efflux values in the unburned areas compared to the burned ones, probably as a result of the drought effect observed in the burned areas up to Months 9 and 12 due to the increased soil heat. There was no significant difference between the H and NH burned areas, while both areas were different from the unburned areas in all soil parameters, except CO2 efflux and qCO2. The harvesting effect was not significant compared to the fire effect with regard to the considered soil variables, likely due to the management and protection of the burned area which allowed a fast vegetation recover. The abundance of the microbial biomass was independent of the changes in CO2 efflux and showed a negative correlation with β-D glucosidase activity. This might be related to the variation in substrate quality, microbial composition and abundance after burning and harvesting.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: CO2 Evolution, β-D Glucosidase Activity, qCO2, Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon, Wildfire</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 435-440 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3312-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3312-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3312-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kaptanoglu AS, Namli A Research Articles 2020-09-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3312-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of stand age on litter quality, decomposition rate and nutrient release of Kazdagi fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3306-013 <p><b>Savaci G, Sariyildiz T</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF STAND AGE ON LITTER QUALITY, DECOMPOSITION RATE AND NUTRIENT RELEASE OF KAZDAGI FIR (ABIES NORDMANNIANA SUBSP. EQUI-TROJANI)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The influence of stand age on litter quality, decomposition rate and nutrient release was examined in pure stands of Kazdagi fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. equi-trojani [Steven] Spach) differing in age (Fir38, Fir60, Fir90 and Fir100 years). The needle litters were collected and analysed for initial total carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, Ca, S, Mg, Mn and Fe). Initial litter quality parameters varied significantly among the four stand age classes. The Fir60 and Fir100 stands had higher total C than the Fir38 and Fir90 stands, while the Fir38 and Fir100 stands had higher N than the Fir60 and Fir90 stands. Mean cellulose and hemicellulose concentrations were highest in the Fir90 stand, while mean lignin concentration was highest in the Fir38 stand. Fir90 stand showed the highest ratios of C/N and Lignin/N. In general, the older fir stands showed higher Ca, Mg and K concentrations and lower P and S concentrations than the younger stands. The litter, however, showed higher a Mn concentration under the Fir60. Mean Fe concentration was highest under the Fir38 stand and lowest under the Fir60 stand. Litter decomposition was studied in the field using the litterbag technique. The litterbags were placed on the soil under each stand age class and sampled every 6 months for 2 years. The interaction of stand age and time on the mass loss was significant (p<0.01). The repeated measures ANOVA showed that the main effect of time on the mass loss was also significant (p<0.001). Needle litters under Fir100 and Fir60 stands decomposed faster than the needle litters under Fir90 and Fir38 stands. The calculated times required for 50% mass loss were higher under Fir38 (1.35 y) and Fir90 (1.27 y) stands than under Fir100 (1.05 y) and Fir60 (1.06 y) stands. The litters in Fir38 and Fir90 stands need approximately 4 years for 95% mass loss compared to the litters in Fir60 and Fir100 stands, which need 3 years. In general, Ca, Mg and S concentrations increased over time, whereas K and Mn decreased. These results illustrate that stand age is a key factor to be considered when studying litter decomposition dynamics.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Litter Quality, Stand Age, Litter Decomposition, Nutrient Release, Fir</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 396-403 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3306-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3306-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3306-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Savaci G, Sariyildiz T Research Articles 2020-09-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3306-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: When a definition makes the difference: operative issues about tree height measures from RPAS-derived CHMs https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3411-013 <p><b>De Petris S, Berretti R, Sarvia F, Borgogno Mondino E</b></p><p><b>WHEN A DEFINITION MAKES THE DIFFERENCE: OPERATIVE ISSUES ABOUT TREE HEIGHT MEASURES FROM RPAS-DERIVED CHMS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree height (H) survey is a fundamental step in forest mensuration. The error affecting tree height measure, necessarily influences the correspondent tree estimates. The remotely survey of vegetation using PHODAR (PHOtogrammetric Detection And Ranging) or LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) techniques generates very high-density point clouds, that result into Canopy Height Models (CHMs) having GSD (Ground Sampling Distance) of few centimetres. This GSD value potentially allows to survey single crown apexes, which, from a forestry point of view, do not represent the actual tree height. Apex height value, in fact, does not represent the prevailing dendrometric height (PDH) but the maximum tree value. In this study we propose a new approach aimed at measuring dendrometric height by PHODAR derived CHM, taking care about this issue. The proposed method defines a correcting factor (found equal to 95% percentile of CHM values distribution within a given crown) for the tree height extraction from CHM based on the PDH concept. The method could be implemented to single crown approach in forest parameters extraction algorithms permitting more reliable results, especially in terms of tree volume and related estimations (e.g., carbon stock quantification, allometric models).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Height, Prevailing Dendrometric Height, CHM, PHODAR, LiDAR</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 404-408 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3411-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3411-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3411-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> De Petris S, Berretti R, Sarvia F, Borgogno Mondino E Short Communications 2020-09-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3411-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of fuel loads and carbon stocks of forest floor in endemic Dalmatian black pine forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3184-013 <p><b>Bakšić N, Bakšić D</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF FUEL LOADS AND CARBON STOCKS OF FOREST FLOOR IN ENDEMIC DALMATIAN BLACK PINE FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Estimation of forest floor loading is important for many forest management applications, especially those related to fire management and carbon balance. We quantified the physical properties (depth, fuel load, bulk density) and carbon stocks of endemic Dalmatian black pine (Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold subsp. dalmatica [Vis.] Franco) forest floor layers. We also examined how these properties differ with stand age and layer. Forest floor depths ranged from 1.5 cm to 11.5 cm and forest floor fuel (FFF) loads ranged from 11.9 Mg ha-1 in the young stand to 197.3 Mg ha-1 in the old stand. Forest floor carbon (FFC) stocks ranged from 6.4 Mg C ha-1 in the young stand to 85.8 Mg C ha-1 in the old stand. We developed regression equations that can be used to convert the investigated forest floor depth into load in each layer individually and across all layers. These equations, together with the organic carbon (OC) concentration determined here for individual forest floor layers, simplify quantification of carbon stocks in the forest floor. Bulk density (BD) values reported here can also be used to convert depth measurements to loads for each layer and the entire forest floor. The results presented here are suitable for rapid estimation of FFF loads and FFC stocks based solely on forest floor depth, without the need to sample and analyze large amounts of forest floor fuels. Similarly, spatial distribution in FFF loads and carbon stocks can be assessed simply by measuring forest floor depths.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dalmatian Black Pine, Forest Floor, Fuel Load, Carbon Stock, Bulk Density</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 382-388 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3184-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3184-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3184-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bakšić N, Bakšić D Research Articles 2020-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3184-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Development phases and structural characteristics of the Penteleu-Viforta virgin forest in the Curvature Carpathians https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3094-013 <p><b>Chivulescu S, Ciceu A, Leca S, Apostol B, Popescu O, Badea O</b></p><p><b>DEVELOPMENT PHASES AND STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PENTELEU-VIFORTA VIRGIN FOREST IN THE CURVATURE CARPATHIANS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The stand structure of a virgin forest situated at an average altitude of 1130 m a.s.l. in the Milea Viforta Nature Reserve (Southern Carpathians, Romania) was investigated to determine the specific development phases of the forest and understand how they influence the stand structure, with the aim of providing optimal solutions and structural models for sustainable forest management. All trees with breast height diameter (dbh) ≥ 8 cm were inventoried in the study plot (1 ha), and the main dendrometrical variables were measured. Radial increment cores were taken from all the trees and were subsequently processed. A total of 317 trees from three species - European beech (Fagus sylvatica), silver fir (Abies alba) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) - were sampled at different development phases (optimum, ageing, breakdown and dieback, rejuvenation). Testing stand structural diversity with the Gini index, a minimal stability was found in the rejuvenation development phase and a maximum stability in the ageing phase. No significant match was found between standard theoretical functions (Normal, Weibull, Gamma and Exponential) and the observed distribution of tree diameter. Also, it was confirmed that dominance of beech in all development phases is a consequence of its high competitive ability and its capacity to endure difficult environmental and biologically stressful conditions. The results revealed a series of structural models specific to these forest ecosystems, which can help managing forests under the selection system.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Primary Forest, Development Phases, Uneven Aged Forests, Carpathians Forest</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 389-395 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3094-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3094-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3094-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Chivulescu S, Ciceu A, Leca S, Apostol B, Popescu O, Badea O Research Articles 2020-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3094-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The effect of provenance of historical timber on tree-ring based temperature reconstructions in the Western Central Alps https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3412-013 <p><b>Riechelmann DF, Hartl C, Esper J</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECT OF PROVENANCE OF HISTORICAL TIMBER ON TREE-RING BASED TEMPERATURE RECONSTRUCTIONS IN THE WESTERN CENTRAL ALPS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Millennial-length tree-ring width chronologies are used to reconstruct temperature and place recent warming into historical context. The Simplon valley in the Western Central Alps is an ideal region for such a study as it provides historical timber back to medieval times which can be combined with temperature sensitive living larch trees. However, the exact provenance of the historical timber is unknown, but might origin from different elevations which potentially biases derived temperature reconstructions. To study the effect of elevation on tree growth and climate sensitivity, approximately 250 trees at three elevational levels (1500, 1700, and 2000 m a.s.l.) were sampled. Results indicate that the overall growth rate decreases with increasing elevation. Significant correlations between tree-ring width and summer temperature are recorded at tree sites ≥ 1700 m a.s.l. The comparison of the growth patterns between living trees and historical timber from Simplon Village (1476 m a.s.l.) reveals a most likely origin of the historical samples between 1700 and 2000 m a.s.l. When combining the data from the living trees at the different elevational levels with the historical timber, to produce three separate chronologies spanning the past 1200 years, substantial low frequency differences are recorded after RCS detrending the data. This finding demonstrates that the origin of samples in combined (living + historical) chronologies has a strong influence on long-term summer temperature reconstructions. It is thus important to analyse the growth characteristics of historical timber, and estimate their provenance in comparison to living trees, when producing millennial length chronologies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elevational Transect, European Larch, Climate Response, Summer Temperature, Dendrochronology</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 351-359 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3412-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3412-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3412-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Riechelmann DF, Hartl C, Esper J Research Articles 2020-08-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3412-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Towards better practices of salvage logging for reducing the ecosystem impacts in Mediterranean burned forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3380-013 <p><b>Pons P, Rost J, Tobella C, Puig-Gironès R, Bas JM, Franch M, Mauri E</b></p><p><b>TOWARDS BETTER PRACTICES OF SALVAGE LOGGING FOR REDUCING THE ECOSYSTEM IMPACTS IN MEDITERRANEAN BURNED FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: An average of 213,000 ha of European forest is affected by fire every year, with 90% of this area corresponding to Mediterranean countries. The timber of the burned forests is usually harvested by clearcutting over large areas to be used mainly as bioenergy. Recent scientific evidence has shown the strong impact that these “salvage logging” practices have on the ecosystem. However, forest owners and companies largely ignore academic debate, and salvage logging decisions are usually taken for economic, practical and emotional reasons. We propose a process to connect scientists and practitioners with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines to protect biodiversity and ecosystem services, which can be used as a general model. The process involves five steps: (1) to review the available scientific knowledge on post-fire forest management; (2) to synthesize the information to produce a handbook of best practices in Mediterranean burned forests; (3) to provide a tool to help decision-making in post-fire management; (4) to actively disseminate this knowledge to the forest sector; and (5) to fill knowledge gaps with new experimental studies aimed to assess the environmental impact of some of the most feasible management alternatives. The feedback of the forest sector has been obtained along the process, and recommendations for better practices are already being promoted among forest owners by the administration. We suggest that similar processes can be conducted in other socio-environmental contexts to improve the management of disturbed forests and to generalize our knowledge on the topic.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity, Ecosystem Services, Evidence-based Management, Salvage Logging, Sustainable Logging, Wildfires</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 360-368 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3380-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3380-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3380-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pons P, Rost J, Tobella C, Puig-Gironès R, Bas JM, Franch M, Mauri E Review Papers 2020-08-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3380-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Efficacy of Phlebiopsis gigantea against Heterobasidion conidiospore and basidiospore infection in spruce wood https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3279-013 <p><b>Bruna L, Klavina D, Zaluma A, Kenigsvalde K, Burneviča N, Nikolajeva V, Gaitnieks T, Piri T</b></p><p><b>EFFICACY OF PHLEBIOPSIS GIGANTEA AGAINST HETEROBASIDION CONIDIOSPORE AND BASIDIOSPORE INFECTION IN SPRUCE WOOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Treatment of freshly cut stumps with biological control agents containing Phlebiopsis gigantea spores effectively restricts the spread of new Heterobasidion infections in conifer forests. To test the control efficacy of different P. gigantea strains, conifer stumps or billets cut from tree stems can be artificially infected with asexual Heterobasidion conidiospores or sexual basidiospores or left for natural basidiospore infection. Currently, no information is available about whether the control efficiency of P. gigantea in Norway spruce wood is affected by Heterobasidion spore type. In the present study, the impact of four P. gigantea strains (including the commercial product Rotstop®) on initiation and development of Heterobasidion basidiospore and conidiospore infections as well as the relationship between the area occupied by P. gigantea and control efficacy were analysed in spruce billets. The mean size of the area occupied by P. gigantea was larger, and the efficacy of P. gigantea against Heterobasidion was significantly higher in billets left for natural basidiospore infection compared to treatment with Heterobasidion conidiospore suspension. The control efficacy against Heterobasidion infection was high, although only a small area of the billet surface was occupied by P. gigantea and even when there was no visible discoloration caused by P. gigantea infection on wood surfaces.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Picea abies, Billets, Conidiospores, Basidiospores</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 369-375 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3279-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3279-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3279-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bruna L, Klavina D, Zaluma A, Kenigsvalde K, Burneviča N, Nikolajeva V, Gaitnieks T, Piri T Research Articles 2020-08-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3279-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Assessment of allergenic potential in urban forests: a case study of the Royal Park of Portici in Southern Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3485-013 <p><b>Rispo M, De Masi L, Calandrelli MM</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL IN URBAN FORESTS: A CASE STUDY OF THE ROYAL PARK OF PORTICI IN SOUTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In modern cities, the abundance of allergenic plant species has contributed to making less healthy the urban environment, as on-going and direct contact of humans with the urban flora can increase the negative effects on people allergic to pollens. The allergenicity of ornamental species should be considered, and above all quantified, when designing new urban green areas. Numerous studies reported the detailed description of the flora present in cities, but only in some rare cases their allergenic power and related pollen seasons were mentioned. In the present study, starting from the existing data in literature on the vascular flora of the Royal Park of Portici, Southern Italy, tree and shrub species have been classified based on their ability to cause respiratory allergies. Thus, to estimate the allergenic potential of urban green space, two preliminary approaches were defined based on the biological characteristics of the plant species as sources of pollen emissions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pollens, Allergies, Vascular Flora, Urban Green Parks, Urban Planning</p><p><i>iForest 13 (5): 376-381 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3485-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3485-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3485-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rispo M, De Masi L, Calandrelli MM Technical Reports 2020-08-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3485-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Vascular plants diversity in short rotation coppices: a reliable source of ecosystem services or farmland dead loss? https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3055-013 <p><b>Fehér A, Končeková L, Halmová D, Prus P, Izakovičová Z, Dragoi M</b></p><p><b>VASCULAR PLANTS DIVERSITY IN SHORT ROTATION COPPICES: A RELIABLE SOURCE OF ECOSYSTEM SERVICES OR FARMLAND DEAD LOSS?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are a relatively new type of crop stand that is usually established on agricultural land in intensively used landscapes. However, SRCs also offer services other than the production of renewable energy. We evaluated the more complex significance of SRCs by including the other important potential ecosystem services of these stands. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the ecosystem services and disservices of SRCs by inductive (bottom-up) methods moving from the species-level to the ecosystem services on the basis of the spontaneous vascular plants diversity in SRCs. We also compared the plant-diversity-based potential ecosystem services and disservices of field SRCs, crops and forests in the same landscape in southwestern Slovakia. It was found that SRCs had an intermediate vascular plants species composition between those of forest ecosystems and agroecosystems. Among the ten evaluated ecosystem services and disservices, considering the sum of the positive and negative evaluations, SRCs had an intermediate position between the forests and arable-land vegetation. When comparing the ecosystem services of the SRCs with those of the forest ecosystems and agroecosystems, the SRCs achieved the best rating for species richness, remediation and collectables. SRCs had the worst rating for providing pasture and had the highest proportion of toxic and allergenic plants. Interestingly, SRCs achieved positive values in ecosystem services and mainly recorded the worst values in the ecosystem disservices. The direct utilization of these services and the economic balance of ecosystem services and disservices require further study.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bioenergy, Ecosystem Service, Farmland, Forest Ecosystem, Short Rotation Coppice</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 345-350 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3055-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3055-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3055-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fehér A, Končeková L, Halmová D, Prus P, Izakovičová Z, Dragoi M Research Articles 2020-08-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3055-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of forest cover change using Sentinel-2 multi-spectral imagery in Georgia (the Caucasus) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3386-013 <p><b>Mikeladze G, Gavashelishvili A, Akobia I, Metreveli V</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF FOREST COVER CHANGE USING SENTINEL-2 MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGERY IN GEORGIA (THE CAUCASUS)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Our objective was to use Sentinel-2A multispectral data in order to cost-effectively detect change in forest cover in Georgia (the Caucasus). Generalized additive models (GAMs) were used to fit forest cover measures to Sentinel-2A spectral band values modified using different topographic correction methods. Canopy closure (calculated from upward-looking fisheye photographs taken beneath forest canopy) was the best forest cover measure accounted for by the Sentinel-2 spectral data that were topographically corrected using the Minnaert Correction (R2 = 0.882). Spectral bands best explaining canopy closure were Band 3 (Green), Band 8 (NIR) and Band 12 (SWIR). Our model is able to reasonably detect spatial and temporal changes in canopy closure, even in highly rugged terrain and diverse vegetation cover, and it has potential to be improved to the extent that it can be applied by managers of natural resources. Based on free open source applications in combination with cheap gadgets our approach might play an important role in monitoring the forests of countries with low economic indicators.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Generalized Additive Models, Forest Cover, Satellite Imagery, Sentinel-2, Fisheye, Topographic Correction</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 329-335 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3386-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3386-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3386-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mikeladze G, Gavashelishvili A, Akobia I, Metreveli V Research Articles 2020-08-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3386-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The cork oak in the Mountains of Palermo (Italy): ecological insights from the south-eastern edge of its distribution range https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3360-013 <p><b>Badalamenti E, Scalenghe R, La Mantia T, Bueno RS, Sala G, Pizzurro GM, Giaimo A, Pasta S</b></p><p><b>THE CORK OAK IN THE MOUNTAINS OF PALERMO (ITALY): ECOLOGICAL INSIGHTS FROM THE SOUTH-EASTERN EDGE OF ITS DISTRIBUTION RANGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The uneven presence of the cork oak (Quercus suber L.) within its distribution range is not only determined by its climatic requirements but also by specific edaphic needs. Although most of the natural populations thrive in acidic soils deriving from metamorphic or volcanic rock outcrops, some cork oak populations are found growing in soils deriving from calcareous bedrock, which are considered less suitable. We carried out a multidisciplinary investigation at the south eastern edge of the Q. suber distribution range (Mountains of Palermo, NW Sicily), including soil, floristic, and vegetation surveys, aimed at: (i) assessing the native or introduced origin of some peculiar cork oak populations; (ii) describing the associated plant communities and soils; (iii) identifying the ecological factors which could explain the local adaptation to soils deriving from calcareous bedrock; (iv) discussing the ecological role played by this species in the study area and within its distribution range. The collected information suggest that the detected cork oak stands are native to these areas. We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of high fire frequency, high soil calcium content and erosion, which caused the intermixing of different parent materials, might favor its competitive interactions with other Mediterranean tree species, thus accounting for the local presence of Q. suber. The study of cork oak populations thriving in peculiar substrates at the driest end of the range could be of great importance for the future conservation of this species, which is expected to face growing threats in the coming decades.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mediterranean Evergreen Forest, Soil Chemistry, Vegetation Science, Wildfire, Landscape, Tree Species, Quercus suber</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 336-344 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3360-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3360-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3360-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Badalamenti E, Scalenghe R, La Mantia T, Bueno RS, Sala G, Pizzurro GM, Giaimo A, Pasta S Research Articles 2020-08-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3360-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: An assessment of the availability of cavities for secondary cavity-nesting birds in certified and conventionally-logged Neotropical rainforests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3220-013 <p><b>Schaaf AA, Tallei E, Ruggera RA, Vivanco CG, Rivera L, Politi N</b></p><p><b>AN ASSESSMENT OF THE AVAILABILITY OF CAVITIES FOR SECONDARY CAVITY-NESTING BIRDS IN CERTIFIED AND CONVENTIONALLY-LOGGED NEOTROPICAL RAINFORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The high level of forest intervention and the decrease in biodiversity as a result of logging are incentives to implement forest certification schemes. Despite the advances in the results of the impact of forest certification on biodiversity, there are few studies on species with specific habits, such as cavity-nesting birds. The objective of this study is to compare the impact of forest certification and conventional logging on the richness, availability (density) and dominance of potentially suitable cavity trees for secondary cavity-nesting birds in the subtropical forests of northwestern Argentina. Seven sites were selected: three control sites which were not logged for at least 40 years, one site under Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) certification, and three sites with conventional logging. The results suggest that logged forests under FSC-certification may guarantee a diversity, availability (density) and dominance of potentially suitable cavity trees for secondary cavity-nesting birds, as well as certain characteristics (such as DBH > 40 cm), similar to unlogged forests for this group of birds. Therefore, we suggest that the forests of northwestern Argentina should be managed by a scheme under forest certification so that the high levels of cavity tree species are maintained.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Argentina, Birds, Cavity Trees, Certification Forest, Forest Stewardship Council, South-America, Subtropical Forests</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 318-322 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3220-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3220-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3220-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Schaaf AA, Tallei E, Ruggera RA, Vivanco CG, Rivera L, Politi N Short Communications 2020-07-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3220-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Public perceptions of forests across Italy: an exploratory national survey https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3394-013 <p><b>Carrus G, Panno A, Aragones JI, Marchetti M, Motta R, Tonon G, Sanesi G</b></p><p><b>PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF FORESTS ACROSS ITALY: AN EXPLORATORY NATIONAL SURVEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In a context of progressive expansion of the Italian forest area, we present the results of a national survey exploring public perception of forests across different geographical scales in Italy. Perceptions of forests are assessed in relation to popular beliefs on relevant environmental issues such as countering climate change, protecting biodiversity, and promoting social cohesion and environmental education. Participants (N = 1059) living in five different regions of Northern (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Piemonte), Central (Lazio, Molise) and Southern Italy (Puglia), were recruited in the survey and completed a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Survey questions regarded the estimated percentage of forest cover, the perceived importance of different environmental issues and of different material and non-material forest products, as well as participants’ perceptions regarding connectedness to nature. Results revealed a generalized tendency to overestimate the extension of forest surface area in the participants’ region, in Italy, and in the European Union. Results also showed high scores for participants’ perceived importance of environmental issues, such as climate change and biodiversity protection, and in their belief that forests could play a positive role in addressing these issues and providing important outcomes and benefits for the quality of human life, such as health and well-being or social cohesion.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Perceptions, Nature Experience, Environmental Attitudes, Environmental Issues</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 323-328 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3394-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3394-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3394-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Carrus G, Panno A, Aragones JI, Marchetti M, Motta R, Tonon G, Sanesi G Research Articles 2020-07-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3394-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Remote sensing of selective logging in tropical forests: current state and future directions https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3301-013 <p><b>Jackson CM, Adam E</b></p><p><b>REMOTE SENSING OF SELECTIVE LOGGING IN TROPICAL FORESTS: CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper reviews and discusses the status of remote sensing techniques applied in detecting and monitoring selective logging disturbance in tropical forests. The analyses concentrated on the period 1992-2019. Accurate and precise detection of selectively logged sites in a forest is crucial for analyzing the spatial distribution of forest disturbances and degradation. Remote sensing can be used to monitor selective logging activities and associated forest fires over tropical forests, which otherwise requires labor-intensive and time-consuming field surveys, that are costly and difficult to undertake. The number of studies on remote sensing for selective logging has grown steadily over the years, thus, the need for their review so as to guide forest management practices and current research. A variety of peer reviewed articles are discussed so as to evaluate the applicability and accuracy of different methods in different circumstances. Major challenges with existing approaches are singled out and future needs are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tropical Forest Disturbance, Selective Logging, Forest Degradation, Forest Canopy Gaps, Disturbance Mapping, Remote Sensing, Forest Monitoring</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 286-300 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3301-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3301-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3301-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jackson CM, Adam E Review Papers 2020-07-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3301-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Hydrological simulation of a small forested catchment under different land use and forest management https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3221-013 <p><b>Oliveira LT, Cecílio RA, Zanetti SS, Loos RA, Bressiani DA, Srinivasan R</b></p><p><b>HYDROLOGICAL SIMULATION OF A SMALL FORESTED CATCHMENT UNDER DIFFERENT LAND USE AND FOREST MANAGEMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper describes the assessment of the SWAT hydrological model to reproduce continuous daily streamflow and simulate scenarios of forest management for a small catchment under tropical climate in Aracruz, Brazil. The main land use of the catchment consisted of eucalyptus cultivation. The SWAT parameters were calibrated and validated using daily hydrologic and meteorological data from 1997 to 2004. The statistical indices of SWAT validation (NS = 0.74, PBIAS = -14.34%, RSR = 0.51) show that SWAT performance was satisfactory in this application. Different land use and forest management scenarios were simulated with the aim of assessing their influence over the streamflow. The scenarios were: catchment under eucalyptus cultivation with three different forest managements and catchment under the native forest (Atlantic Rainforest). The scenarios simulations did not show significant changes in the long-term average streamflow. Minimum, maximum, and average annual streamflows were higher for eucalyptus scenarios compared to the native forest scenario. These results should be carefully applied to other watersheds as they reflect soil, landscape, and climate characteristics, as well as the geographic location, size, and use of water of the plantings and other vegetation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hydrological Modeling, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), Atlantic Rainforest, Eucalyptus</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 301-308 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3221-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3221-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3221-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Oliveira LT, Cecílio RA, Zanetti SS, Loos RA, Bressiani DA, Srinivasan R Research Articles 2020-07-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3221-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The conversion into high forest of Turkey oak coppice stands: methods, silviculture and perspectives https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3483-013 <p><b>Manetti MC, Becagli C, Bertini G, Cantiani P, Marchi M, Pelleri F, Sansone D, Fabbio G</b></p><p><b>THE CONVERSION INTO HIGH FOREST OF TURKEY OAK COPPICE STANDS: METHODS, SILVICULTURE AND PERSPECTIVES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The goal of this study is to assess the impact of different thinning approaches for coppice conversion into high forest of Turkey oak stands in Italy. The stand structure and the tree/shrub diversity were analyzed in 27 long-term monitoring plots from 7 experimental trials in the Colline Metallifere district (Tuscany, Central Italy) to verify the consistency of the original cultivation goals with the current stand structures. Three different approaches were applied from 1969 onwards: thinning from below, selective thinning, and no-management. Three indexes of specific diversity (Specific Richness, Shannon index and Importance Value) and two indexes of vertical diversity (Vertical Evenness and Coefficient of variation of tree height) were used to analyze and compare the outcome of management practices. The results showed a significantly higher dimensional variability and basal area, and a more complex vertical diversity in control plots and in the plots subject to selective thinning, as compared with plots subject to thinning from below. Tree species richness was high in all plots, independently of the thinning type applied. Based on our results, we suggest Turkey oak-dominated transitory stands to be initially managed by thinning from below, which is easy to be implemented and economically feasible. Selective thinning may be applied later with the aim of promoting sporadic but valuable tree species and increasing tree species diversity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Monitoring, Thinning from Below, Selective Thinning, Biodiversity, Mediterranean Area</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 309-317 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3483-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3483-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3483-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Manetti MC, Becagli C, Bertini G, Cantiani P, Marchi M, Pelleri F, Sansone D, Fabbio G Research Articles 2020-07-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3483-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Decline in commercial pine nut and kernel yield in Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Spain https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3180-013 <p><b>Calama R, Gordo J, Mutke S, Conde M, Madrigal G, Garriga E, Arias MJ, Piqué M, Gandía R, Montero G, Pardos M</b></p><p><b>DECLINE IN COMMERCIAL PINE NUT AND KERNEL YIELD IN MEDITERRANEAN STONE PINE (PINUS PINEA L.) IN SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Cones of the Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) constitute one of the most relevant non-wood forest products collected in the Mediterranean forests, providing high value edible kernels. In the last years it has been observed a severe decline in the kernel-per-cone yield (kg of kernels obtained from a kg of fresh cones) through the whole area of the species. This decline has been associated with both ongoing climate change and the recent expansion over the Mediterranean Basin of the Western Conifer Seed Bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heideman, an exotic pest which predates seeds of conifer species. In the present work we aimed to confirm and quantify the impact of this recent decline on pine nut and kernel production, identify the main factors provoking this reduction, and give evidence over causality by a potential biotic agent. We analysed recent and historical series of pine nut and kernel production obtained in the four main regions where Pinus pinea occurs in Spain. Our results showed a significant drop in the final kernel-per-cone yield on three of the four regions analysed, reaching reductions over 50% in the most affected areas. We observed that this reduction is mainly associated with a significant and generalised drop in the kernel-per-nut yield (kg of kernels per kg of pine nuts in shell), triggered by an increment in the rate of damaged pine nuts and, to a lesser extent, a reduction in the number of pine nuts per cone. The prevalence of this reduction on kernel-per-cone yield over different years and provenances with contrasting climate reinforces the hypothesis of the implication of a biotic factor which can be aggravated on extreme drought years.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leptoglossus occidentalis, Kernel-per-cone Yield, Cones, Exotic Pest, Seed Predation</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 251-260 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3180-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3180-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3180-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Calama R, Gordo J, Mutke S, Conde M, Madrigal G, Garriga E, Arias MJ, Piqué M, Gandía R, Montero G, Pardos M Research Articles 2020-07-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3180-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth, morphology, and biomass allocation of recently planted seedlings of seven European tree species along a light gradient https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3370-013 <p><b>Bebre I, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D</b></p><p><b>GROWTH, MORPHOLOGY, AND BIOMASS ALLOCATION OF RECENTLY PLANTED SEEDLINGS OF SEVEN EUROPEAN TREE SPECIES ALONG A LIGHT GRADIENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Light is one of the most critical factors controlling tree survival and growth. Limited light availability induces phenotypic plasticity, thus enabling plants to adapt to suboptimal conditions. The plastic responses are species-specific and are thought to largely depend on species’ shade tolerance. This study aims to add to existing research by trying to disentangle the effects of light, species identity, and shade tolerance on growth, biomass partitioning, and morphology of seedlings of seven common European tree species. For that purpose, we set up a shading experiment where seedlings were grown under three levels of light availability (15%, 35%, and 100%). A destructive harvest was carried out for the assessment of biomass allocation and structural complexity of plant architecture after a year of exposure to limited light. The specific leaf area increased with decreasing light availability for all species. However, we found little to no changes in relative height and diameter growth, biomass allocation to aboveground tree compartments, and structural complexity along the light gradient. We argue that because trees were grown under open field conditions, both in the nursery and for the first year of the experiment, it might have resulted in a delayed response to limited light availability. Assuming the delayed reaction of less plastic plant organs, we expect that the morphological adaptations of the tree species and intra- and interspecific differences will become more pronounced, as the trees grow older.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Shade Tolerance, Plant Morphology, Fractal Analysis, Biomass Allocation, Specific Leaf Area, Light</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 261-269 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3370-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3370-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3370-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bebre I, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D Research Articles 2020-07-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3370-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Species-specific morphological and physiological characteristics and progressive nitrogen limitation under elevated CO2 concentration https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3288-013 <p><b>Song WK, Byeon SY, Lee H, Lee MS, Ryu D, Kang JW, Han SH, Oh CY, Kim HS</b></p><p><b>SPECIES-SPECIFIC MORPHOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PROGRESSIVE NITROGEN LIMITATION UNDER ELEVATED CO2 CONCENTRATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Elevated atmospheric CO2 (eCO2) concentration initially enhances photosynthesis, growth and ecosystem productivity, but the excessive use of nitrogen due to the increased productivity causes uncertainty in long-term ecosystem responses. We exposed Korean red pine, Chinese ash, and Korean mountain ash to current atmospheric CO2 concentration (aCO2), 1.4 times higher CO2 concentration (eCO21.4), and 1.8 times higher CO2 concentration (eCO21.8) in an Open-Top Chamber (OTC) experiment for eight years (2010-2017) to investigate the effect on the morphological and physiological properties of trees. We also assessed whether nitrogen limitation occurred with time by comparing leaf and soil nitrogen concentration. CO2 fertilization effect was observed on tree growth for the first two years (p < 0.05), but there was no difference thereafter. For photosynthetic properties, CO2 effects were species-specific; no effects on Korean red pine and Chinese ash vs. significant effect on Korean mountain ash. However, maximum photosynthetic and carboxylation rates significantly decreased by 24.3% and 31.3% from 2013 to 2017, respectively. Leaf nitrogen significantly decreased by 21.0 % at eCO21.4 and 18.5 % at eCO21.8 compared with aCO2 treatment. This study showed the decline of leaf nitrogen and species-specific responses to long-term high CO2 concentration, which will effect on species competition and ecosystem succession.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Elevated CO2, Photosynthetic Properties, Down-regulation, Progressive Nitrogen Limitation, Carbon dioxide</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 270-278 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3288-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3288-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3288-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Song WK, Byeon SY, Lee H, Lee MS, Ryu D, Kang JW, Han SH, Oh CY, Kim HS Research Articles 2020-07-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3288-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influences of mature Pinus nigra plantations on the floristic-vegetational composition along an altitudinal gradient in the central Apennines, Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3215-013 <p><b>Allegrezza M, Pesaresi S, Ballelli S, Tesei G, Ottaviani C</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCES OF MATURE PINUS NIGRA PLANTATIONS ON THE FLORISTIC-VEGETATIONAL COMPOSITION ALONG AN ALTITUDINAL GRADIENT IN THE CENTRAL APENNINES, ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plantations of conifers are widespread in Europe, often occurring outside of their native range. Reduction in species richness linked to increases in altitude has been previously reported for natural forests, although there is a lack of specific studies for mature pine plantations in both the Apennines and Europe. The aim of this study was to quantify the long-term effects of the extensive Pinus nigra plantations carried out between 1900 and 1956 in protected areas on floristic richness, species composition, and ecological traits of the understorey vegetation. We compared 20 mature pine plantations selected along an altitudinal gradient (700-1700 m a.s.l.) with neighbouring deciduous natural forests dominated by Ostrya carpinifolia and Fagus sylvatica, which represent the most widespread forest types in the central Apennines. The results showed that floristic richness follows two distinct altitude trends in pine plantations and natural forests. A strong reduction in species richness with elevation was observed in the natural forests, as well as a consequent increase in the local contribution to beta diversity, with a turnover of the ecological traits of the species. Contrastingly, no significant changes in richness and beta diversity were found for pine plantations in the same altitude range. Indeed, mature pine plantations up to 1400-1500 m a.s.l. showed the presence of many heliophilous and thermophilous species that are usually distributed at lower elevation. We discuss how such pine plantations can mitigate the effect of increasing altitude which is usually observed in the natural forests, slowing down the typical diversification of the forest communities along the altitudinal gradient.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus nigra Plantations, Forest Origin, Richness, Beta-diversity, Altitudinal Gradient, Canopy Filter, Protected Areas, Apennines</p><p><i>iForest 13 (4): 279-285 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3215-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3215-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3215-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Allegrezza M, Pesaresi S, Ballelli S, Tesei G, Ottaviani C Research Articles 2020-07-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3215-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Measured and modelled source water δ18O based on tree-ring cellulose of larch and pine trees from the permafrost zone https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3212-013 <p><b>Churakova-Sidorova OV, Lienert S, Timofeeva G, Siegwolf R, Roden J, Joos F, Saurer M</b></p><p><b>MEASURED AND MODELLED SOURCE WATER δ18O BASED ON TREE-RING CELLULOSE OF LARCH AND PINE TREES FROM THE PERMAFROST ZONE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To identify source water for trees growing on permafrost in Siberia, we applied mechanistic models that quantify physical and biochemical fractionation processes, leading to oxygen isotope variation (δ18O) in plant organic matter. These models allowed us to investigate the influence of a variety of climatic factors on tree-ring cellulose from two dominant species: Larix cajanderi Mayr. from northeastern Yakutia (69° 22′ N, 148° 25′ E, ~ 250 m a.s.l.) and Pinus sylvestris L. from Central Yakutia (62°14′ N, 129°37′ E, ~ 220 m a.s.l.). The climate of the region is highly continental with short growing seasons, low amount of precipitation and these forest ecosystems are growing on permafrost, which in turn impact the water cycle and climate variation in the δ18O of source water. We compared outputs of the Land surface Processes and eXchanges (LPX-Bern v. 1.3), and Roden-Lin-Ehleringer (RLE) models for the common period from 1945 to 2004. Based on our findings, trees from northeastern and central Yakutia may have access to additional thawed permafrost water during dry summer periods. Owing to differences in the soil structure, active thaw soil depth and root systems of trees at two Siberian sites, Larix cajanderi Mayr. trees can access water not more than from 50 cm depth, in contrast to Pinus sylvestris L. in Central Yakutia which can acquire water from up to 80 cm soil depth. The results enhance our understanding of the growth and survival of the trees in this extreme environment.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Conifers, Climate, Drought, Permafrost Thaw Depth, Siberia, δ18O of Source Water</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 224-229 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3212-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3212-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3212-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Churakova-Sidorova OV, Lienert S, Timofeeva G, Siegwolf R, Roden J, Joos F, Saurer M Research Articles 2020-06-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3212-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Local ecological niche modelling to provide suitability maps for 27 forest tree species in edge conditions https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3331-013 <p><b>Stephan J, Bercachy C, Bechara J, Charbel E, López-Tirado J</b></p><p><b>LOCAL ECOLOGICAL NICHE MODELLING TO PROVIDE SUITABILITY MAPS FOR 27 FOREST TREE SPECIES IN EDGE CONDITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) portrays the relationship between the actual geographical distribution of a species and the environmental factors that induced this distribution. Yet most models study species over the wider range of their distribution; thus, they are rarely appropriate for forest management and forest restoration on the local scale. This study aims to understand the major environmental factors affecting the distribution of 27 species, through limiting ENM at national level (Lebanon). MaxENT software was used for modelling. Area under the curve (AUC) values showed a very good robustness of the models. Minimal biogeographic and climatic parameters such as elevation, distance from the sea, annual mean precipitation, the average minimum temperature of the coldest month, the average maximum temperature of the warmest month, and Emberger Quotient were sufficient to obtain robust modelling results. Cloud coverage during summer was identified as a novelty factor explaining species distribution at the edge of their range. Composite soil and topography predictors such as Potential Direct Incident Radiation (PDIR) and the Integrated Moisture Index (IMI) were reduced to simple factors such as aspect, slope and available water content, whose contribution was conditioned to higher data resolution. The high number of presence points enabled us to study the range of species distribution gathering them according to their ecological characteristics. The generated reforestation suitability maps and the likelihood of occurrence of each species were achieved to define priority species for conservation and forest management. This information could be useful for decision-makers and foresters.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecological Niche Modelling, Suitability Maps, Cloud Coverage, Range of Distribution, MaxEnt</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 230-237 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3331-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3331-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3331-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Stephan J, Bercachy C, Bechara J, Charbel E, López-Tirado J Research Articles 2020-06-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3331-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Verticillium wilt of Ailanthus altissima in Italy caused by V. dahliae: new outbreaks from Tuscany https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3238-013 <p><b>Pisuttu C, Marchica A, Bernardi R, Calzone A, Cotrozzi L, Nali C, Pellegrini E, Lorenzini G</b></p><p><b>VERTICILLIUM WILT OF AILANTHUS ALTISSIMA IN ITALY CAUSED BY V. DAHLIAE: NEW OUTBREAKS FROM TUSCANY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Verticillium spp., including V. nonalfalfae and V. dahliae, are known vascular wilt pathogens of the invasive Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven) in the United States and in Europe. Herein we provide evidence of the presence of a previously unreported wilt disease of A. altissima in Tuscany (Central Italy). Several isolates were collected from two locations and identified as V. dahliae, based on microscopical features of conidiophores, conidia and microsclerotia. Genomic DNA was extracted from the mycelium, the ITS region was amplified and the sequence was deposited in GenBank as VdGL16 (accession no. MK474459). BLASTn analysis showed 100% similarity with V. dahliae. To confirm pathogenicity of VdGL16, inoculations of Ailanthus seedlings were performed with the root dipping technique whereas mature trees were stem-inoculated. All inoculated seedlings exhibited wilt symptoms after 20 days, while mature Ailanthus trees showed wilting and dieback after six months. The pathogen was easily re-isolated from seedlings and re-identified as V. dahliae, thus satisfying Koch’s postulates. Results from intraspecific resistance screening of nine seed sources from across Italy revealed that Ailanthus provenances from all the six sampled regions were susceptible to V. dahliae. Stem inoculated adult plants exhibited abundant production of epicormic sprouts along the stem within six months, and most of these sprouts wilted following initial dieback of the main stem; furthermore, sprouting from the crown was intense. Petioles and rachises tissues of leaves fallen from infected trees were a good source for re-isolation of the pathogen; we proved that such petioles and rachises can effectively transfer the fungus to healthy Ailanthus seedlings via root infections. Host-specificity of the V. dahliae isolate VdGL16 was also determined on 40 non-target species/varieties/cultivars. The isolate caused disease in herbaceous species belonging to five botanical families: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Leguminoseae, Linaceae and Solanaceae. Given the difficulties in countering Ailanthus invasion with mechanical and chemical methods, the biological control using Verticillium may provide an efficient, low cost and sustainable control of this invasive species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree-of-heaven, Verticillium dahliae, ITS Region, Accession Number MK474459, Koch’s Postulates, Biocontrol</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 238-245 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3238-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3238-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3238-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pisuttu C, Marchica A, Bernardi R, Calzone A, Cotrozzi L, Nali C, Pellegrini E, Lorenzini G Research Articles 2020-06-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3238-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Assessing Pinus pinea L. resilience to three consecutive droughts in central-western Italian Peninsula https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3320-013 <p><b>Piraino S</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING PINUS PINEA L. RESILIENCE TO THREE CONSECUTIVE DROUGHTS IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ITALIAN PENINSULA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Climate projections for the Mediterranean area forecast drier and hotter conditions and increasing trend in extreme climatic events such as drought. Scientific evidences reported that extreme dry spells affected the stem growth of different Mediterranean low-elevational pine forests inducing a decrease in tree resilience, defined as the capacity to resist to environmental stress and to recover pre-disturbance functioning. Despite its ecological and economic importance, thus far no study examined Pinus pinea L. (stone pine) resilience to drought events. This research reconstructed stone pine resilience by considering resistance, recovery, and the proportion of trees showing high values of both indexes of several planted stands to three consecutive spring-summer droughts occurred during the second half of the 20th century. Local climatic conditions during dry spells modulated the species resistance and recovery. In this sense, wetter conditions promoted recovery, whereas warmer spring-summer affected stone pine resistance. Moreover, spring rather than summer droughts influenced stone pine resistance and recovery, confirming the species sensitivity to climatic conditions at the beginning of the growing season. Results indicated that while recovery did not significantly changed, the species resistance diminished along the analyzed period. Furthermore, more than 60% of the examined trees were not able to reach pre-drought growth, suggesting a moderate resilience of P. pinea to adverse climatic conditions. The results contribute to improve our understanding of stone pine growth dynamics in the climate-change context of increasing aridity actually occurring in the Mediterranean area, providing useful information for the sustainable management of these natural resources.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change, Disturbance, Dry Spell, Tree Growth</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 246-250 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3320-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3320-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3320-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Piraino S Short Communications 2020-06-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3320-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Multi-aged micro-neighborhood patches challenge the forest cycle model in primeval European beech https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3309-013 <p><b>Zenner EK, Peck JE, Trotsiuk V</b></p><p><b>MULTI-AGED MICRO-NEIGHBORHOOD PATCHES CHALLENGE THE FOREST CYCLE MODEL IN PRIMEVAL EUROPEAN BEECH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: As currently framed, the forest cycle model that underlies close-to-nature management in temperate beech forests throughout the globe specifies an orderly sequence of temporal development within even-aged patches comprising the forest mosaic. Although this model has been widely applied to European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests, the underlying assumptions of disturbance-induced even-agedness (i.e., within-patch age homogeneity) and competition-induced size differentiation (i.e., within-patch size heterogeneity) have not been tested in natural beech forests due to prohibitions on tree coring in primeval forest reserves. In a rare and unprecedented test dataset of spatially explicit tree ages in an old-growth European beech forest, we employed triangulated irregular networks of Delaunay triangles to objectively identify natural tree neighborhoods to determine if neighboring (i.e., within-patch) trees were even- or, at most, two-aged. Age differences among neighboring trees (summarized in 25-yr age classes) were rarely <25 yrs and mostly >50 yrs, while the few "even-aged" patches were very small (100 m2) and relatively young (<150 yrs). In this first assessment of the assumptions underlying the forest cycle model in European beech, we observed neither the even-aged cohorts expected for disturbance-induced patches in different phases of development, nor the size differentiation among similarly aged trees that should arise from the neighborhood dynamics of competition, self-thinning, and growth. The lack of patches indicating demographic turnover is fundamentally inconsistent with the forest cycle model as it is currently framed. We call for further exploration of spatially-explicit tree age datasets to determine the generality of these observations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Age Reconstruction, Carpathians, Dendrochronology, Development Stage, Forest Cycle, Stand Development, Structure, Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN)</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 209-214 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3309-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3309-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3309-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zenner EK, Peck JE, Trotsiuk V Short Communications 2020-06-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3309-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A bark beetle infestation predictive model based on satellite data in the frame of decision support system TANABBO https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3271-013 <p><b>Duračiová R, Muňko M, Barka I, Koreň M, Resnerová K, Holuša J, Blaženec M, Potterf M, Jakuš R</b></p><p><b>A BARK BEETLE INFESTATION PREDICTIVE MODEL BASED ON SATELLITE DATA IN THE FRAME OF DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM TANABBO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The European spruce bark beetle Ips typographus L. causes significant economic losses in managed coniferous forests in Central and Northern Europe. New infestations either occur in previously undisturbed forest stands (i.e., spot initiation) or depend on proximity to previous years’ infestations (i.e., spot spreading). Early identification of newly infested trees over the forested landscape limits the effective control measures. Accurate forecasting of the spread of bark beetle infestation is crucial to plan efficient sanitation felling of infested trees and prevent further propagation of beetle-induced tree mortality. We created a predictive model of subsequent year spot initiation and spot spreading within the TANABBO decision support system. The algorithm combines open-access Landsat-based vegetation change time-series data, a digital terrain model, and forest stand characteristics. We validated predicted susceptibility to bark beetle attack (separately for spot initiation and spot spreading) against beetle infestations in managed forests in the Bohemian Forest in the Czech Republic (Central Europe) in yearly time steps from 2007 to 2010. The predictive models of susceptibility to bark beetle attack had a high degree of reliability (area under the ROC curve - AUC: 0.75-0.82). We conclude that spot initiation and spot spreading prediction modules included within the TANABBO model have the potential to help forest managers to plan sanitation felling in managed forests under pressure of bark beetle outbreak.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Spatial Predictive Model, Bark Beetle Infestation, GIS, ROC Curve, Norway Spruce</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 215-223 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3271-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3271-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3271-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Duračiová R, Muňko M, Barka I, Koreň M, Resnerová K, Holuša J, Blaženec M, Potterf M, Jakuš R Research Articles 2020-06-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3271-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Climate impacts on tree growth in a Neotropical high mountain forest of the Peruvian Andes https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3124-013 <p><b>Rodríguez-Morata C, Madrigal-González J, Stoffel M, Ballesteros-Cánovas JA</b></p><p><b>CLIMATE IMPACTS ON TREE GROWTH IN A NEOTROPICAL HIGH MOUNTAIN FOREST OF THE PERUVIAN ANDES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Global warming can jeopardize important ecosystem functions and services in sensitive Neotropical mountain areas. However, untangling the relative roles of natural climate variability pattern from current global warming trends still represent a major challenge. Here, we propose a novel analytical approach based on Structural Equation Models to evaluate the relative roles of different sources of climate variability on tree growth. Specifically, we investigate direct and indirect linkages between Basal Area Increments (BAI) and a set of different climatic sources of variability, such as: (i) large-scale atmospheric oscillation patterns (i.e., the El Niño Southern Oscillation, ENSO and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO); and (ii) local meteorology in terms of temperature and precipitation. Additionally, we included in the SEM framework other important variables such as: (iii) calendar year (representative of temporal linear trends); and (iv) tree size (representative of main biological trends). Results indicate that the ENSO and PDO modulate minimum temperatures (Tmin) in the study area. These indices describe the oscillating behavior of the climatic modes (i.e., South Oscillation Index and PDO index) and are negatively correlated with Tmin. As such, they also influence tree growth (represented here by BAI) indirectly. Furthermore, through its direct impact on Tmin increase, ongoing climate warming has an indirect negative effect on BAI, thereby implying that the ongoing temperature rise could exert control on productivity in high mountain forests of the Andes, and that this influence could become more important with continued temperature increase.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Global Warming, Tree Growth Variability, Podocarpus glomeratus Don., Andean Forest, Peru, Structural Equation Model (SEM)</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 194-201 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3124-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3124-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3124-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rodríguez-Morata C, Madrigal-González J, Stoffel M, Ballesteros-Cánovas JA Research Articles 2020-05-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3124-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Typology and synecology of aspen woodlands in the central-southern Apennines (Italy): new findings and synthesis https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3315-013 <p><b>Russo G, Pedrotti F, Gafta D</b></p><p><b>TYPOLOGY AND SYNECOLOGY OF ASPEN WOODLANDS IN THE CENTRAL-SOUTHERN APENNINES (ITALY): NEW FINDINGS AND SYNTHESIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In order to review and complete our knowledge of the typology and synecology of the aspen communities from the central-southern Apennines, ten original relevés were performed on the Gargano plateau and a set of 35 relevés assigned to four community types (HP: Holco mollis-Populetum tremulae; MP: Melico uniflorae-Populetum tremulae; FP: Fraxino orni-Populetum tremulae; GP: Geranio versicoloris-Populetum tremulae) were assembled from literature. These relevés along with several environmental variables either measured or estimated were involved in cluster and ordination analyses. The relevés from Gargano formed a distinctive cluster and were assigned to a new community type (SP: Stellario holosteae-Populetum tremulae ass. nova), which can be considered an Adriatic synvicariant of HP that is distributed in similar habitats (doline bottoms) but on the Tyrrhenian escarpment. At low levels of floristic similarity, the grouping of relevés in two clusters induces a sharp separation between the aspen communities distributed in the central Apennines (MP and FP) and those from the southern Apennines (SP, HP and GP), which is mainly due to compositional differences in the regional species pool. The ordination scores of relevés were best related to terrain slope, soil nitrogen, elevation, air temperature, light availability and, to a lesser extent, to soil moisture and reaction. Unlike MP and GP that appear the most mesophilous, the FP stands display a slightly more xerophilous and acidophilous character induced by the steeper slopes on which they occur. The HP habitat is the driest and lightest very likely because of the open overlying canopy, in contrast to MP stands featuring a high shrub cover. The highest occurrence of nitrophilous species was observed in SP and MP. The management of these pioneer woods should be aimed at conservation, as they play an important role in the recovery of forest herb diversity along the ecological succession towards hardwood forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Differential Species, Distribution Area, Environmental Variable Fitting, Gargano, Multivariate Analyses, Phytosociologic Classification, Secondary Succession, Stellario holosteae-Populetum tremulae</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 202-208 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3315-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3315-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3315-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Russo G, Pedrotti F, Gafta D Research Articles 2020-05-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3315-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Verification of new Populus nigra L. clone improvement based on their performance over three rotations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3171-013 <p><b>Novotná K, Štochlová P, Benetka V</b></p><p><b>VERIFICATION OF NEW POPULUS NIGRA L. CLONE IMPROVEMENT BASED ON THEIR PERFORMANCE OVER THREE ROTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Populus nigra is an important autochthonous woody plant that can be grown as a renewable energy source. The possibility of its improvement through intraspecific hybridization was tested. Differences in biomass production, growth parameters, Melampsora larici-populina rust resistance and drought tolerance were evaluated among 19 intraspecific hybrids from controlled crosses, 2 clones selected from natural populations and the “MAX 4” clone (P. nigra × P. maximowiczii). These P. nigra clones from controlled crosses were chosen from more than 2000 hybrid individuals whose parents were selected from natural populations in the Czech Republic. A field trial was set up in Pruhonice, Czech Republic (320 m a.s.l., 591 mm rainfall annually, mean annual temperature of 9.5 °C). The planting density was 6061 plants ha-1, and the plants were coppiced three times at 3-year intervals. The trial was irrigated only during its establishment. Among the clones, significant differences were found in all the evaluated traits over three rotations. An average dry matter yield of the best clone “MAX 4” was 12.8 t ha-1 yr-1 over three harvests. The best black poplar clone reached up to 9.4 t ha-1 yr-1 in three harvests. Rust resistance was constant over 9 years and high for the three P. nigra clones (two from controlled crosses and one from natural populations). Moreover, the best P. nigra clones from controlled crosses showed higher drought tolerance than the “MAX 4” clone. Breeding progress was confirmed, and most of the P. nigra clones from controlled crosses performed better than the clones selected from natural populations. The trial validated the suitability of natural populations for use as gene sources for intraspecific hybridization and as sources of clones with traits comparable with those of interspecific clones. These new P. nigra clones can replace allochthonous clones in areas where autochthonous P. nigra populations are threatened by introgression.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Breeding, Black Poplar, Intraspecific Hybridization, Short Rotation Coppice Culture, Melampsora larici-populina, Biomass Production, Tree Regeneration</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 185-193 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3171-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3171-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3171-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Novotná K, Štochlová P, Benetka V Research Articles 2020-05-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3171-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Ensuring future regeneration success of Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) in neotropical savanna (cerrado) biomes by reviewing the available information and identifying research gaps https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2684-013 <p><b>Da Ponte G, Huth F, Wagner S</b></p><p><b>ENSURING FUTURE REGENERATION SUCCESS OF QUALEA GRANDIFLORA MART. (VOCHYSIACEAE) IN NEOTROPICAL SAVANNA (CERRADO) BIOMES BY REVIEWING THE AVAILABLE INFORMATION AND IDENTIFYING RESEARCH GAPS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Qualea grandiflora Mart. (Vochysiaceae) is one of the most widespread species within the cerrado formation, which counts amongst the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. Understanding the regeneration ecology of Q. grandiflora is a central requirement for the success of conservation measures and silvicultural management strategies. Exhaustive investigation was carried out into each of the development stages, and the connected processes within the regeneration cycle, to provide a better understanding of the main factors influencing the regeneration ecology and the recruitment dynamics of the species. For this purpose, we analysed 92 different sources of information in this review, divided into two groups (n = 41 with “basic species information” and n = 51 with “specific information about regeneration stages and processes”) relevant for regeneration and silviculture. Our literature review showed the high proportion of studies addressing the processes flowering, pollination and fruiting, whereas the subsequent processes like seed dispersal, seed storage, germination and seedling development are almost entirely lacking. This also applies for spatial information about environmental conditions and the related regeneration processes in Q. grandiflora. This knowledge is important for management, for example, knowledge of the critical distances between flowering and seed producing trees to ensure genetically diverse regeneration and the identification of safe sites for seedling establishment. Most of the practical suggestions in relation to increasing densities or growth of Q. grandiflora seedlings and saplings made in the literature are linked to less intensive fire management strategies adopted at certain times. The use of selective herbivory to reduce the increasing competition pressure exerted by invasive grasses and hampering Q. grandiflora seedlings is also cited. In this study we highlight the need for more complex species-specific information following the development stages and processes of the regeneration cycle so as to prepare a continuous strategy with a range of management approaches.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cerrado Formations, Environmental Influences, Regeneration Cycle, Silvicultural Management Strategies</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 154-164 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2684-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2684-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2684-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Da Ponte G, Huth F, Wagner S Review Papers 2020-05-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2684-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Allometric equations to estimate above-ground biomass of small-diameter mixed tree species in secondary tropical forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3167-013 <p><b>Puc-Kauil R, Ángeles-Pérez G, Valdéz-Lazalde JR, Reyes-Hernández VJ, Dupuy-Rada JM, Schneider L, Pérez-Rodríguez P, García-Cuevas X</b></p><p><b>ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS TO ESTIMATE ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS OF SMALL-DIAMETER MIXED TREE SPECIES IN SECONDARY TROPICAL FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accounting for small-size tree biomass is critical to improve total stand biomass estimates of secondary tropical forests, and is essential to quantify their vital role in mitigating climate change. However, owing to the scarcity of equations available for small-size trees, their contribution to total biomass is unknown. The objective of this study was to generate allometric equations to estimate total biomass of 22 tree species ≤ 10 cm in diameter at breast height (DBH), in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, by using two methods. First, the additive approach involved the development of biomass equations by tree component (stem, branch and foliage) with simultaneous fit. In the tree-level approach, total tree biomass equations were fit for multi-species and wood density groups. Further, we compared the performance of total tree biomass equations that we generated with multi-species equations of previous studies. Data of total and by tree component biomass were fitted from eight non-linear models as a function of DBH, total height (H) and wood density (ρ). Results showed that two models, identified as model I and II, best fitted our data. Model I has the form AGB = β0 (ρ·DBH2·H)β1 + ε and model II: AGB = exp(-β0)(DBH2·H)β1 + ε, where AGB is biomass (kg). Both models explained between 53% and 95% of the total observed variance in biomass, by tree-structural component and total tree biomass. The variance of total tree biomass explained by fit models related to wood density group was 96%-97%. Compared foreign equations showed between 30% and 45% mean error in total biomass estimation compared to 0.05%-0.36% error showed by equations developed in this study. At the local level, the biomass contribution of small trees based on foreign models was between 24.38 and 29.51 Mg ha-1, and model I was 35.97 Mg ha-1. Thus, from 6.5 up to 11.59 Mg ha-1 could be excluded when using foreign equations, which account for about 21.8% of the total stand biomass. Local equations provided more accurate biomass estimates with the inclusion of ρ and H as predictors variables and proved to be better than foreign equations. Therefore, our equations are suitable to improve the accuracy estimates of carbon forest stocks in the secondary forests of the Yucatan peninsula.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Species Diversity, Biomass-carbon Stocks, Additive Equations, Simultaneous Fit, Wood Density Groups</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 165-174 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3167-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3167-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3167-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Puc-Kauil R, Ángeles-Pérez G, Valdéz-Lazalde JR, Reyes-Hernández VJ, Dupuy-Rada JM, Schneider L, Pérez-Rodríguez P, García-Cuevas X Research Articles 2020-05-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3167-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evaluation of urban forest landscape health: a case study of the Nanguo Peach Garden, China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3206-013 <p><b>Zhao Q, Tang HH, Gao CJ, Wei YH</b></p><p><b>EVALUATION OF URBAN FOREST LANDSCAPE HEALTH: A CASE STUDY OF THE NANGUO PEACH GARDEN, CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Urban forests are important as they provide recreation areas and offer ecological services. Both functions determine the status of an urban forest and reflect contradictory aspects of forest tourism development and environment conservation. However, assessment of urban forest health status at a landscape scale remains scarce. Here, we selected the Nanguo Peach Garden, China, as the study area. Urban forest health status at the landscape scale were classified into recreation and eco-conservation services. Sustainability was quantified using the principal component analysis and the Kriging method to map the landscape classification in the study area. With regard to landscape recreation sustainability, some 18.9% of the total study region was classified as “very good”. They were mainly distributed in the north, southwest, and southeast parts of the study area. The central and southeast regions, accounting for 9.5% of the total area, were classified as “very good” for eco-conservation sustainability. Regarding landscape health, the region classified as “very good” accounted for 11.1% of the total study area, and it was mainly distributed in the southern part of the area; the region classified as “very poor” accounted for 16.4% of the total area, and it was located in the northwestern and eastern parts of the study area. With improved landscape health status, the forest/non-forest patch area ratio was increased and the patch number ratio was decreased. A landscape was considered the healthiest when the forest/ non-forest area ratio was 0.65 and the patch number was 0.48. The spatial distribution of landscape recreation sustainability and eco-conservation sustainability differed in the Nanguo Peach Garden, and a close relationship was observed between the landscape health and forest landscape internal structure. Forest/non-forest patch area ratios and patch number ratios were relatively stable and constant, suggesting the urban forest landscapes were healthy. The healthiest forest landscapes were mainly distributed in the forest/non-forest transition zone and the unhealthiest forest landscape was mainly located in a single natural forest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eco-conservation Sustainability, Landscape Recreation Sustainability, Patch Area Ratio, Patch Number Ratio, Urban Forest Landscape</p><p><i>iForest 13 (3): 175-184 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3206-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3206-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3206-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zhao Q, Tang HH, Gao CJ, Wei YH Research Articles 2020-05-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3206-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Book Reviews: “Models of tree and stand dynamics”: a differential journey through forest modelling https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0061-013 <p><b>Marano G, Collalti A</b></p><p><b>“MODELS OF TREE AND STAND DYNAMICS”: A DIFFERENTIAL JOURNEY THROUGH FOREST MODELLING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Quia pulvinar in id habitasse mi orci augue sollicitudin reprehenderit, officiis nisi, vivamus tempore, lorem quos? Lacinia cursus, sed, nascetur, tristique fusce, molestie unde, saepe mi dapibus metus! Perferendis blanditiis curabitur laborum possimus, a, non wisi commodi condimentum? Explicabo hac. Ultricies harum, mauris similique. Occaecat, taciti! Cursus tempus mollis maxime, officia consectetuer tempus vitae magna luctus sapiente nostra officia lacus! Corrupti quaerat deserunt. Id. Omnis et fusce dolores lacinia ea itaque hendrerit, urna. Senectus, voluptate taciti praesent pharetra, congue facilisis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Xxx, Xxx, Xxx, Xxx, Xxx</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 152-153 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0061-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0061-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0061-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marano G, Collalti A Book Reviews 2020-04-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0061-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: A review of the performance of woody and herbaceous ornamental plants for phytoremediation in urban areas https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3242-013 <p><b>Capuana M</b></p><p><b>A REVIEW OF THE PERFORMANCE OF WOODY AND HERBACEOUS ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FOR PHYTOREMEDIATION IN URBAN AREAS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Urban and periurban areas are often contaminated by several pollutants. Phytoremediation is considered to be an effective and eco-friendly strategy for the restoration of these contaminated lands. For this purpose, the exploitation of ornamental plants could be an additional option, due to their positive impact on the landscape. In this paper, we reviewed a selection of species which have been proposed for utilization in phytoremediation. Several tree species have been introduced in the past into urban environments for parks, gardens and avenues, with a selection studied for their capacity to absorb, tolerate, and translocate contaminants. Shrubby and herbaceous species are also commonly exploited for their ornamental features and are now studied for phytoremediation purposes. The responses of several effective species to the presence of heavy metals or dangerous organic compounds in the growth substrate are examined in this paper.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Environment, Heavy Metals, Landscape, Organics, Pollution</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 139-151 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3242-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3242-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3242-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Capuana M Review Papers 2020-04-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3242-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Wood anatomy of boreal species in a warming world: a review https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3230-013 <p><b>Zhang S, Belien E, Ren H, Rossi S, Huang JG</b></p><p><b>WOOD ANATOMY OF BOREAL SPECIES IN A WARMING WORLD: A REVIEW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Global warming is affecting tree growth and forest productivity, especially in the Northern boreal ecosystems. Wood quality, which is largely determined by anatomical traits of wood, is vital for the forest industry and global carbon sequestration. Cambium activity, wood density, fiber length and microfibril angle are the anatomical traits that determine wood quality, depending on market demands. Within the global warming scenario, a comprehensive understanding of these traits is still lacking and urgently required for both the forest industries and ecological researches. In this review, we identify that large proportions of mature wood, high wood density, longer fiber or tracheid length and low microfibril angles are the anatomical traits closely related with high wood quality. Higher temperatures could trigger onset and ending of cambial cell division, thus affecting wood quality by modulating duration of the growing season. Climate warming could also affect wood quality by impacting earlywood and latewood formation, as well as changing wood density, fiber length and microfibril angle depending on different species and growing conditions. In addition, this review indicates that the anatomical traits involved in wood quality are diverse and depend on the intended use. Improving our knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of how the wood anatomical traits respond to a changing environment with extreme climate events is thus still a crucial topic in the forest sciences. Selection of species and provenances best adapted to climate warming will be necessary to improve quality without sacrificing volume. Studies on wood traits and their relation to climate should therefore focus on a multitude of aspects including the physiology and genetics of boreal tree species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Warming, Earlywood, Fiber Length, Latewood, Microfibril Angle, Radial Growth, Wood Formation</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 130-138 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3230-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3230-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3230-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zhang S, Belien E, Ren H, Rossi S, Huang JG Review Papers 2020-04-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3230-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influences of forest gaps on soil physico-chemical and biological properties in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) stand of Hyrcanian forest, north of Iran https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3205-013 <p><b>Amolikondori A, Vajari KA, Feizian M, Di Iorio A</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCES OF FOREST GAPS ON SOIL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES IN AN ORIENTAL BEECH (FAGUS ORIENTALIS L.) STAND OF HYRCANIAN FOREST, NORTH OF IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Understanding the effects of silvicultural practices including single-tree selection on soil properties is essential for forest management in temperate broadleaved beech forests. Changes in physico-chemical and biological soil properties in 15 harvest-created gaps under single-tree selection and the adjacent closed canopies, with five replications for each, were studied 6 years after gap creation in an oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) stand of the Hyrcanian forest. Gaps were classified into three size classes: small (85-130 m2), medium (131-175 m2) and large (176-300 m2). Soil cores were collected at the center and at the edge of gaps, and under the adjacent closed canopy. Results indicated that gap size significantly affected soil texture and bulk density, whereas soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen and pH showed a significant gradient from the center to the edge of gap independently form their size. SOC and total nitrogen at the center of gaps were also significantly lower than closed-canopy, in particular for the medium-gap; contrastingly, the bulk density with the highest mean value was found at the center of the large-gap. Gap size had no significant influence on soil microbial biomass. These results highlighted that similar conditions in terms of many soil properties were still present among gaps and adjacent closed-canopy stands six years after logging, though canopy openness triggered a reduction in carbon and nitrogen availability along with the related microbial activity at the center of gaps, independently from their size. Therefore, if aimed at preserving an uneven aged structure along with soil quality in temperate broadleaved deciduous forest as the oriental beech stands in the Hyrcanian region, single-tree selection practice for harvesting trees can be recommended as sustainable forest management type.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Artificial Gap, Oriental Beech, Temperate Forests, Soil Properties</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 124-129 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3205-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3205-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3205-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Amolikondori A, Vajari KA, Feizian M, Di Iorio A Research Articles 2020-04-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3205-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Using field and nursery treatments to establish Quercus suber seedlings in Mediterranean degraded shrubland https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3095-013 <p><b>Muñoz-Rengifo J, Chirino E, Cerdán V, Martínez J, Fosado O, Vilagrosa A</b></p><p><b>USING FIELD AND NURSERY TREATMENTS TO ESTABLISH QUERCUS SUBER SEEDLINGS IN MEDITERRANEAN DEGRADED SHRUBLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Cork oak (Quercus suber L.) is a suitable species for restoring Mediterranean ecosystems due to its capacity to resprout after wildfires and its economic importance for the use of cork. Several studies have focused on improving the seedling quality and abiotic conditions at the outplanting site to favour the field performance of Q. suber, however, most studies have been conducted by independently testing treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the combined effect of three techniques that focused on reforestation success with Q. suber in Mediterranean degraded shrubland: (i) a nursery technique to improve root system development, such as the use of deep containers to develop a longer tap root, combined with two field techniques such as (ii) the use of tree shelters to diminish solar radiation stress, and (iii) shrubland treatments to reduce competition for soil water and nutrients. For this purpose, 1-year-old Q. suber seedlings were grown in two containers types: a shallow container (CCS-18) and a deep container (CCL-30). Seedlings were established in a degraded shrubland at three experimental sites in the Calderona mountain range of Castellón, Spain. A factorial design was combined based on container type (CCS-18 and CCL-30), shrubland management (undisturbed shrubland and cleared shrubland in strips) and tree shelters (vegetable fibre tree shelters and no tree shelters). After 2 years of monitoring, the outplanting results indicated that using: (i) a deep container produced a longer taproot, but did not favour better survival or better field performance of seedlings; (ii) tree shelters improved the microweather conditions around seedlings, particularly by reducing excess incoming solar radiation; (iii) cleared shrubland strips reduced competition for soil water by favouring a higher water potential, better maximum photochemical PSII efficiency and higher survival rates for the seedlings established into cleared sites. The results indicate that the cleared shrubland treatment effects overlap the effects of using deep containers and tree shelters. This, in turn, reveals that shrubland clearing is the most suitable technique for favouring the introduction of a resprouter species like Q. suber into ecosystems characterized by predominantly degraded shrublands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Deep Container, Tree Shelters, Cleared Shrubland, Ecological Restoration</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 114-123 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3095-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3095-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3095-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Muñoz-Rengifo J, Chirino E, Cerdán V, Martínez J, Fosado O, Vilagrosa A Research Articles 2020-03-26 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3095-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Conservation of Betula oycoviensis, an endangered rare taxon, using vegetative propagation methods https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3243-013 <p><b>Vítámvás J, Kuneš I, Viehmannová I, Linda R, Baláš M</b></p><p><b>CONSERVATION OF BETULA OYCOVIENSIS, AN ENDANGERED RARE TAXON, USING VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION METHODS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Ojcow birch (Betula oycoviensis Besser) is a rare Central European tree taxon, micro-populations of which are found in only several localities. With a view to maintaining the B. oycoviensis gene pool, this study tested the species’ potential for micropropagation, grafting, and propagation by cuttings. Plant material for vegetative propagation was collected from ten genotypes in the Czech Republic. In vitro culture was established from axillary buds surfaces sterilized with 0.1% HgCl2 and cultivated on woody plant (WP) medium supplemented with 1 mg l-1 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP). Two genotypes of the species were successfully multiplied by in vitro propagation using WP medium supplemented with 0-2 mg l-1 BAP. The BAP concentration of 1 mg l-1 proved to be optimal, yielding 2.5 new shoots per explant in genotype 516 and 3.5 shoots per explant in genotype 545. The shoots were rooted on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of α-naphthylacetic acid (NAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). The highest rooting percentages (72.5% and 77.5% for genotypes 516 and 545, respectively) were achieved on the medium with the combination of both auxins at concentrations of 0.3 mg l-1. The rooted plants were transferred ex vitro in substrate composed of sand, peat, and perlite (1:1:1) and acclimated in the greenhouse. After 4 weeks, more than 90% of plants survived. Grafting was carried out in spring using Betula pendula as rootstock. The efficiency of this technique ranged from 0% to 50% across genotypes, and 4 out of 10 genotypes were successfully propagated by grafting. The cuttings were treated with commercial root stimulators Stimulax I and Stimulator AS-1, planted in a mixture of peat and sand (1:1) in the greenhouse, and watered regularly. This technique resulted in 0% rooting, however, and no cutting survived until the end of the vegetation period. The results of this study show that protocols for in vitro propagation and grafting can be employed for effective mass propagation of B. oycoviensis, although these processes show genotype-dependent responses.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula, Cutting, Grafting, In vitro Propagation, Rooting</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 107-113 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3243-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3243-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3243-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vítámvás J, Kuneš I, Viehmannová I, Linda R, Baláš M Research Articles 2020-03-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3243-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Runoff reconstruction and climatic influence with tree rings, in the Mayo river basin, Sonora, Mexico https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3190-013 <p><b>Martínez-Sifuentes AR, Villanueva-Díaz J, Estrada-Ávalos J</b></p><p><b>RUNOFF RECONSTRUCTION AND CLIMATIC INFLUENCE WITH TREE RINGS, IN THE MAYO RIVER BASIN, SONORA, MEXICO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dendrochronological series are reliable sources of information to analyze past hydrological and climatological variation that provides useful information for the management of water resources within basins. We analyzed dendrochronological series obtained from the upper Mayo River Basin using principal components analysis to determine a common climatic signal. Although the complete series extended for over 350 years, the representative period common to all series was from 1750 to 2014 (265 years) with an expressed population signal of over 0.85. Climate data (precipitation and temperature) were collected from the North American Land Data Assimilation System 2 model of the Land Data Assimilation System and hydrometrics records were obtained from the National Commission of Water in Mexico. The results of the response function showed an association of mean monthly temperature with the ring width series for the months of December of the previous year, May and October of the year of growth, and seasonally from January to July (r = -0.75, n = 36, p < 0.05). A significant response to rainfall of earlywood growth was observed for June, November, and December of the previous year, January and February of the growth year, and seasonally, from October of previous year to May of the current growth year (r = 0.70, n = 35, p < 0.05). Significant association also was found between earlywood and the accumulated runoff from October of the previous year to May of the growth year, which was used for reconstruction of the runoff flow between 1750 and 2014, which showed evidence of decadal drought. Significant correlation was found between the reconstructed runoff series, and the Southern Oscillation index (r = -0.42, n = 228, p < 0.05), but not significant with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation index (r = 0.16, n = 115, p < 0.05). We also observed significant (p < 0.05) associations with the drought indices Palmer Drought Severity Index and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (r = 0.56, r = 0.41, respectively). Our study demonstrated the potential of assimilated data for dendroclimatic reconstructions and the feasibility of generating hydroclimatic information of extreme events that have not been recorded in the available climatic and hydrological instrumental records.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Assimilated Data, Dendrohydrology, ENSO, Pinus arizonica</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 98-106 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3190-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3190-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3190-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Martínez-Sifuentes AR, Villanueva-Díaz J, Estrada-Ávalos J Research Articles 2020-03-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3190-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: The importance of tree species and size for the epiphytic bromeliad Fascicularia bicolor in a South-American temperate rainforest (Chile) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2710-013 <p><b>Ortega-Solís G, Díaz I, Mellado-Mansilla D, Moreno-González R, Godoy J, Samaniego H</b></p><p><b>THE IMPORTANCE OF TREE SPECIES AND SIZE FOR THE EPIPHYTIC BROMELIAD FASCICULARIA BICOLOR IN A SOUTH-AMERICAN TEMPERATE RAINFOREST (CHILE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Bromeliads are a numerous family of vascular epiphytes, though only one epiphytic species inhabits South-American temperate rainforests: the endemic Fascicularia bicolor. This bromeliad is an important driver of canopy biodiversity, but attributes of its hosts are mostly unknown. Here we report (i) the tree species colonized by F. bicolor, (ii) the relationship between tree size and presence of F. bicolor and (iii) the relation between tree size and the number of mats of F. bicolor inhabiting each colonized tree. We sampled 231 trees in seven forest plots recording their species, diameter, heights, and the number of F. bicolor mats growing on them. The dataset was analyzed with a zero-inflated model to relate host tree attributes with F. bicolor occurrence and abundance in a single statistical approach. The occurrence and abundance of F. bicolor depend on host-species identity and diameter. F. bicolor colonization in slow-growing trees started at smaller DBH than that required for other tree species. Nonetheless, the overall occurrence of F. bicolor relies on large trees above 50 cm DBH for most host species. The number of mats occurring on each colonized tree depends on the interaction between tree height and species suggesting the importance of space available for colonization along the tree-trunk, and differential effects due to species’ traits. Currently, large trees and old-growth forests are scarce within the distribution range of F. bicolor, which could seriously affect the long-term conservation of this endemic epiphyte, along with the canopy properties and species associated with it.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Canopy, Epiphytes, Bromeliads, South American Temperate Forests</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 92-97 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2710-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2710-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2710-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ortega-Solís G, Díaz I, Mellado-Mansilla D, Moreno-González R, Godoy J, Samaniego H Short Communications 2020-03-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2710-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Oak often needs to be promoted in mixed beech-oak stands - the structural processes behind competition and silvicultural management in mixed stands of European beech and sessile oak https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3172-013 <p><b>Maleki K, Zeller L, Pretzsch H</b></p><p><b>OAK OFTEN NEEDS TO BE PROMOTED IN MIXED BEECH-OAK STANDS - THE STRUCTURAL PROCESSES BEHIND COMPETITION AND SILVICULTURAL MANAGEMENT IN MIXED STANDS OF EUROPEAN BEECH AND SESSILE OAK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest ecosystems nowadays provide multiple ecosystem goods and services at a time and throughout all development phases. Species mixing is considered an effective measure to gain benefits beyond purely additive effects. However, the complex structural processes behind interspecific competition and temporal and spatial facilitative effects through mixing are still far from being understood and predictable. In particular the mixture of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl.) is gaining even more importance due to the fact that forests from these species are considered more tolerant to climatic effects and are expected to expand their natural range to the north due to global warming. The 30 long-term experimental plots analysed in this study reveal the structural processes in mixed beech-oak stands based on data at the tree and stand level. Using spatial and non-spatial structural indices, we can show an increasing dominance of beech over oak in unmanaged stands and the effectiveness of thinning operations to support oak. Those processes are representative for other light-demanding tree species in mixtures with shade-tolerant species. Improving the knowledge on the structural processes in mixed-species stands is particularly relevant when trying to modify forest structure in order to adapt forest management to shifting environmental conditions and the increasing demand for ecosystem services.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecosystem Services and Functions, Facilitation and Competition, Mixing Regulation, Silvicultural Prescriptions, Spatial Distribution, Stand Development, Structural Complexity, Thinning</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 80-88 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3172-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3172-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3172-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Maleki K, Zeller L, Pretzsch H Research Articles 2020-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3172-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Preliminary indications for diverging heat and drought sensitivities in Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central Europe https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3216-012 <p><b>Kunert N</b></p><p><b>PRELIMINARY INDICATIONS FOR DIVERGING HEAT AND DROUGHT SENSITIVITIES IN NORWAY SPRUCE AND SCOTS PINE IN CENTRAL EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Massive and increasing tree mortality is currently observed in the two conifer species Norway spruce and Scots pine in Central Europe. Consecutive dry years are made responsible for this phenomenon. Leaf trait measurements, in specific leaf osmotic potential (πosm) and leaf water potential at turgor loss (πtlp), indicate that the underlying mechanisms for tree mortality are most likely different between the two species. πtlp of spruce was highly negative, revealing a potentially high drought tolerance of the species. πtlp of Scots pine was less negative, suggesting a higher susceptibility to drought stress. I conclude that the mortality of Norway spruce might be caused by rising temperatures and that the summer temperatures in the past years were beyond the species thermal tolerance threshold. Overall, I want to highlight and enhance the discussion that the search for suitable species for a climate change adapted forest should go in both directions, i.e., species should be chosen to make the forest fit for both increasing drought and heat stress.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Mortality, Water Stress, Heat Stress, Physiological Limitations, Conifers</p><p><i>iForest 13 (2): 89-91 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3216-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3216-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3216-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kunert N Short Communications 2020-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3216-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The effectiveness of short-term microwave irradiation on the process of seed extraction from Scots pine cones (Pinus sylvestris L.) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3089-012 <p><b>Aniszewska M, Zychowicz W, Gendek A</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SHORT-TERM MICROWAVE IRRADIATION ON THE PROCESS OF SEED EXTRACTION FROM SCOTS PINE CONES (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The influence of short-term microwave irradiation on the process of seed extraction from Scots pine cones was investigated in this study. Cones from the Brzesko Forest District (near Kraków, southern Poland) were collected in 2015. The size and changes in the mass of cones during the process of seed extraction, as well as the relations between these parameters, were analyzed. Changes in water content and drying rate of cones were modeled using suitable mathematical equations. The thermal balance of the whole process of seeds extraction was calculated, and the heat necessary to extract the seeds was determined. Cones were initially exposed to 2.45 GHz microwaves with a power of 800 W for either 5 or 15 seconds. Subsequently, cones were placed in a circulating air oven and seeds extracted under convective drying at a constant temperature of 50 ± 0.1 °C. We found that seeds from cones subjected to 15-seconds microwave radiation were dramatically damaged, while no significant difference were found in germination and quality of seeds between cones subjected to the 5-seconds microwave pre-treatment and control cones, both yielding first-class quality seeds (mean germination capacity > 90%). The results of this study could help developing microwave-dryer control algorithms to support the automated process of cone seed extraction in large-capacity extraction plants.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Seed Extraction Heat, Drying Process, Moisture Content, Seed Viability</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 73-79 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3089-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3089-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3089-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Aniszewska M, Zychowicz W, Gendek A Research Articles 2020-02-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3089-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil stoichiometry modulates effects of shrub encroachment on soil carbon concentration and stock in a subalpine grassland https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3091-012 <p><b>Ding L, Wang P, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Li S, Wei X, Chen X, Zhang Y, Yang F</b></p><p><b>SOIL STOICHIOMETRY MODULATES EFFECTS OF SHRUB ENCROACHMENT ON SOIL CARBON CONCENTRATION AND STOCK IN A SUBALPINE GRASSLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: There is little information available on the mediating effects of soil nutrient stoichiometry and enzyme stoichiometry on soil carbon (C) during shrub encroachment and their contributions to changes in soil C. Here, we characterized the concentration and stock of soil organic carbon (SOC), inorganic carbon (SIC) and total carbon (STC) along the shrub encroachment sequence (SES). We constructed linkages between soil C and SES with soil nutrient stoichiometric ratios and C-, nitrogen- and phosphorus-acquiring enzyme stoichiometry ratios using structural equation modeling (SEM), and disentangled the contributions of the soil nutrient stoichiometric ratios and enzyme stoichiometric ratios to shaping SOC and SIC using redundancy analysis (RDA) and SEM. Results revealed that the increases in STC stock derived from the increases in both the SOC stock and the SIC stock. Soil stoichiometric ratios played a mediating role in structuring soil C over SES, the mediating pattern depended on soil stoichiometry types (nutrient stoichiometry or enzyme stoichiometry) and soil C types (SOC, SIC or STC). Soil nutrient stoichiometric ratios contributed more than soil enzyme stoichiometric ratios to the variation in SOC and STC, while the contributions of these two types of soil stoichiometric ratios to the variation in SIC changed with soil stoichiometry types. Soil nutrient stoichiometry had positive or negative or threshold effects on soil C, but soil enzyme stoichiometry had monotonously increasing effects on soil C. This study showed that the soil stoichiometry had modulatory effects on soil C during shrub encroachment in the subalpine grassland, China.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Encroachment Succession, Soil Organic Carbon, Soil Inorganic Carbon, Soil Total Carbon, Nutrient Stoichiometry, Enzyme Stoichiometry, Mediating Effect, Relative Importance</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 65-72 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3091-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3091-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3091-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ding L, Wang P, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Li S, Wei X, Chen X, Zhang Y, Yang F Research Articles 2020-02-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3091-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Artificial intelligence associated with satellite data in predicting energy potential in the Brazilian savanna woodland area https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3209-012 <p><b>Carrijo JVN, Miguel EP, Teixeira Do Vale A, Matricardi EAT, Monteiro TC, Rezende AV, Inkotte J</b></p><p><b>ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ASSOCIATED WITH SATELLITE DATA IN PREDICTING ENERGY POTENTIAL IN THE BRAZILIAN SAVANNA WOODLAND AREA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The use of artificial intelligence to generate information of the savanna’s energy capacity may support sustainable management of those areas. We assessed the efficacy of artificial neural networks (ANNs) combined with satellite data to estimate the energy potential (Pe) for cerradão, a dense savannah-like vegetation type in Brazil. We conducted a forest inventory for measuring dendrometric variables and sampling woody materials and barks in a cerradão area in the state of Tocantins, Brazil. The Pe of cerradão biomass was estimated based on the observed higher calorific power and drier biomass values. Six vegetation indices were retrieved from a RapidEye image and tested for correlation to choose the optimum vegetation index for biomass modeling. The basal area and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index were used as predictors in the Pe modeling. We estimated an average of 19.234 ± 0.411 GJ ton-1 and 19.878 ± 1.090 GJ ton-1 for higher heating values of the wood species and barks, respectively, and an average Pe of 1022.660 GJ ha-1. The best ANN showed an error of 11.3% by using a structure of two, eight, and one neurons in the input layer, in the hidden layer, and in the output layer, respectively, as well as activation functions of the tangential and sigmoidal types. The validation tests showed no significant difference between the observed and ANN-predicted values. Based on our results, we concluded that Pe can be efficiently predicted by combining ANNs and remotely sensed data, which ultimately is a promising tool for forest sustainable management of the cerrado ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Artificial Neural Networks, Cerrado, Higher Heating Value, Biomass, Modelling, Forestry</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 48-55 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3209-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3209-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3209-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Carrijo JVN, Miguel EP, Teixeira Do Vale A, Matricardi EAT, Monteiro TC, Rezende AV, Inkotte J Research Articles 2020-02-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3209-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth dynamics of the Norway spruce and silver fir understory in continuous cover forestry https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3183-012 <p><b>Vencurik J, Kucbel S, Saniga M, Jaloviar P, Sedmáková D, Pittner J, Parobeková Z, Bosela M</b></p><p><b>GROWTH DYNAMICS OF THE NORWAY SPRUCE AND SILVER FIR UNDERSTORY IN CONTINUOUS COVER FORESTRY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The conversion to uneven-aged, mixed-species stands represents one possible way to mitigate the consequences of disturbances in Norway spruce forests in Central Europe. A better understanding of the establishment and growth dynamics of the understory can contribute to a more effective conversion process. Here we investigate the structure of understory, light climate and growth of natural regeneration of Norway spruce and silver fir in two forest stands undergoing conversion to continuous cover forestry. Stand-wise forest inventory was conducted in 1993 and 2013. The natural regeneration was surveyed, and the light conditions and inter-tree competition were quantified in 51 sample plots established across the stands in 2013. Our results suggest that the diffuse radiation strongly affects the height growth of fir and spruce natural regeneration. We do not confirm the effect of local sapling density on the regeneration dynamics. The results further show that fir trees grow faster than spruce under less intensity of diffuse light. Most of the spruce and fir trees reached the upper limit of the lower overstory (DBH 12 cm) at approximately 50 years of age. Thus, more substantial reductions in stand density can lead to a well-differentiated structure in less than five decades. To control the prospective representation of spruce and fir in mixed-species forests undergoing the conversion, managing of light conditions is crucial.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Conversion to Selection Forest, Natural Regeneration, Height Growth, Diffuse Light</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 56-64 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3183-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3183-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3183-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vencurik J, Kucbel S, Saniga M, Jaloviar P, Sedmáková D, Pittner J, Parobeková Z, Bosela M Research Articles 2020-02-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3183-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Conservation and use of elm genetic resources in France: results and perspectives https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3065-013 <p><b>Collin E, Rondouin M, Joyeau C, Matz S, Raimbault P, Harvengt L, Bilger I, Guibert M</b></p><p><b>CONSERVATION AND USE OF ELM GENETIC RESOURCES IN FRANCE: RESULTS AND PERSPECTIVES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Launched in 1987, the French National Programme for the Conservation of Native Elm Genetic Resources focused on the ex situ conservation of clones of adult field elms (Ulmus minor Mill.) survivors of the Dutch elm disease (DED) pandemic. It was later expanded to include the in situ dynamic conservation of populations of European white elm (U. laevis Pall.) and wych elm (U. glabra Huds.). The national collection contains 441 clones, partly characterized and evaluated in a European project. The pathological tests and experimental plantations did not reveal clones truly resistant to DED but provided material for the restoration of hedgerows. Two conservation units of white elm and one of wych elm were selected, enriching the pan-European EUFORGEN network for dynamic conservation of forest genetic resources. This programme provides feedback on genetic conservation strategies for forest trees in a health crisis. New partners are invited to make use of the scientific potential of the clone bank and experimental plots.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ulmus, Genetic Resources, Ex Situ Conservation, In Situ Conservation, France</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 41-47 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3065-013<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3065-013" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3065-013</a></p><hr size="1"/> Collin E, Rondouin M, Joyeau C, Matz S, Raimbault P, Harvengt L, Bilger I, Guibert M Technical Reports 2020-02-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3065-013 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Outplanting performance of three provenances of Quillaja saponaria Mol. established in a Mediterranean drought-prone site and grown in different container size https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3142-012 <p><b>Espinoza SE, Yañez MA, Magni CR, Santelices RE, Cabrera AM</b></p><p><b>OUTPLANTING PERFORMANCE OF THREE PROVENANCES OF QUILLAJA SAPONARIA MOL. ESTABLISHED IN A MEDITERRANEAN DROUGHT-PRONE SITE AND GROWN IN DIFFERENT CONTAINER SIZE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In degraded environments with restricted seed availability, like those burned by wildfires in central Chile during 2017, the use of plant material from outside its area of origin for restoration purposes needs to be accurately investigated. We assessed the early development of three Chilean provenances of Quillaja saponaria grown in different container sizes (140 vs. 280 mL) in the nursery and then outplanted in a common field trial at a site severely affected by fire under Mediterranean-type climate. We analyzed growth, biomass, and leaf-level physiological traits. In the nursery, there was a significant provenance by container type interaction for the biomass traits (P < 0.05). Seedlings from the Maule provenance cultivated in larger containers had the highest biomass, while the lowest biomass was observed for the Metropolitan provenance cultivated in small containers. Two years after outplanting, the provenance by container size interaction was significant for stomatal conductance and chlorophyll density. Seedlings from the Metropolitan provenance cultivated in larger containers exhibited a higher stomatal conductance, while those from the Maule provenance cultivated in small containers exhibited the highest chlorophyll density. Seedling height showed significant variation for provenance and container size. The tallest seedlings were those grown in larger containers from the Maule provenance; however, no differences in survival and height increment were found. Gas exchange parameters differed among provenances, the Metropolitan provenance had a low performance and the opposite was found for the Biobío and Maule provenances. This study demonstrated that different provenances of Q. saponaria have stable performances in a Mediterranean site, which support their use for restoration purposes outside their home area with no detrimental effects on outplanting performance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Restoration, Quillay, Dry Site, Water Stress, Pot Size, Seed Origin</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 33-40 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3142-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3142-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3142-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Espinoza SE, Yañez MA, Magni CR, Santelices RE, Cabrera AM Research Articles 2020-01-21 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3142-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A physiological approach for pre-selection of Eucalyptus clones resistant to drought https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3185-012 <p><b>Müller C, Hodecker BER, De Barros NF, Merchant A</b></p><p><b>A PHYSIOLOGICAL APPROACH FOR PRE-SELECTION OF EUCALYPTUS CLONES RESISTANT TO DROUGHT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Water deficit is one of the abiotic stresses that most affects the growth and survival of Eucalyptus. Mechanisms used to tolerate water-limited environments influence the distribution of Eucalyptus species in their natural environment. Here, we take a physiological approach to pre-screen Eucalyptus plants for tolerance to drought. Ten different clones of E. urophylla and E. grandis × E. urophylla that are known to show contrasting responses to water deficit under field conditions, were grown in Clark’s nutrient solution (WW, well-watered) and with polyethylene glycol (-1.0 MPa) to simulate water deficit (WD). Clones responded differently to drought with differentiated photosynthetic limitations in drought-treated clones. Photosynthetic rates, stomatal conductance, transpiration and internal CO2 concentrations were reduced in all genotypes under stress conditions. Clone i144 had a smaller reduction in the evaluated physiological traits, also showing increased root growth in WD-treated plants. Clones 3367 and i224, thought to be moderately tolerant, also followed these patterns. Clones gg157, 1568 and 1641, all of which are moderately sensitive under field conditions, reduced most of the physiological characters evaluated. However, clone gg157 demonstrated increased root system growth, even during short periods of water stress. Clones i042 and i182 were deemed drought-susceptible, with large reductions in photosynthesis and growth, despite showing a high increase in abscisic acid content presumably as a defense mechanism. Interaction between A (photosyntetic rate), E (transpiration rate), ETR/A (electrons transport rate/photosynthetic rate) and SDM/ RDM (shoot dry matter/root dry matter) demonstrated the most significant differences between WD-treated clones and offer great potential for use as selection criterion for water deficit-tolerant genotypes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Clonal Variability, Genotypes, Cluster Analysis, Water Stress</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 16-23 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3185-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3185-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3185-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Müller C, Hodecker BER, De Barros NF, Merchant A Research Articles 2020-01-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3185-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Variation of major elements and heavy metals occurrence in hybrid aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx. × P. tremula L.) tree rings in marginal land https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2869-012 <p><b>Bardule A, Bertins M, Busa L, Lazdina D, Viksna A, Tvrdonova M, Kanicky V, Vaculovic T</b></p><p><b>VARIATION OF MAJOR ELEMENTS AND HEAVY METALS OCCURRENCE IN HYBRID ASPEN (POPULUS TREMULOIDES MICHX. × P. TREMULA L.) TREE RINGS IN MARGINAL LAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fast growing tree species such as Populus spp. in short rotation woody crop (SRWC) systems could be an environmentally friendly and cost-effective approach to ensure sustainable biomass production and mitigate the negative impacts on the environment caused by more intensive management aimed to promote additional biomass increment. Knowledge on variation of major biologically important elements’ and toxic heavy metals’ occurrence in fertilised hybrid aspen tree rings in marginal land may have important and relevant implications for the management practice and evaluation of element fluxes in SRWC ecosystems. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine the relative amount of major elements (K, Ca, Mg, P) and heavy metals (Cd, Hg, Pb) in stem wood plane on straight line trajectory starting from pith to bark with measurement step 0.1 mm. While inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to determine average content of the mentioned elements in mechanically separated tree rings to quantify data obtained using LA-ICP-MS method and expressed in relative units. Stem disc samples were collected from six year old hybrid aspen trees growing in marginal agricultural land in the central part of Latvia (hemi-boreal climate conditions) that were initially fertilised with biogas production residues, sewage sludge, and wood ash. We concluded that the content of analysed major elements and heavy metals in the hybrid aspen tree rings varied considerably not only within the analysed stem plane (across tree rings) of one sample tree, but also within one annual ring with significant differences between the content of major elements in earlywood and latewood. Nevertheless, the results of the content of major elements and heavy metals in hybrid aspen tree rings highlighted the significant impact of the initially used fertiliser (especially wood ash) on the average content of elements. Hybrid aspens can be considered bioindicators of both the management activities and general growing conditions even if soil pH is close to neutrality, suggesting a limited mobility of the heavy metals.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dendroanalyses, Hybrid Aspen, Tree Rings, Major Elements, Heavy Metals, LA-ICP-MS</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 24-32 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2869-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2869-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2869-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bardule A, Bertins M, Busa L, Lazdina D, Viksna A, Tvrdonova M, Kanicky V, Vaculovic T Research Articles 2020-01-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2869-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Interactions between thinning and bear damage complicate restoration in coast redwood forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3135-012 <p><b>O’Hara KL, Narayan L, Leonard LP</b></p><p><b>INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THINNING AND BEAR DAMAGE COMPLICATE RESTORATION IN COAST REDWOOD FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Silviculture was used to direct the development of young redwood stands toward old forest stand structures. Two variable-density thinning treatments and an unthinned control treatment were monitored for 10 years following treatment in young coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) stands in northern California, USA. The intent of these treatments was for forest restoration by accelerating the development of old forest features. The thinning treatments increased individual tree growth in both low and moderate density thinning treatments as compared to the control. The variable-density thinning also resulted in greater stand structural variability and was successful at increasing the relative proportion of redwood. Black bears (Ursus americanus) caused major damage to residual trees and showed a preference for more vigorous trees. Most of this damage occurred in the first four years after thinning. The confounding effects of thinning to favor larger trees and bear damage preferentially affecting more vigorous and large trees reduced the effectiveness of these treatments by eliminating the stems intended to form the future old forest structures. It also indicates forest managers need a conservative approach that leaves greater numbers of residual trees in redwood stands when bears are present. Thinning should leave sufficient trees to form the old forest structure plus ample allowances for bear-caused mortality. The long-term outcome of stand development in these thinned redwood forests is uncertain because of high rates of mortality in young trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sequoia sempervirens, Restoration, Variable-Density Thinning, Precommercial Thinning, Silviculture, Ursus americanus</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 1-8 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3135-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3135-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3135-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> O’Hara KL, Narayan L, Leonard LP Research Articles 2020-01-08 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3135-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Testing Hungarian oak (Quercus frainetto Ten.) provenances in Romania https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3108-012 <p><b>Apostol EN, Stuparu E, Scarlatescu V, Budeanu M</b></p><p><b>TESTING HUNGARIAN OAK (QUERCUS FRAINETTO TEN.) PROVENANCES IN ROMANIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study ten Hungarian oak provenances from Southern Romania were tested in two comparative trials 10 years after planting. The diameter at breast height (dbh) and tree height (Th) were measured in family progenies and the survival rate was determined. In both trials, the local provenances (Bals and Seaca 2) revealed superior fitness in terms of growth and adaptability traits, confirming the recommendation of using local provenances with priority in afforestation activities. Based on the measured traits, families which ranked in the first ten positions at age 3 and age 10 years were identified in both trials. The analysis of variance revealed statistically significant differences in growth traits between provenances and families in both comparative trials. Duncan’s test for 5% transgression probability revealed different results for dbh and Th in terms of provenance homogeneity in the two test sites, with a superior homogeneity in the Aramadia trial for dbh and in the Bals trial for Th. Growth performances of the Hungarian oak provenances were significantly influenced by the experimental location and by the interactions between provenance, family and locality, suggesting that maximum precaution must be taken in the choice of forest reproductive materials to be planted in different environmental conditions. The family mean heritability (h2f) was significantly lower than the individual heritability (h2i), suggesting the possible adoption of an individual selection strategy in the next stage of the current breeding programme. The juvenile-adult correlations will be made at the age of 40 years and will take advantage of the results of this study to shorten the testing period for the selection of genetically improved material in Hungarian oak.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Age-to-age Correlations, Breeding, Forest Steppe, Oaks’ Adaptability, Selection Strategy</p><p><i>iForest 13 (1): 9-15 (2020)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3108-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3108-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3108-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Apostol EN, Stuparu E, Scarlatescu V, Budeanu M Research Articles 2020-01-08 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3108-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Facilitating objective forest land use decisions by site classification and tree growth modeling: a case study from Vietnam https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2945-012 <p><b>Cuong ND, Volker M, Köhl M</b></p><p><b>FACILITATING OBJECTIVE FOREST LAND USE DECISIONS BY SITE CLASSIFICATION AND TREE GROWTH MODELING: A CASE STUDY FROM VIETNAM</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Onsite information pertaining to forest growth potential is a significant prerequisite for selecting suitable forest plantation locations and safeguards sustainable timber production and income generation. In the scope of forest landscape restoration, the selection of the most suitable sites for reforestation remains a major issue. The current study introduces an operational, objective, and straightforward methodology for the identification and prioritization of sites that are suitable for forest plantations. The methodology is based on an approach that combines land use suitability assessment with site-specific growth and yield predictions. The land use suitability assessment is based on a methodological framework presented by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In a study area in Vietnam four different suitability classes are defined for the species Acacia mangium (A. mangium). Field assessments in existing A. mangium plantations were utilized to develop yield models. Among the Korf, Gompertz, and Chapman-Richards growth equations Korf performed the best for all suitability classes. Prioritization of sites is realized by the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Our study offers a pragmatic approach for selecting the most suitable sites for large-scale forest restoration activities. Integrating growth and yield predictions supports reforestation practices and promotes sustainable timber production.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Acacia mangium, Suitability, Analytical Hierarchy Process, Volume Growth, Vietnam</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 542-550 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2945-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2945-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2945-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cuong ND, Volker M, Köhl M Research Articles 2019-12-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2945-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relationships between leaf physiognomy and sensitivity of photosynthetic processes to freezing for subtropical evergreen woody plants https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3196-012 <p><b>Cheng D, Zhang Z, Zhou S, Peng Y, Zhang L</b></p><p><b>RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LEAF PHYSIOGNOMY AND SENSITIVITY OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC PROCESSES TO FREEZING FOR SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN WOODY PLANTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Subtropical and tropical species in high altitude suffer from low temperature more frequently than those from temperate regions. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis can measure the primary photochemical processes of photosystem II (PSII) and help evaluate the sensitivity of evergreen woody plants to low temperature. Coupled with leaf physiognomy, it has allowed to examine the potential thermal regulation of evergreens in response to extreme coldness. The leaf physiognomy (length, width, thickness and ratio of length/width) and chlorophyll a fluorescence (Fv/Fm, maximum potential photochemical efficiency of PSII; NPQ, non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence; and Y(II), effective photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II) under natural freezing and recovery conditions of nine evergreen woody trees were measured to analyze their relationships. Results showed that the changes of Fv/Fm under freezing versus recovery had a positive relationship with leaf length and width, while a negative relationship with leaf thickness. Similar to leaf size, leaf shape also influenced the photoinhibition levels of evergreens by regulating the leaf boundary layer thickness. Leaves with an oval-like shape suffered less from freezing than leaves with a lanceolate-like shape. A relatively weaker relationship between NPQ and Y(II) was found at freezing than after recovery for species with larger and lanceolate-like leaves. Our findings are helpful to understand the adaptation strategy of evergreen woody species to extreme low temperature in subtropical areas and to provide guidance for the management of evergreen plants introduced in botanical gardens.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaf Size, Leaf Shape, Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Photoinhibition, Low Temperature Stress, Evergreens</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 551-557 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3196-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3196-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3196-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cheng D, Zhang Z, Zhou S, Peng Y, Zhang L Research Articles 2019-12-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3196-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dust collection potential and air pollution tolerance indices in some young plant species in arid regions of Iran https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3063-012 <p><b>Javanmard Z, Kouchaksaraei Tabari M, Bahrami H, Hosseini SM, Sanavi SAMM, Struve D</b></p><p><b>DUST COLLECTION POTENTIAL AND AIR POLLUTION TOLERANCE INDICES IN SOME YOUNG PLANT SPECIES IN ARID REGIONS OF IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dust is one of the main environmental challenges in most arid zone cities of Iran. Tree plantation and forest belts can provide a cost-effective and eco-friendly solution to mitigate dust pollution. Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) based on a combination of total chlorophyll (TChl), relative water content (RWC), ascorbic acid (AsA), and leaf pH is considered as one of the most important means for determining sensitive and tolerant plant species for greening. The present study aimed to evaluate the dust capturing efficiency and APTI of Fraxinus rotundifolia Mill., Morus alba L., Celtis caucasica Willd., and Melia azedarach L., four tree species commonly used in urban green areas of most cities in Iran. As a completely randomized design, 256 saplings were grown in four plastic sheets (64 saplings of four species in each chamber) and the dust was applied at concentrations of 0, 300, 750, and 1500 μg m-3 once a week for 70 days. The results revealed that dust accumulation was greatest in the 750 and 1500 μg m-3 treatment in the following order: M. alba > C. caucasica > F. rotundifolia > M. azedarach. In all species, pH, RWC, AsA, and TChl diminished with increasing dust concentration. A decline in APTI of 0 to 1500 μg m-3 was observed in all species. At 750 μg m-3, only M. alba was tolerant to dust and the other species were intermediate. At 1500 μg m-3, M. alba and M. azedarach showed to be intermediate while two other species were sensitive. The greatest relationship was found between APTI and RWC (R2= 0.85), followed by APTI and AsA (R2 = 0.82). Although C. caucasica showed a high capacity for dust accumulation at 1500 μg m-3, it was found to be sensitive and can, therefore, be used as a dust pollution bioindicator. F. rotundifolia and C. caucasica are not suitable for plantation in urban green spaces where dust concentration is 1500 μg m-3. M. alba appeared to be a tolerant species adaptable to arid urban environments with a potential for reducing dust levels by sinking its particles.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: APTI, Ascorbic Acid, Dust Pollution, Persian Lilac, White Mulberry</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 558-564 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3063-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3063-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3063-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Javanmard Z, Kouchaksaraei Tabari M, Bahrami H, Hosseini SM, Sanavi SAMM, Struve D Research Articles 2019-12-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3063-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of stand density on longitudinal variation of wood and bark growth in fast-growing Eucalyptus plantations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3082-012 <p><b>Ramalho FMG, Pimenta EM, Goulart CP, De Almeida MNF, Vidaurre GB, Hein PRG</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF STAND DENSITY ON LONGITUDINAL VARIATION OF WOOD AND BARK GROWTH IN FAST-GROWING EUCALYPTUS PLANTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The influence of tree spacing on the wood/bark ratio is unknown in young fast-growing Eucalyptus trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of plant spacing on the wood and bark production along the Eucalyptus stem. Four genetic materials were planted in four spacings: 3×1 m, 3×2 m, 3×3 m and 3×4 m. Three 5-year-old trees from each clone and in each plant spacing were harvested. Cross-sectional discs (thickness: 30 mm) were cut from each tree along the stem (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the total tree height) and at 1.3 m above ground, totaling 288 disks (4 spacings × 4 clones × 3 replicates × 6 axial positions). The wood thickness was measured at six random and equidistant points around the perimeter using a gauge and means were calculated from each disc. Six cross diameters were measured for each debarked disc. After obtaining the averaged bark thickness and wood diameter, the bark content was calculated as the ratio between the surface area occupied by the bark and the total area of the stem in each level. In the narrowed plant spacing (3×1), the trees had a mean diameter of 7.4 cm, while at the spacing 3×4 the diameter of the trees was 91% higher (14.11 cm) at breast height. The increase in plant spacing from 3 to 12 m2 per tree resulted in an increase in bark thickness (56.7%) from 1.94 mm to 3.04 mm, but caused a reduction of bark content (16%) from 9.66% to 8.11%. Our findings show that trees grown under wider spacing tend to produce thicker bark. The bark thickness and the effect of plant spacing on the bark thickness decreased in the base-top direction. The correlation between bark thickness and wood diameter increases from 0.682 to 0.825 with the increase of spacing between trees. In contrast, the bark thickness to bark content correlation decrease from 0.735 to 0.15 with increased plant spacing. The stand density significantly affected the variation of the stem diameter, bark thickness and bark content of Eucalyptus plantations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stand Density, Timber, Bark, Silvicultural Treatment, Forest Productivity</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 527-532 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3082-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3082-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3082-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ramalho FMG, Pimenta EM, Goulart CP, De Almeida MNF, Vidaurre GB, Hein PRG Research Articles 2019-12-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3082-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating biomass and carbon sequestration of plantations around industrial areas using very high resolution stereo satellite imagery https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3155-012 <p><b>Hosseini Z, Naghavi H, Latifi H, Bakhtiari Bakhtiarvand S</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING BIOMASS AND CARBON SEQUESTRATION OF PLANTATIONS AROUND INDUSTRIAL AREAS USING VERY HIGH RESOLUTION STEREO SATELLITE IMAGERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plantations established in highly-pollutant industrial areas have a crucial role to absorb greenhouse gases, particularly CO2. A thorough monitoring of their aboveground biomass and carbon balance is essential to ensure their beneficial effects. This can be operationally supported by using a combination of field and multispectral stereo remote sensing data to provide surface height information with high resolution and wide coverage. We estimated the fresh and dry aboveground biomass and the carbon sequestration from pairs of Pléiades satellite imagery of 25-year-old monoculture plantations of Pinus eldarica Medw., Cupressus arizonica Greene, Morus alba L. and Robinia pseudoacacia L., around the Mobarakeh Steel Complex near the megacity Isfahan. This complex is the largest-scale of its kind in semi-arid Iran. Tree heights were derived from a Canopy height model (CHM) at plantation management unit level. Parsimonious regression models were developed, and the accuracy was assessed by the coefficient of determination, bias and root mean square errors (RMSEs) at plot level. This resulted in R2 of total biomass, dry biomass, carbon sequestration, tree height and tree count of 0.90, 0.90, 0.91, 0.89, and 0.88, respectively. Moreover, mixed bias (with lowest value of -0.12 m for tree height) and NRMSE% (with lowest value of 5.93 % for tree carbon sequestration) values were obtained. The results demonstrated that pairs of stereo imageries can be effectively used for predicting forest biomass and carbon sequestration across semi-arid plantations, hence enabling a continuous monitoring of vegetation established around pollutant industrial areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Sequestration, Biomass, Plantation, Industrial Areas, VHR Stereo Images</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 533-541 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3155-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3155-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3155-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Hosseini Z, Naghavi H, Latifi H, Bakhtiari Bakhtiarvand S Research Articles 2019-12-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3155-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysis of canopy temperature depression between tropical rainforest and rubber plantation in Southwest China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3101-012 <p><b>Tay Zar Myo S A, Zhang Y, Song QH, Deng Y, Fei X, Zhou R, Lin Y, Zhou L, Zhang P</b></p><p><b>ANALYSIS OF CANOPY TEMPERATURE DEPRESSION BETWEEN TROPICAL RAINFOREST AND RUBBER PLANTATION IN SOUTHWEST CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Temperature change is an important environmental variable for global change sciences since it largely affects the physiology of plants in forest ecosystems. Canopy temperature depression (CTD) - the result of the deviation of the air temperature (Ta) from the plant canopy surface temperature (Tc) - varies depending on the meteorological and environmental conditions of the forests. Here, we evaluated the differences in CTD between a rubber plantation (RP) and a tropical rainforest (TR) in Xishuangbanna, southwestern China across the various time series of the period of 2011 to 2015. The mean maximum CTD values at the TR site and the RP site were 2.4°C and 0.6°C at diurnal level, 1.3°C and -0.5°C at monthly level, 0.6°C and -0.8°C at seasonal level and 5.6°C and 0.2°C at yearly time series level, respectively, while they were only significant (p < 0.01) in the diurnal time series. There was a significant (p < 0.01) negative linear relationship between CTD and global radiation (Q) in both sites at diurnal level and a significant (p < 0.05) negative linear relationship in the RP site at monthly time series level. A significant (p < 0.05) positive linear relationship between CTD and precipitation (P) at the RP site was found at diurnal level, as well as a significant (p < 0.01) positive linear relationship in the TR site at monthly time series level. The variation of CTD was critical for these two sites and largely depended on the amount of global radiation and the precipitation, while it will mainly affect the physiological variables. This study may prove useful for assessing the physiological response in terms of high temperature and drought conditions to regional and global change.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Temperature Depression, Global Radiation, Precipitation, Tropical Rainforest, Rubber Plantation</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 518-526 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3101-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3101-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3101-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tay Zar Myo S A, Zhang Y, Song QH, Deng Y, Fei X, Zhou R, Lin Y, Zhou L, Zhang P Research Articles 2019-12-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3101-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Accuracy of determining specific parameters of the urban forest using remote sensing https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3024-012 <p><b>Ciesielski M, Sterenczak K</b></p><p><b>ACCURACY OF DETERMINING SPECIFIC PARAMETERS OF THE URBAN FOREST USING REMOTE SENSING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper reviews the current state of knowledge in the field of urban forest inventory and specific tree parameters derived by remote sensing. The paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of using remote sensing to determine the following characteristics of individual trees acquired during the inventory: position (coordinates), tree height, breast height diameter, tree crown parameters (crown span, height of tree crown basis, crown projection surface), health condition, and tree species. A total of 543 papers published in scientific databases (Scopus® and ScienceDirect®) from the year 2000 to December 2017 have been analyzed; 86 of them were used for the review. The most important outcomes are: (a) the integration of many datasets, in particular spectral data (aerial images and satellite imageries) and structural data (LIDAR), allows the most complex use of remote sensing data and helps to improve the accuracy of parameter estimations as well as the correct identification of tree species; (b) the highest precision of measurement is characteristic of TLS, while ALS data has the largest operating system; (c) remote sensing data applications are associated with a large number of sophisticated processing on very large datasets using often proprietary elaborations; (d) the use of remote sensing data makes it possible to determine the characteristics of urban vegetation at various levels of detail and at different scales.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Urban Forestry, Remote Sensing, Green Inventory, Laser Scanning, Hyperspectral Imaging, Satellite Imaging</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 498-510 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3024-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3024-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3024-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ciesielski M, Sterenczak K Review Papers 2019-12-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3024-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Impacts of Norway spruce (Picea abies L., H. Karst.) stands on soil in continental Croatia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3023-012 <p><b>Perković I, Pernar N, Roje V, Bakšić D, Baneković M</b></p><p><b>IMPACTS OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES L., H. KARST.) STANDS ON SOIL IN CONTINENTAL CROATIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A quantitative analysis of pedo-physiological indicators aimed at determining changes in the soil attributable to the effects of spruce plantations was done. The study was conducted at eight sites in central and north-western Croatia where spruce plantations were planted in the late 20th century. At each site, a pedological profile was opened within the spruce plantation and the endo-morphological parameters of the soil were determined. Composite soil samples from two depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm) and from the forest floor were taken in the spruce plantation and compared with samples taken at plots covered by natural vegetation (natural stands) located in the surroundings. The following pedo-physiographic indicators were measured on the collected soil samples: quantity of forest floor, particle size distribution of soil, pH values in H2O and in CaCl2 aqueous solution (concentration 0.01 mol dm-3), content of Corg, content of Ntot and content of bioavailable nutrients (using the Mehlich III method). The results showed that the forest floor had a higher mass in the spruce plantations than in natural stands. The mineral soil showed clear trends of influence of the spruce plantations on soil in terms of reduced pH values. Most plots in the spruce plantations showed a lower nitrogen content in the soil, a higher C/N ratio and lower content of bioavailable phosphorus. This study provides an insight into the amelioration effects of spruce plantations on soil, and represent a reliable basis for decision-making in planning specific interventions in terrestrial ecosystems, such as the establishment of new forest plantations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Spruce Plantation, Forest Soil, Chemical Properties of Soil, Forest Floor</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 511-517 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3023-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3023-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3023-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Perković I, Pernar N, Roje V, Bakšić D, Baneković M Research Articles 2019-12-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3023-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Editorials: Present challenges to global forests and the role of IUFRO https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0066-012 <p><b>Parrotta JA</b></p><p><b>PRESENT CHALLENGES TO GLOBAL FORESTS AND THE ROLE OF IUFRO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The new IUFRO President 2019-2024 Dr. John Parrotta, US Forest Service, summarizes his vision of the present challenges to global forests and the role of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO). This paper is drawn from his acceptance speech at the XXV IUFRO World Congress held in Curitiba, Brazil, on 29 Sept - 5 Oct 2019.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: IUFRO, Global Forests, Forest Challenges</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 488-490 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor0066-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0066-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0066-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Parrotta JA Editorials 2019-11-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor0066-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Role of serotiny on Pinus pinaster Aiton germination and its relation to mother plant age and fire severity https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2968-012 <p><b>Cruz O, García-Duro J, Casal M, Reyes O</b></p><p><b>ROLE OF SEROTINY ON PINUS PINASTER AITON GERMINATION AND ITS RELATION TO MOTHER PLANT AGE AND FIRE SEVERITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Serotiny degree may hypothetically depend on mother plant age and fire severity, and fire severity can strongly affect the regeneration of Pinus pinaster Aiton, which is an obligate seeder species with aerial seed banks stocked in cones showing a certain degree of serotiny. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of serotiny and mother plant age on seed germination of P. pinaster in relation to fire severity. For this purpose, cones were collected in two stands from mother trees of different ages. Serotinous cones were opened in oven at increasing temperatures to determine the number of seeds released. The length of cones and the number and weight of seeds were measured. Seeds from both classes of mother plant age were subjected to 34 different treatments simulating different fire severity levels, and their germination was recorded. The results showed that serotiny was significantly higher in cones from young mother trees. Seed germination in the control groups from serotinous cones was always higher than that from non-serotinous cones without thermal shock. Fire severity decreased seed germination as fire severity increases in both mother age classes. Mother plant age was related to the serotiny level, which was higher in young than in old trees, suggesting a strong selection in the population due to a recent fire.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Severity, Germination, Mother Plant Age, Pinus pinaster, Plantation Management, Serotiny</p><p><i>iForest 12 (6): 491-497 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2968-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2968-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2968-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cruz O, García-Duro J, Casal M, Reyes O Research Articles 2019-11-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2968-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Bioactivity of ethanol extracts from Eucalyptus bosistoana F. Muell. heartwood https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3072-012 <p><b>Mishra G, Garrill A, Altaner CM</b></p><p><b>BIOACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACTS FROM EUCALYPTUS BOSISTOANA F. MUELL. HEARTWOOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Variability in bioactivity and chemical composition of Eucalyptus bosistoana F. Muell. heartwood extracts between individual trees from two different sites were investigated. Combining the results of fungal assays and quantitative gas chromatography (GC) of the extracts allowed the investigation of bioactive compounds. The bioactivity of extracts was assessed against white rot (Trametes versicolor [L.] Lloyd) and brown rot (Coniophora cerebella Pers.). Ethanol extracts from E. bosistoana heartwood were less effective on the white rot than against the brown rot. Variability in the bioactivity of extracts against the two fungi was observed between the trees. A site effect in the bioactivity was found for the white rot but not the brown rot. Bioactivity of the extracts against the white rot was not correlated to that against the brown rot. The absence of a relationship between of effects of the extracts on the relative growth rates of the white rot and the brown rot indicated that the two fungi were affected by different compounds. Thirty two compounds were quantified in E. bosistoana ethanol extracts by GC, of which six (benzoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, 1,5-dihdroxy-12-methoxy-3,3-dimethyl-3,4-dihydro-1H-anthra[2,3-c]pyran-6,11-dione, octadecanoic acid, polyphenol and beta-sitosterol) were identified. Significant variability in eight compounds was found between the two sites. Multivariate (PLSR) analysis identified compounds at the retention times 10.2 and 11.5 min (hexadecanoic acid) to be most related to the bioactivity of the E. bosistoana heartwood extracts against white rot and brown rot.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Brown Rot, Extractives, Fungal Assays, Gas Chromatography, Heartwood, White Rot</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 467-473 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3072-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3072-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3072-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mishra G, Garrill A, Altaner CM Research Articles 2019-10-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3072-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The influence of age and crown position on growth efficiency along a Scots pine chronosequence https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2953-012 <p><b>Turski M, Kwasna H, Beker C, Jaszczak R, Kazmierczak K, Najgrakowski T, Borzyszkowski W</b></p><p><b>THE INFLUENCE OF AGE AND CROWN POSITION ON GROWTH EFFICIENCY ALONG A SCOTS PINE CHRONOSEQUENCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The study deals with the effects of age and crown position (either dominant or intermediate, as determined by Kraft’s social class) on stemwood growth efficiency (GE), which is viewed as the ratio of annual stemwood volume increment of the previous five years to needle volume of the entire tree, in eight even-aged pure stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The highest GE was observed in the youngest stands, and the lowest in the oldest ones. There was no clear interdependence of GE on the age of intermediate stands. GE was most variable in the youngest, the 25-year-old stand, and was the least variable in the 74-year-old stand. GE in dominant trees was lower in 25- 74- and 85-year-old stands and higher in 33-, 44-, 56-, 64- and 93-year-old stands. The GE ratios of dominant trees to intermediate trees in 25-, 33-, 44-, 56-, 64-, 74-, 85- and 93-year-old stands were 0.47:1, 1:0.93, 1:0.87, 1:0.81, 1:0.86, 0.88:1, 0.90:1 and 1:0.61, respectively. Tree age had a statistically significant effect on GE; however, the contribution of the age factor to GE was assessed as weak. Generally, the position of trees (whether dominant or intermediate) had no effect on GE, while age × position of trees had a statistically significant effect on GE, which means that the two factors interacted. The correlation between GE and tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and the needle volume of the entire empirical material was statistically significant with a negative sign; however, the situation varied among the particular stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pine, Needle Volume, Growth Efficiency, Dominant Trees, Intermediate Trees</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 474-479 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2953-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2953-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2953-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Turski M, Kwasna H, Beker C, Jaszczak R, Kazmierczak K, Najgrakowski T, Borzyszkowski W Research Articles 2019-10-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2953-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Classification and mapping of Spanish Mediterranean mixed forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2817-012 <p><b>Sánchez de Dios R, Velázquez JC, Sainz Ollero H</b></p><p><b>CLASSIFICATION AND MAPPING OF SPANISH MEDITERRANEAN MIXED FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Mixed forests play an important role in promoting forest functions and services, and showed better resilience to perturbations than monospecific forests. In the Mediterranean Basin they constitute an important share of the total forest area. However, although mixed forests have been described, classified and mapped in most of the Mediterranean regions around the world, in the Mediterranean Basin they remain neglected, with direct negative consequences for forest management and conservation strategies. Our objective is to present a reliable, uniform classification along with a map of the Spanish Mediterranean Mixed Forests (MMF) as a tool for their management and conservation in Spain. The digital Spanish Forest Map was analyzed to identify MMF. The most frequent tree species combinations were identified and their representativeness in terms of the total forest area was analyzed. In addition, to ensure environmental homogeneity in the proposed classification, the arrangement of each tree species combination within the Spanish Mediterranean ecoregions was evaluated using the Pearson Chi-square test. Based on our results, Spanish MMF currently cover 27.07% of the Mediterranean natural forest area. They were divided into 9 main ecological groups and 23 subtypes. The classification of Spanish MMF and the distribution map represent a first step towards recognizing the importance of mixed forests in the vegetation of the Mediterranean Basin. Together they may provide a valuable basis to improve future forest management, monitoring and conservation strategies both at national and European level.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mixed Forests, Mediterranean Forests, Vegetation Classification, Forest Map, Mediterranean Mixed Forest</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 480-487 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2817-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2817-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2817-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sánchez de Dios R, Velázquez JC, Sainz Ollero H Research Articles 2019-10-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2817-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Distribution and abundance of the alien Xylosandrus germanus and other ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in different forest stands in central Slovenia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3114-012 <p><b>Hauptman T, Pavlin R, Grošelj P, Jurc M</b></p><p><b>DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF THE ALIEN XYLOSANDRUS GERMANUS AND OTHER AMBROSIA BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE, SCOLYTINAE) IN DIFFERENT FOREST STANDS IN CENTRAL SLOVENIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The East Asian ambrosia beetle (Xylosandrus germanus - Blandford 1894) is an invasive species that has become successfully established in Europe and North America. In Slovenia, X. germanus was first recorded in 2000 in the western part of the country, and since 2008 the species has also been identified in other parts of Slovenia. The first economic damage was recorded in 2016 after a massive attack on recently felled logs of different tree species, spurring research into this non-native invasive species. To examine the distribution and abundance of X. germanus compared to other ambrosia beetles and to determine voltinism and the flight period of the species in our climatic conditions, we deployed 19 ethanol-baited traps from March to November 2017 in oak-, beech- and fir-dominated forest stands in central Slovenia. To verify the vertical distribution of X. germanus, traps were installed at altitudes ranging from 303 m to 941 m a.s.l. Furthermore, the impact of the ice storm that hit Slovenia in 2014 on the abundance of X. germanus was also studied. Non-native X. germanus represented 71.8% of the total catch and was significantly more abundant than the other five most common species: Xyleborinus saxesenii (20.0%), Xyleborus monographus (3.6%), Anisandrus dispar (2.5%), Trypodendron domesticum (1.2%) and Trypodendron signatum (0.6%). X. germanus was most abundant in beech-dominated stands, but the differences between forest types were not significant. The species was found along the entire altitudinal gradient. Our results indicate that the swarming of X. germanus in lowland forests may already occur by the middle of March. Maximum flying activity was observed in May and early June in forests below 600 m a.s.l. and at the end of May and in June in forests above 700 m a.s.l. Only one generation per year was observed. The ice storm positively affected the abundance of X. germanus, especially in areas where sanitary logging was delayed. Xyleborinus attenuatus was detected for the first time in Slovenia.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Xylosandrus germanus, Ambrosia Beetles, Black Timber Bark Beetle, Invasive Species, Habitat Preference, Monitoring, Ethanol-baited Traps</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 451-458 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3114-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3114-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3114-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Hauptman T, Pavlin R, Grošelj P, Jurc M Research Articles 2019-09-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3114-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Preliminary study on genetic variation of growth traits and wood properties and superior clones selection of Populus ussuriensis Kom. https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2991-012 <p><b>Jin J, Zhao X, Liu H, Wang S, Song Z, Ma X, Li K</b></p><p><b>PRELIMINARY STUDY ON GENETIC VARIATION OF GROWTH TRAITS AND WOOD PROPERTIES AND SUPERIOR CLONES SELECTION OF POPULUS USSURIENSIS KOM.</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study the genetic variation of growth traits and wood properties was assessed in 45 clones of Populus ussuriensis Kom. grown in a 10-year-old experimental forest located in Northeastern China and a preliminary selection of superior clones was performed based on multi-trait selection index. The following traits were analyzed: tree height, H; diameter at breast height, DBH; volume, V; basic wood density, BWD; fiber length, FL; fiber length-width ratio, FL/W; microfibril angle, MA; cell wall percentage, CWP; fiber double wall thickness, FWT; vessel proportion, VP; wood fiber proportion, FP; wood ray proportion, RP; holocellulose content, HC. The results revealed significant differences (P<0.05) in DBH, V, BWD, FWT, VP and FP among different clones. Broad-sense heritabilities for growth traits and wood properties ranged from 0.020 to 0.749, therefore growth traits and wood properties are moderately or weakly controlled. Negative correlations between growth traits and most wood properties were also found. According to the multi-trait selection index at a selected rate of 10% and survival rates, 3 superior clones (I18, H16, C13) were selected, and the DBH, V, BWD, FL and FP of superior clones were higher than those of all clones by 2.83%, 9.81%, 3.40%, 6.59% and 0.31%, the MA, FWT, VP were lower than those of all clones by 7.54%, 0.39%, 2.12%, respectively. These superior clones could be used as starting breeding material for P. ussuriensis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Populus ussuriensis Kom., Growth Traits, Wood Properties, Genetic Variation, Multi-trait Index Selection</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 459-466 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2991-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2991-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2991-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jin J, Zhao X, Liu H, Wang S, Song Z, Ma X, Li K Research Articles 2019-09-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2991-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatial structure of the vertical layers in a subtropical secondary forest 57 years after clear-cutting https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2975-012 <p><b>Li Y, He J, Yu S, Zhu D, Wang H, Ye S</b></p><p><b>SPATIAL STRUCTURE OF THE VERTICAL LAYERS IN A SUBTROPICAL SECONDARY FOREST 57 YEARS AFTER CLEAR-CUTTING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Stratification is an important phenomenon in natural forests. The mixed pine-oak forests along the Nanpan River in southwest China was clearly formed by two layers in the vertical direction. These forests developed in an area where the virgin forests suffered clear-cutting. After excluding habitat heterogeneity, we divided two plots into upper and lower layers according to the tree height, and then analyzed the spatial pattern, species distribution, and size differentiation using the pair correlation function g(r) and the mark correlation function (MCF) kmm (r), respectively. The following key results were obtained: (1) the upstory was slightly clustered, whereas the understory had an intensively clumped pattern. An uneven pattern of germplasm resources in the early stages of succession and seed dispersion limitation may have contributed to the aggregation of tree species. (2) The spatial correlation among the main populations in each layer, and between both layers, had a largely random association, suggesting that differences in tree growth and physiological characteristics play an important role in species association. (3) Species aggregation decreased as the observation scale increased; however, the aggregation intensity of the understory was significantly higher than that of the upstory, which may be related to negative density dependence and niche complementarity. (4) Size differentiation in the upstory was significant, with small trees gathered together. There were no obvious differences in tree size in the lower layer, indicating a higher competitive pressure among trees in the upper layer. In conclusion, the spatial structure of trees in terms of vertical stratification differs, which is of great significance for investigating the mechanisms by which species coexist.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Clear Cut, Secondary Forest, Size Differentiation, Spatial Pattern, Stratification</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 442-450 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2975-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2975-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2975-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Li Y, He J, Yu S, Zhu D, Wang H, Ye S Research Articles 2019-09-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2975-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Essential environmental variables to include in a stratified sampling design for a national-level invasive alien tree survey https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2767-012 <p><b>Kotze JD, Beukes HB, Seifert T</b></p><p><b>ESSENTIAL ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES TO INCLUDE IN A STRATIFIED SAMPLING DESIGN FOR A NATIONAL-LEVEL INVASIVE ALIEN TREE SURVEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: There is a direct relationship between the abundance of biological invasions and their impact, which means that it is important to capture spatial patterns in their abundance and use this information to focus management actions. However, protocols to objectively determine invasive alien plant (IAP) distributions and abundance are lacking at a national level, resulting in the inability to determine and monitor changes in spatial extent and density over time. A complete inventory of IAP spatial distribution across an extensive area such as South Africa is not possible and so requires an efficient sampling approach. A simple random sampling design would not be efficient, so monitoring of IAP species at a national level requires an appropriate sampling design such as a stratified sampling. The selection of environmental variables to be included in such a stratification should be based on the relationship between IAP species and their physical environment to successfully summarize variance in their abundance within the different strata. A further objective is to obtain all possible combinations of environmental variables or a full rank design in the stratification to allow for the comparison of different strata based on actual field sampled data. This raises the question of which predictive environmental variables as well as how many to include in the stratification. For this purpose, three invasive tree species, namely Acacia cyclops, Acacia mearnsii and Prosopis glandulosa were selected as they cover the maximum possible area at the highest density with the least amount of geographic overlap. A total of 26 environmental variables that included climatic, soil and topographic type variables were tested with linear regressions against correlations with the abundance of those tree species. The results showed that a combination of average precipitation, soil depth, clay content in the B-horizon and terrain morphological units will serve as a suitable stratification at a national level to explain IAP abundance variation sufficiently well whilst retaining a full rank design. These results will be applied as the first phase in the formation of a regional level IAP monitoring programme for South Africa on a scientific basis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Invasive Alien Plant (IAP) Species, Monitoring, Sampling Design, Stratification, Environmental Variables</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 418-426 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2767-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2767-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2767-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kotze JD, Beukes HB, Seifert T Research Articles 2019-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2767-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evaluation of hydrological and erosive effects at the basin scale in relation to the severity of forest fires https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2878-012 <p><b>Coschignano G, Nicolaci A, Ferrari E, Cruscomagno F, Iovino F</b></p><p><b>EVALUATION OF HYDROLOGICAL AND EROSIVE EFFECTS AT THE BASIN SCALE IN RELATION TO THE SEVERITY OF FOREST FIRES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study aimed to assess the hydrological and erosive effects of different levels of the fire severity in the drainage basin of the Trionto River (Calabria, southern Italy), which was partially burned by intense fires during the summer 2017. The analysis focused on the identification of wildfire areas using a supervised classification of remote sensing images with the minimum distance algorithm. The level of severity of each fire was then discriminated based on a procedure proposed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and adapted to the study area. To evaluate how wildfire occurrence affects the hydrological behaviour at the basin scale, the SCS-Curve Number model was used to document pre- and post-fire conditions in relation with the level of fire severity. Finally, the influence on erosion was analysed for analogous conditions at the basin scale using the RUSLE equation. The effects on hydrological balance and soil loss were evaluated by comparing the pre-fire value with three different post-fire scenarios: (a) different levels of severity on the surface covered by the fire (real case); (b) maximum level of severity on the surface covered by the fire; (c) total loss of the canopy and formation of a hydrophobic layer on the surface soil. The results confirmed that the level of severity of the forest fires, combined with climatic factors, morphological conditions, and the pedological characteristics of the basin, significantly influence changes to the hydrology and rates of erosion. Moreover, these impacts proved to be mainly dependent on the consequent, often notable, heterogeneity in the spatial distribution of burned areas with different severity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Fire Severity, Hydrological Impacts, Soil Loss Estimation, Remote Sensing</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 427-434 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2878-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2878-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2878-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Coschignano G, Nicolaci A, Ferrari E, Cruscomagno F, Iovino F Research Articles 2019-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2878-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Accuracy assessment of different photogrammetric software for processing data from low-cost UAV platforms in forest conditions https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2986-012 <p><b>Brach M, Chan JCW, Szymanski P</b></p><p><b>ACCURACY ASSESSMENT OF DIFFERENT PHOTOGRAMMETRIC SOFTWARE FOR PROCESSING DATA FROM LOW-COST UAV PLATFORMS IN FOREST CONDITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To obtain precise cartometric measurements of forests is always a challenge and high-resolution data from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is currently the quickest method. Generation of a fine quality orthomosaic of the acquired image series is a pre-requisite for full exploitation of such data. This study examines six of the most frequently used photogrammetric software for popular and inexpensive UAV systems. It is assumed that ground control points (GCPs) are not required. The average Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) for raw orthophoto was 1.24 m and around 0.2 m precision for both X and Y axes. Additionally, the accuracy of UAV internal GNSS receiver was checked on reference points which slightly exceeds 2 m RMSE. The range of accuracy and precision of orthomosaic are provided as a valuable reference for the use of low-cost UAV in forest inventory.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: UAV, GNSS, Orthomosaic, Accuracy, Precision, Forest</p><p><i>iForest 12 (5): 435-441 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2986-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2986-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2986-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Brach M, Chan JCW, Szymanski P Research Articles 2019-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2986-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Photosynthetic parameters of urban greening trees growing on paved land https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2939-012 <p><b>Wang X, Wang X, Chen Y, Berlyn GP</b></p><p><b>PHOTOSYNTHETIC PARAMETERS OF URBAN GREENING TREES GROWING ON PAVED LAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Two common urban greening trees, ash (Fraxinus chinensis Roxb.) and maple (Acer truncatum Bunge.), were planted in arranged pervious and impervious land pavements to clarify the response in the photosynthetic processes of the urban tree under different types of pavement. Leaf light and CO2 response curves of the net photosynthetic rate were constructed based on in situ measurements in the 4th year after planting, and additional photosynthetic parameters were obtained. The surface temperature and soil temperature significantly increased while the soil moisture significantly decreased in the land pavement, and these changes varied with types of pavement. The light-saturated net photosynthetic rates of both ash and maple, the saturated intercellular CO2 concentration of ash, and the light saturation point, CO2-saturated net photosynthetic rate and maximum carboxylation rate of maple significantly decreased in impervious pavement, indicating that both the capacity of leaf photosynthesis and utilization of high light and CO2 concentrations were significantly reduced by land pavement. The down-regulation of photosynthesis in the impervious pavement was mainly due to the reduction of available soil water. Photosynthetic parameters of maple showed more sensitivity to the land pavement than those of ash. There was less impact from pervious pavement than impervious pavement on the photosynthetic parameters of ash and maple.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Impervious Pavement, Pervious Pavement, Photosynthesis, Photosynthetic Parameter, Urban Tree</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 403-410 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2939-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2939-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2939-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wang X, Wang X, Chen Y, Berlyn GP Research Articles 2019-08-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2939-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Fungal community of necrotic and healthy galls in chestnut trees colonized by Dryocosmus kuriphilus (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3014-012 <p><b>Muñoz-Adalia EJ, Rodríguez D, Casado M, Diez J, Fernández M</b></p><p><b>FUNGAL COMMUNITY OF NECROTIC AND HEALTHY GALLS IN CHESTNUT TREES COLONIZED BY DRYOCOSMUS KURIPHILUS (HYMENOPTERA, CYNIPIDAE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Dryocosmus kuriphilus is a non-native pest that has recently spread through Europe with a special incidence along the Mediterranean Basin. The presence of this exotic wasp (originally from Asia) threatens stands and orchards of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) as it reduces tree growth and consequently fruit production. In this study the living mycobiota in leaves, healthy and necrotic galls collected from two sites in Cantabria (Northern Spain) was investigated. A total of twenty-two fungal taxa based on morphological and molecular traits were determined. In addition, we calculated fungal diversity and identified the dominant taxa among members of the mycobiota. Seven log-linear models were used to analyse whether fungal abundance varied between sites, types of plant material or fungal taxa. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between plant hosts, insect and the endophytic community, and are of potential interest in relation to the biological control of this important pest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ACGW, Biological Control, Castanea sativa, Endophytic Fungi, Entomopathogens, Fungal Community, Necrotic Gall</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 411-417 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor3014-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3014-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3014-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Muñoz-Adalia EJ, Rodríguez D, Casado M, Diez J, Fernández M Research Articles 2019-08-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor3014-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Wintertime photosynthesis and spring recovery of Ilex aquifolium L. https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2983-012 <p><b>Wachendorf M, Schloz M, Küppers M, Güney A, Veste M</b></p><p><b>WINTERTIME PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND SPRING RECOVERY OF ILEX AQUIFOLIUM L.</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Former studies using the chlorophyll fluorescence technique on evergreen Ilex aquifolium L. showed that its photosynthetic potential for electron transport in winter recovers quickly when exposed to more favorable conditions. Since little is known, however, about its photosynthetic carbon gain in winter, we investigated its leaf gas exchange over an entire winter and spring period. Measurements were made rotationally in the field and in the laboratory to also investigate if I. aquifolium profits from warmer phases during winter in terms of net carbon gain. From the end of autumn until the end of spring, three different climate-driven phases of photosynthetic responses could be distinguished: first, an acclimation phase which lasted until February and was characterized by a gradually decreasing light-saturated gross photosynthesis (Amax(gross)), decreasing apparent quantum yield of CO2-assimilation (ΦΦi) and a decreasing ability of these parameters to recover overnight inside the laboratory. At the same time, maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) could fully regenerate. In this phase, single warmer days had a positive effect on carbon assimilation. Second, a phase of relatively constant but low photosynthesis which was virtually unaffected by temperature, lasting for almost two months occurred. Here, Amax(gross) and Φi had lost their ability to recover from winter conditions in the field, while Fv/Fm was much less affected. I. aquifolium was still able to conduct positive light-saturated net photosynthesis at a leaf temperature of -0.5 °C, but during this time it could not profit from milder temperatures in terms of carbon gain. Third, a phase of increasing photosynthesis (spring recovery) occurred, starting in March when the 5-day average temperature was above 5 °C and radiation in the field increased, and where all parameters slowly recovered from winter depressions. Our findings show that I. aquifolium is photosynthetically active over the whole winter, even at temperatures around 0 °C. In terms of carbon gain, however, I. aquifolium does not profit from warmer phases during winter, despite the fast recovery seen in chlorophyll fluorescence measurements.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Frost, Leaf Gas Exchange, Photosynthetic Induction, Quantum Yield, Respiration</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 389-396 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2983-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2983-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2983-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wachendorf M, Schloz M, Küppers M, Güney A, Veste M Research Articles 2019-07-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2983-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Near zero mortality in juvenile Pinus hartwegii Lindl. after a prescribed burn and comparison with mortality after a wildfire https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2760-012 <p><b>Hernández-Correa R, Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Cruz-Reyes A</b></p><p><b>NEAR ZERO MORTALITY IN JUVENILE PINUS HARTWEGII LINDL. AFTER A PRESCRIBED BURN AND COMPARISON WITH MORTALITY AFTER A WILDFIRE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fire is considered a relevant ecological factor, however, human alterations of fire regime facilitate more destructive wildfires. The aims of this work were to model probability of tree mortality and to identify the factors associated with leader shoot growth in a prescribed burn area and in a nearby wildfire area in a juvenile Pinus hartwegii Lindl. stand in central Mexico. A prescribed burn was carried out in 10-ha stand in March 2012, and compared with a close area affected by a wildfire occurred one week later, as well as with a nearby unburned area taken as control. A logistic model was used to estimate the probability of mortality, and a linear regression model was employed to investigate factors related to leader shoot growth. No tree mortality was recorded in the unburned control. In contrast, mortality was 6% in the prescribed burn and 66.9% in the wildfire area. The probability of mortality was influenced by stem char height (positively, p<0.0001), tree height (negatively, p=0.0443), and diameter at breast height (negatively, p<0.0001). The variables that had more influence on leader shoot growth were stem char height (negatively, p<0.0001) and tree height (positively, p<0.0001). This work supports evidence of the feasibility of using low intensity prescribed burns in this ecosystem with minimum effects on young tree mortality.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Adaptations, Fire Ecology, Integral Fire Management, Prescribed Burning, Probability of Mortality, Logistic Regression, Pinus hartwegii</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 397-402 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2760-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2760-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2760-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Hernández-Correa R, Rodríguez-Trejo DA, Cruz-Reyes A Research Articles 2019-07-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2760-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Carbon and nutrient contents in the miscellaneous fraction of litterfall under different thinning intensities in a semiarid Pinus halepensis afforestation https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2907-012 <p><b>Segura C, Fernández-Ondoño E, Jiménez MN, Navarro FB</b></p><p><b>CARBON AND NUTRIENT CONTENTS IN THE MISCELLANEOUS FRACTION OF LITTERFALL UNDER DIFFERENT THINNING INTENSITIES IN A SEMIARID PINUS HALEPENSIS AFFORESTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Litterfall evaluation and the effects caused by forestry practices provide valuable information on nutrient-cycle dynamics in managed forests. So far, most of the studies have focused on leaf-fall, omitting other litterfall fractions that can be also relevant for forest and soil modelling in a global change context. With this aim the miscellaneous fraction was quantified in a Pinus halepensis afforestation in the semiarid SE of Spain five years after four different thinning regimes were applied (T75: 75% of mean basal area removed; T60: 60%; T48: 48%; and T0: no thinning). Concentrations and pools (kg ha-1) of carbon and nutrients in the miscellanea fraction were monthly analysed for C and N (June 2010-May 2013), and for P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, and Mn (June 2011-May 2013). No differences in concentrations of carbon and nutrients were found among treatments with the exception of N, which showed significant differences between T75 and T60 plots. For pools, a high variability was found over time with maximum C and N pools found during spring, likely reflecting the influence of Thaumetopoea pityocampa attacks. Thinning affected C, N, Mn, and Zn pools in 2011-2012 period, and P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Fe, and Zn pools in 2012-2013. Significant differences were mainly found between the most intensive treatment (T75) and unthinned plots (T0). The percentage of annual mean C and nutrient pools in miscellanea showed the importance of its monitoring, with pools that represented from 43.0% to 57.9% of the total litterfall for C (278.81-746.01 kg ha-1 yr-1), N (4.18-10.44 kg ha-1 yr-1), and P (0.37-1.43 kg ha-1 yr-1). Our results stress the high relevance of miscellany monitoring in order to gain a better understanding of nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mediterranean Region, Aleppo Pine, Micro- and Macronutrient Concentrations, Nutrient Dynamics, C Inputs, Pine Processionary</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 375-382 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2907-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2907-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2907-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Segura C, Fernández-Ondoño E, Jiménez MN, Navarro FB Research Articles 2019-07-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2907-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Impact of forest management on threatened epiphytic macrolichens: evidence from a Mediterranean mixed oak forest (Italy) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2951-012 <p><b>Paoli L, Benesperi R, Fačkovcová Z, Nascimbene J, Ravera S, Marchetti M, Anselmi B, Landi M, Landi S, Bianchi E, Di Nuzzo L, Lackovičová A, Vannini A, Loppi S, Guttová A</b></p><p><b>IMPACT OF FOREST MANAGEMENT ON THREATENED EPIPHYTIC MACROLICHENS: EVIDENCE FROM A MEDITERRANEAN MIXED OAK FOREST (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest management practices may heavily affect epiphytic cryptogams. This study was conceived in March 2016, as soon as we were informed about an authorized logging for timber within a Mediterranean mixed oak forest in Tuscany (central Italy), which threatened a large population of the forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm., composed of hundreds of fertile thalli. Lobaria pulmonaria is often used as an ecological indicator of high quality habitats hosting rare lichens, and in general, cryptogams worthy of conservation. The species has suffered a general decline throughout Europe as a consequence of air pollution and intensive forest management, and currently it is red-listed in several countries, where it is considered also as a “flag species”. We estimated that 40% of the lichen biomass (8.5-12.3 kg ha-1) has been lost due to logging operations (in the core area, up to 1.8 kg every 100 m2), in particular large and fertile thalli. One year after the conclusion of logging operations, the analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence emission (indicator of the photosynthetic performance of the lichen photobionts), revealed a significant reduction of the vitality of the thalli on retained-isolated trees. The article provides issues for conservation in Mediterranean oak forests and outlines the outmost importance of ensuring the safeguard of forest ecosystems hosting fertile populations of this model species, especially in the case of unprotected forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Loss, Chlorophyll Fluorescence, Flag Species, Legal Protection, Lobaria pulmonaria, Red Lists</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 383-388 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2951-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2951-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2951-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Paoli L, Benesperi R, Fačkovcová Z, Nascimbene J, Ravera S, Marchetti M, Anselmi B, Landi M, Landi S, Bianchi E, Di Nuzzo L, Lackovičová A, Vannini A, Loppi S, Guttová A Research Articles 2019-07-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2951-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Spatio-temporal modelling of forest monitoring data: modelling German tree defoliation data collected between 1989 and 2015 for trend estimation and survey grid examination using GAMMs https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2932-012 <p><b>Eickenscheidt N, Augustin Nicole H, Wellbrock N</b></p><p><b>SPATIO-TEMPORAL MODELLING OF FOREST MONITORING DATA: MODELLING GERMAN TREE DEFOLIATION DATA COLLECTED BETWEEN 1989 AND 2015 FOR TREND ESTIMATION AND SURVEY GRID EXAMINATION USING GAMMS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Spatio-temporal modelling of tree defoliation data from the German forest condition survey is statistically challenging, particularly due to irregular grids. In the present study, generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) were used to estimate the spatio-temporal trends in defoliation of the main tree species spruce, pine, beech and oak from 1989 to 2015 and to examine the suitability of different monitoring grid resolutions (standard 16 × 16 km grid and denser grids). Although data has been collected since 1989, this is the first time spatio-temporal modelling for all of Germany has been carried out. GAMMs proved to be a statistically sound and highly flexible choice for spatio-temporal modelling of defoliation data. In addition to the space-time component, stand age showed a significant effect on defoliation. The mean age and the species-specific relation between defoliation and age determined the general level of defoliation. However, further investigations are necessary in order to understand what is behind the age effect. Adjustment for stand age was carried out for identifying hotspots of high defoliation that are not merely the result of the age effect. Fluctuations in defoliation were most likely related to weather conditions. South-western Germany has emerged as the region with the highest defoliation since the drought year 2003. This region was characterized by the strongest water deficits in 2003 compared to the long-term reference period (1961-1990). Furthermore, the spatio-temporal model was used to carry out a simulation study to compare different survey grid resolutions in terms of prediction error. The model-based approach for grid analysis turned out to be appropriate for the given data and sample design. The grid analysis indicated that an 8 × 8 km grid instead of the standard 16 × 16 km grid is necessary for spatio-temporal trend estimation and for detecting hotspots in defoliation in space and time, especially regarding oaks.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Age Effect, Drought Stress, Forest Condition Survey, Generalized Additive Mixed Models, Grid Examination, Spatio-temporal Model, Survey Design, Tensor Product Smooth</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 338-348 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2932-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2932-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2932-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Eickenscheidt N, Augustin Nicole H, Wellbrock N Research Articles 2019-07-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2932-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Geographic determinants of spatial patterns of Quercus robur forest stands in Latvia: biophysical conditions and past management https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2979-012 <p><b>Rendenieks Z, Brumelis G, Nikodemus O, Elferts D</b></p><p><b>GEOGRAPHIC DETERMINANTS OF SPATIAL PATTERNS OF QUERCUS ROBUR FOREST STANDS IN LATVIA: BIOPHYSICAL CONDITIONS AND PAST MANAGEMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Most of the forest area dominated by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) in Latvia was lost to arable land several centuries ago and the remnant patches of Q. robur stands are small and spatially scattered. We hypothesized that a large part of the present Q. robur stands in the Eastern Baltic area of the hemiboreal forest zone developed around the past manor houses in the period of social and political turmoil and subsequent agricultural land abandonment. Our aim was to determine the relationship of Q. robur stand occurrence with soil properties, climatic conditions and proximity to past manor houses. Our study area was the entire territory of Latvia (64.589 km2), divided into 16 landscape regions. We used the State Forest Inventory database to filter out all stands dominated by Q. robur (n=3746). Spatial aggregation of the stands was tested by multi-distance spatial clustering analysis (Ripley’s K method). Mean stand area and Euclidean nearest-neighbour distance for stands were calculated for landscape regions. Binary logistic regression with the calculation of autocovariates showed that winter temperature, soil texture, carbonate concentration and distance to closest manor house were the independent factors significantly (p<0.01) related to the probability of occurrence of Q. robur stands. The results showed that Q. robur is spatially clustered, i.e., significantly different from a random distribution (p<0.05). Higher densities of stands occurred in landscape regions with milder maritime climatic conditions. The largest proportional area of stands established between 1885 and 1914 in the period when peasants gained title to lands and manor lords lost control over their land holdings. In addition, in the landscape regions of Rietumkursa, Austrumkursa and Rietumzemgale, the abundance of Q. robur stands coincided with high densities of past manor houses. Thus, establishment of the Q. robur stands likely responded to suitable conditions (open canopy) made available for tree colonization during the land reform occurred 100 years ago. Our results suggest that priority for conservation should be given to spatial aggregations of stands with high connectivity and on richer soils in more maritime conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Management, Geographic Distribution, Land Use History, Soil, Manor, Spatial Pattern, Quercus robur</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 349-356 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2979-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2979-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2979-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rendenieks Z, Brumelis G, Nikodemus O, Elferts D Research Articles 2019-07-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2979-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of different dolomitic limestone dosages on soil respiration in a mid-altitudinal Norway spruce stand https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2894-012 <p><b>Rosíková J, Darenova E, Kučera A, Volarík D, Vranová V</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DOLOMITIC LIMESTONE DOSAGES ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN A MID-ALTITUDINAL NORWAY SPRUCE STAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The study focuses on the effect of chemical amelioration of dolomitic limestone (doses of 0, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9 and 26 t ha-1) on soil respiration in a Norway spruce monoculture in mid-altitudinal elevation during one-year period after application. Firstly, the soil respiration was measured in situ as monthly CO2 efflux from the soil surface horizon in the period May to October 2016. Secondly, basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon and metabolic quotient of the organic H and organo-mineral A horizons were assessed under laboratory conditions within one year after the treatment. Soil CO2 efflux increased by 3 to 31% and by 29 to 98% for the ameliorant of 2 and 26 t ha-1, respectively, compared to the unlimed control treatment. The CO2 efflux was significantly driven by external conditions such as soil moisture and temperature, especially in the last seasonal months. Basal respiration of the H horizon increased up to a dose of 9 t ha-1 but decreased at 26 t ha-1. In the A horizon, microbial activity increased in all the limed variants compared to the non-limed variant. A similar trend was observed in microbial carbon and the metabolic quotient of the soil. Our results prove that the ameliorant doses commonly used in the forestry sector (3-4 t ha-1) substantially increase the soil microbial activity during (soil CO2 efflux) and after (laboratory data) the first year after application. This results in the accelerated mineralization of soil organic material and subsequent loss from the forest ecosystem.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Amelioration, Basal Respiration, Liming, Picea abies, Soil CO2 Efflux</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 357-365 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2894-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2894-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2894-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rosíková J, Darenova E, Kučera A, Volarík D, Vranová V Research Articles 2019-07-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2894-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Large scale semi-automatic detection of forest roads from low density LiDAR data on steep terrain in Northern Spain https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2989-012 <p><b>Prendes C, Buján S, Ordoñez C, Canga E</b></p><p><b>LARGE SCALE SEMI-AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF FOREST ROADS FROM LOW DENSITY LIDAR DATA ON STEEP TERRAIN IN NORTHERN SPAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: While forest roads are important to forest managers in terms of facilitating the exploitation of wood and timber, their role is far more multifunctional. They permit access to emergency services in the case of forest fires as well as acting as fire breaks, enhance biodiversity, and provide access to the public to enjoy recreational activities. Detailed maps of forest roads are an essential tool for better and more timely forest management and automatic/semi-automatic tools allow not only the creation of forest road databases, but also enable these to be updated. In Spain, LiDAR data for the entire national territory is freely available, and the capture of higher density data is planned in the next few years. As such, the development of a forest road detection methodology based on LiDAR data would allow maps of all forest roads to be developed and regularly updated. The general objective of this work was to establish a low density LiDAR data-based methodology for the semi-automatic detection of the centerline of forest roads on steep terrain with various types of canopy cover. Intensity and slope images were generated using the currently available LiDAR data of the study area (0.5 points m-2). Two image classification approaches were evaluated: pixel-based and object-oriented classification (OBIA). The LiDAR-derived centerlines obtained with the two approaches were compared with the real centerlines which had previously been digitized in the field. The road width, type of surface and type of vegetation cover were also recorded. The effectiveness of the two approaches was evaluated through three quality indicators: correctness, completeness and quality. In addition, the accuracy of the LiDAR-derived centerlines was also evaluated by combining GIS analysis and statistical methods. The pixel-based approach obtained higher values than OBIA for two of the three quality measures (correctness: 93% compared to 90%; and quality: 60% compared to 56%) as well as in terms of positional accuracy (± 5.5 m vs. ± 6.8 for OBIA). The results obtained in this study demonstrate that producing road maps is among the most valuable and easily attainable products of LiDAR data analysis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: GIS, Pixel-based Classification, OBIA, Quality Measures, Forest Roads Network, Accuracy Assessment</p><p><i>iForest 12 (4): 366-374 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2989-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2989-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2989-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Prendes C, Buján S, Ordoñez C, Canga E Research Articles 2019-07-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2989-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Prediction of stem diameter and biomass at individual tree crown level with advanced machine learning techniques https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2980-012 <p><b>Malek S, Miglietta F, Gobakken T, Næsset E, Gianelle D, Dalponte M</b></p><p><b>PREDICTION OF STEM DIAMETER AND BIOMASS AT INDIVIDUAL TREE CROWN LEVEL WITH ADVANCED MACHINE LEARNING TECHNIQUES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Knowledge about the aboveground biomass (AGB) and the diameters at breast height (DBH) distribution can lead to a precise estimation of carbon density and forest structure which can be very important for ecology studies especially for those concerning climate change. In this study, we propose to predict DBH and AGB of individual trees using tree height (H) and crown diameter (CD), and other metrics extracted from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data as input. In the proposed approach, regression methods, such us support vector machine for regression (SVR) and random forests (RF), were used to find a transformation or a transfer function that links the input parameters (H, CD, and other ALS metrics) with the output (DBH and AGB). The developed approach was tested on two datasets collected in southern Norway comprising 3970 and 9467 recorded trees, respectively. The results demonstrate that the developed approach provides better results compared to a state-of-the-art work (based on a linear model with the standard least-squares method) with RMSE equal to 81.4 kg and 92.0 kg, respectively (compared to 94.2 kg and 110.0 kg) for the prediction of AGB, and 5.16 cm and 4.93 cm, respectively (compared to 5.49 cm and 5.30 cm) for DBH.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Aboveground Biomass, Diameter at Breast Height, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), Remote Sensing (RS), Support Vector Machine for Regression (SVR), Random Forests (RF)</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 323-329 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2980-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2980-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2980-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Malek S, Miglietta F, Gobakken T, Næsset E, Gianelle D, Dalponte M Research Articles 2019-06-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2980-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Pollen contamination and mating patterns in a Prosopis alba clonal orchard: impact on seed orchards establishment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2936-012 <p><b>D’Amico I, Vilardi JC, Saidman BO, Ewens M, Bessega C</b></p><p><b>POLLEN CONTAMINATION AND MATING PATTERNS IN A PROSOPIS ALBA CLONAL ORCHARD: IMPACT ON SEED ORCHARDS ESTABLISHMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Prosopis alba (Leguminosae) is an important species from ecologic and economical points of view in arid and semi-arid regions of Argentina. In several open-pollinated species, pollen contamination from off-orchard parents and selfing have been proven to reduce orchard seed quality. In 2002, the first clonal orchard of Prosopis alba was established in Fernández (Santiago del Estero, Argentina) with 12 trees phenotypically selected from a progeny trial, based on height, pod production per year and pod sweetness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mating patterns and pollen contamination rate in the orchard using ten SSR markers and paternity analysis. All the clones together with the progeny of a single clone (open-pollinated seeds) were genotyped. Data was processed by two different methods based on likelihood and Bayesian approaches, respectively. A high consistency (89%) of results was observed between the two methods, and pollen contamination rate was estimated between 27% and 37%. The minimum number of different pollen donors per mother plant varied from three to five and selfing occurrence was low (<1.6%). Based on the estimated status number (Ns = 4.4), the expected coancestry in the seed crop is equal to a Mendelian population with an effective size of 4-5 individuals. Genetic analyses are encouraged during the establishment and monitoring of trials in forest breeding and management programmes. It is strongly recommended to establish seed orchards in isolated areas and to guarantee equal representation of parental genotypes in the orchards.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cervus, MasterBayes, Microsatellites, Paternity Analysis, Mesquite, Prosopis alba, Seed Orchard</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 330-337 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2936-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2936-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2936-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> D’Amico I, Vilardi JC, Saidman BO, Ewens M, Bessega C Research Articles 2019-06-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2936-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Changes in forest diversity over a chronosequence of fluvial islands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2737-012 <p><b>Brumnich F, Marchetti ZY, Pereira MS</b></p><p><b>CHANGES IN FOREST DIVERSITY OVER A CHRONOSEQUENCE OF FLUVIAL ISLANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The high environmental heterogeneity of large fluvial systems is reflected by the co-existence of contrasting plant communities and landforms. The main objective of this study was to assess the forest diversity changes in islands of the Middle Paraná River (Argentina) in order to discuss an integrative question: how synchronized are the major changes in the features of islands and forests? Persistence age, elevation and flood regime of 11 main channel islands were determined. Variables related to the vascular plant community and the tree stand structure of forests were also measured in 400 m2 plots. Islands were classified as young or old (YIs or OIs), according to their persistence age, which ranged from two to 108 years. Both island classes differed in their elevation but not in the proportion of low water phase. Only three out of nine tree species were dominant: Tessaria integrifolia and Croton urucurana (restricted to YIs and OIs, respectively), and Salix humboldtiana (distributed in both island classes). Alpha diversity was positively correlated with the age of the YIs and reach the highest value in the oldest island forest. Beta diversity was mainly due to processes of species replacement which differentiate floodplain forests. Gamma diversity reached 101 species, being the perennial herbs a clear majority. The stand structure and the complete floristic composition were significantly different between YIs and OIs, with three and seven indicator species of each island class, respectively. Considering integrative models of succession, our findings suggest that the biogeomorphic phase, recognised by the fluvial biogeomorphic model, prevailed in the whole range of island persistence ages. Therefore, it seems that the increase in forest diversity in a large river is restricted to spatial refugia defined by major hydrogeomorphic shifts.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Middle Paraná River, Fluvial Biogeomorphic Succession, Vegetation Dynamics, Environmental Heterogeneity, Sand Bars, Hydrogeomorphic Dynamics</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 306-316 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2737-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2737-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2737-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Brumnich F, Marchetti ZY, Pereira MS Research Articles 2019-06-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2737-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Mechanical and physical properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata wood decayed by brown rot https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2922-012 <p><b>Li S, Gao Y, Brunetti M, Macchioni N, Nocetti M, Palanti S</b></p><p><b>MECHANICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA WOOD DECAYED BY BROWN ROT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The relationship between the mechanical properties of Cunninghamia lanceolata (Chinese fir) wood and the development of fungal decay was investigated with the aim of implementing a statistical model useful as a non-destructive and a fast method for determining the state of conservation of in-service timber structures. Artificial decay due to brown rot fungi was induced on wood specimens and physical and mechanical test were performed periodically, as well as anatomical observation of wood, FT-IR spectroscopic and XRD diffraction analysis. As a result, Chinese fir was confirmed to have a good durability against fungi, showing a mass loss percentage of 7.21% on average after 14 weeks of exposure. On the contrary, the mechanical properties reduced dramatically during the decay test: a 19% decrease was observed for compression strength and 21% for tensile strength. The mechanism of decay was explored and the corresponding damage constitutive model was proposed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wooden Construction, Brown Rot, Mass Loss Rate, Wood Decay, Wood Strength</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 317-322 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2922-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2922-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2922-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Li S, Gao Y, Brunetti M, Macchioni N, Nocetti M, Palanti S Research Articles 2019-06-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2922-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree-ring-based reconstruction of larch budmoth outbreaks in the Central Italian Alps since 1774 CE https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2533-012 <p><b>Cerrato R, Cherubini P, Büntgen U, Coppola A, Salvatore MC, Baroni C</b></p><p><b>TREE-RING-BASED RECONSTRUCTION OF LARCH BUDMOTH OUTBREAKS IN THE CENTRAL ITALIAN ALPS SINCE 1774 CE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The larch budmoth (Zeiraphera diniana Gn. - LBM) offers a unique example of cyclic fluctuations in insect populations. During regular LBM mass outbreaks, defoliation of European larch (Larix decidua Mill.) subalpine trees results in distinct ring-width reductions in the host trees. Although several observations, reconstructions and models suggest that LBM outbreaks travel from the southwest to the northeast along the Alpine arc, gaps in the underlying data still hamper our mechanistic understanding of the spatio-temporal system dynamics. Evidence of historical LBM outbreaks before 1964 is generally associated with uncertainty and is particularly scarce for the Central Italian Alps. Here, we introduce four new larch ring-width chronologies from Val di Sole in the Central Italian Alps and use time-series analyses and comparisons with non-host trees (Picea abies Karst.) to reconstruct LBM mass outbreaks. We identify distinct fingerprints of 15 spatially-synchronized LBM events that occurred between 1774 and 1964 CE. Our results are important for improving qualitative space-time models to simulate travelling wave dynamics of insect populations, and for correcting ring-width-based summer temperature reconstructions from this part of the Alpine arc.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: European Larch, Insect Outbreaks, Larch Bud Moth, Tree-rings, Zeiraphera diniana Gn.</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 289-296 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2533-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2533-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2533-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cerrato R, Cherubini P, Büntgen U, Coppola A, Salvatore MC, Baroni C Research Articles 2019-05-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2533-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Should the silviculture of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) stands in northern Africa be oriented towards wood or seed and cone production? Diagnosis and current potentiality https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2965-012 <p><b>Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi S, Alsubeie M</b></p><p><b>SHOULD THE SILVICULTURE OF ALEPPO PINE (PINUS HALEPENSIS MILL.) STANDS IN NORTHERN AFRICA BE ORIENTED TOWARDS WOOD OR SEED AND CONE PRODUCTION? DIAGNOSIS AND CURRENT POTENTIALITY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this work is to review studies on the silviculture of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis Mill.) in North Africa and the Mediterranean basin over a period of 50 years. The study presents a synthesis of: (i) silviculture; (ii) wood productivity and growth; (iii) cone and seed production; and (vi) the socio-economic role of Aleppo pine. The results show that the production of the Aleppo pine is enhanced by the potential of the site, which is closely related to the bioclimatic stage and soil fertility. For instance, production increased from 0.4 to 4 m3 ha-1 yr-1 in an Aleppo pine stand with a dominant height varying between 9.7 and 22.8 m. Previous studies confirmed that the average maximum volume in annual growth of Aleppo pine is 3.3 m3 ha-1 yr-1 for 40-year old stands at good-fertility sites. The lowest values (<0.5 m3 ha-1 yr-1) were recorded for the fourth and last class of productivity in >100-year old stands. There is high demand for Aleppo pine seeds in North Africa, making their production profitable, and this represents an important sector for the sustainable development and improvement of living-standards of the local populations. There has been a steady increase in the demand for seeds across years, with seed production becoming a very promising niche. Silviculture oriented towards the commercial production of seeds is expected to enhance this species, as well as facilitate its preservation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Aleppo Pine, Pinus halepensis Mill., Silviculture, Wood Production, Seed Production, Socio-economic Role</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 297-305 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2965-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2965-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2965-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jaouadi W, Naghmouchi S, Alsubeie M Review Papers 2019-05-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2965-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Methods for predicting Sitka spruce natural regeneration presence and density in the UK https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2888-012 <p><b>Bianchi S, Hale S, Gibbons J</b></p><p><b>METHODS FOR PREDICTING SITKA SPRUCE NATURAL REGENERATION PRESENCE AND DENSITY IN THE UK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Natural regeneration is crucial for silvicultural approaches based on the continuous presence of a forest cover, or Continuous Cover Forestry (CCF). Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) is the main commercial species in the United Kingdom (UK), and its potential for CCF has been demonstrated in various studies. However, there are no quantitative models available to predict its natural regeneration in the country. We describe models for Sitka spruce seedlings presence and density under canopy cover in the UK forests, to be used as a substitution of a regeneration survey. Using a natural regeneration dataset comprised of 340 plots, a Generalized Linear Mixed Model (GLMM) was calibrated to estimate the likelihood of regeneration presence at plot level. Seedling density was simulated in a subsequent step using only the subset of data with regeneration presence (138 plots): we compared methods based on GLMMs calibrated to the observed seedling density, and the simple generation of random numbers similar in distribution to the observed values. We validated the models with a cross-validation method using the calibration dataset and with an independent dataset of 78 plots collected in forests already in the process of transformation to CCF. The best GLMM for regeneration presence included age of the plantation, time after last thinning, favourable ground cover and basal area. After the cross-validation, 73% of the plots were correctly estimated (76% for presence of regeneration and 71% for the absence). After the independent validation process, 82% of the plots were correctly estimated, although 100% for presence of regeneration and only 12% for the absence. Both methods for estimating seedling density had a poor performance, both with the cross-validation and independent validation. The results showed that the tools here described are appropriate for estimating regeneration presence in traditional Sitka spruce plantations. However, alternative methods are required for forests already in an advanced stage of transformation to CCF systems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sitka Spruce, Natural Regeneration, Regeneration Occurrence, Logistic Modelling, Seedling Density</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 279-288 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2888-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2888-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2888-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bianchi S, Hale S, Gibbons J Research Articles 2019-05-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2888-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree aging does not affect the ranking for water use efficiency recorded from δ13C in three Populus deltoides × P. nigra genotypes https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2896-012 <p><b>Rasheed F, Dreyer E, Le Thiec D, Zafar Z, Delagrange S</b></p><p><b>TREE AGING DOES NOT AFFECT THE RANKING FOR WATER USE EFFICIENCY RECORDED FROM δ13C IN THREE POPULUS DELTOIDES × P. NIGRA GENOTYPES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A large variability of water use efficiency (assessed from the carbon isotopic discrimination in leaves and leaf soluble sugars) has been detected among poplar genotypes. Checking whether such differences detected in young trees (1-2 years old) remain stable with tree age is a prerequisite to use this trait with confidence for breeding purposes. In this study, a synchronic approach was used to test the age-related stability of the genotypic ranking of carbon isotopic discrimination in wood (Δ13C) until tree maturity. We sampled 376 trees between 4 and 20 years from three Populus deltoides × P. nigra genotypes growing in 41 common-garden trials across France. Carbon and nitrogen percentages along with δ13C was measured in the bulk wood of the year 2009 and used to compute the Δ13C. Basal area increment between 2008 and 2009 was also measured. Results showed that Δ13C increased (i.e., water use efficiency decreased) between ages 4 to 6 and remained stable later on. Significant differences among genotypes were found but the ranking among genotypes remained stable with age during the assessed life span. Furthermore, basal area increment and Δ13C were positively correlated interannually. This large-scale survey shows that despite crossing over in the temporal trend, water use efficiency remained stable with age across 3 poplar genotypes. However, further studies with a large number of genotypes are required to confirm whether this trait can be used to maintain or even improve productivity of poplar plantations, while lowering water consumption.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Water Use Efficiency, Age, Wood, Tree Ring, Populus × euramericana, Basal Area Increment, Synchronic Approach</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 272-278 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2896-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2896-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2896-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rasheed F, Dreyer E, Le Thiec D, Zafar Z, Delagrange S Research Articles 2019-05-21 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2896-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Species-specific responses of wood growth to flooding and climate in floodplain forests in Central Germany https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2845-012 <p><b>Heklau H, Jetschke G, Bruelheide H, Seidler G, Haider S</b></p><p><b>SPECIES-SPECIFIC RESPONSES OF WOOD GROWTH TO FLOODING AND CLIMATE IN FLOODPLAIN FORESTS IN CENTRAL GERMANY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: With ongoing climate change, episodes of severe flooding are predicted to become more frequent despite a general trend towards increasing summer drought. We investigated how wood growth of adult trees of two species characteristic of floodplain forests in Central Germany (Fraxinus excelsior L., Quercus robur L.) and two less-typical species (Acer pseudoplatanus L., Carpinus betulus L.) responded to both maximum stream water level and climate, with a special focus on the effects of the extraordinary flood of the Saale River in June 2013 and the extreme drought in summer 1976. Tree-ring widths were measured on wood cores, and standardized ARSTAN tree-ring chronologies were produced. Using variance partitioning as well as linear mixed-effects models, we compared the effects of monthly values for maximum water level, temperature and precipitation sum on tree-ring width. Further, we calculated resistance, resilience and recovery of the tree species to the extreme events of flooding in 2013 and drought in 1976. Wood growth of all species studied, and particularly of F. excelsior, responded positively to the extraordinary flooding in June 2013. However, in the best models for the characteristic floodplain forest species (F. excelsior and Q. robur), mainly precipitation (F. excelsior) or a combination of precipitation and wood growth of the previous year (Q. robur) acted as drivers of wood growth of the current year. In contrast, growth of the less habitat-specific species (A. pseudoplatanus) mainly showed a significant response to the combination of temperature and wood growth of the previous year. C. betulus was the only species studied that benefited from the extreme drought in 1976. However, two years afterwards, only the wood growth of A. pseudoplatanus was still reduced, while F. excelsior and Q. robur fully recovered. In comparison to other regions in Central Europe, the moderate flood regime of the Saale River seems to have the potential to mitigate effects of summer drought in this region, which is one of the driest in Germany. Thus, increased flooding frequency might, to some degree, reduce drought effects brought about by climate change as well.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree-ring Width, Floodplain Forest, Flooding, Drought, Dendroecology, Fraxinus excelsior, Quercus robur, Acer pseudoplatanus</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 226-236 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2845-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2845-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2845-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Heklau H, Jetschke G, Bruelheide H, Seidler G, Haider S Research Articles 2019-05-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2845-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Using soil-based and physiographic variables to improve stand growth equations in Uruguayan forest plantations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2926-012 <p><b>Rachid-Casnati C, Mason EG, Woollons RC</b></p><p><b>USING SOIL-BASED AND PHYSIOGRAPHIC VARIABLES TO IMPROVE STAND GROWTH EQUATIONS IN URUGUAYAN FOREST PLANTATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Information provided by traditional growth models is an essential input in decision making processes for managing planted forests. They are generally fitted using inventory data guaranteeing robustness and simplicity. The introduction of explanatory factors affecting tree development in age-based sigmoidal growth and yield equations attempts not only to improve the quality of predictions, but also to add useful information underpinning forest management decisions. This study aimed to assess the use of the following soil-based and physiographic predictors: potentially available soil water (PASW), elevation (Elev), aspect (α) and slope (β) in a system of empirical stand equations comprising: dominant height (hdom), basal area (G), maximum diameter at breast height (dmax), and standard deviation of diameters (SDd). Augmented models were compared with the base models through precision and bias of estimations for two contrasting species: Pinus taeda (L.), and Eucalyptus grandis (Hill ex. Maiden), planted commercially in Uruguay. Soil-based and physiographic information significantly improved predictions of all the state variables fitted for E. grandis, but just hdom and G for P. taeda. Only PASW was consistently significant for the augmented models in P. taeda and E. grandis, while the contribution of other predictors varied between species. From a physiological point of view, predictors on the augmented models showed consistency. Models with such augmentation produced decrease of errors between 3 to 10.5%, however decreases in the prediction errors calculated with the independent dataset were lower. Results from this study contributed to add information to the decision-making process of plantations’ management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Modelling, Soil Variables, Physiographic Variables, Pinus taeda, Eucalyptus grandis</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 237-245 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2926-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2926-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2926-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rachid-Casnati C, Mason EG, Woollons RC Research Articles 2019-05-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2926-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Disentangling the effects of age and global change on Douglas fir growth https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2620-012 <p><b>Ravaioli D, Ferretti F, Magnani F</b></p><p><b>DISENTANGLING THE EFFECTS OF AGE AND GLOBAL CHANGE ON DOUGLAS FIR GROWTH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recent changes commonly observed in forests growth could be the result of a combination of different climatic and non-climatic factors, such as rising atmospheric [CO2], temperature changes, atmospheric N deposition and drought stress. These effects are difficult to assess, however, due to the superimposition of age-related changes. After removing age effects through a novel approach, this study quantifies the effects on tree growth of global change, and assesses the relationship with individual environmental drivers and their relative importance. Generalized Additive Mixed Models (GAMMs) were applied to decouple the non-linear effects of age and co-occurring environmental changes on basal area increments (BAI) series, as derived from tree rings in a Pseudotsuga menziesii stand chronosequence of four different age classes (65-, 80-, 100- and 120-year-old). The model could explain about 57% of the overall variation in BAI as a function of age and a selected set of predictors, including water availability in the current summer and at the end of previous growing season; together with age, winter-spring mean temperature was found to be the most important predictor. After accounting for age-related effects, a significant decrease in BAI was observed in Douglas fir over the last decades. No significant impact of atmospheric [CO2] and atmospheric N deposition were detected.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pseudotsuga menziesii, Basal Area Increments, Long-term Trends, Global Change, GAMM, Chronosequence</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 246-253 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2620-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2620-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2620-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ravaioli D, Ferretti F, Magnani F Research Articles 2019-05-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2620-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Responses of Taxus chinensis and Phoebe chekiangensis seedlings to controlled-release fertilizer in various formulations and application rates https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2714-012 <p><b>Chu X, Wang X, Zhang D, Wu X, Zhou Z</b></p><p><b>RESPONSES OF TAXUS CHINENSIS AND PHOEBE CHEKIANGENSIS SEEDLINGS TO CONTROLLED-RELEASE FERTILIZER IN VARIOUS FORMULATIONS AND APPLICATION RATES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Decline of species population, low natural regeneration, and heavy competition on field sites require the planting of large seedling stocks to restore Taxus chinensis and Phoebe chekiangensis in tropical China. In this study, we examined the effects of different formulations and application rates of controlled-release fertilizers (CRF) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) on nursery seedling growth and nutritional attributes. The objective was to determine optimum formulation (N:P2O5 ratio) and application rate to increase nutrient reserves of the seedlings before transplanting to the field. Four formulations (17-9-13 to 19-6-14 N-P2O5-K2O ratios) and four application rates (1.5 kg m-3 to 4.5 kg m-3) were used in a double-factors factorial design with 3 replications. The results showed that CRF formulation can affect nutritional attributes, while application rate modified seedling growth and nutritional attributes. The optimum seedling response occurred with the 17-6-16 formulation at the rate of 3.5kg m-3. These findings will guide nursery practice in the production of high-quality seedlings for optimum survival and growth in the field.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Taxus chinensis, Phoebe chekiangensis, Controlled-Release Fertilizer, Formulation and Application Rate, Nutrient Utilization Efficiency</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 254-261 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2714-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2714-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2714-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Chu X, Wang X, Zhang D, Wu X, Zhou Z Research Articles 2019-05-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2714-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Diurnal surface fuel moisture prediction model for Calabrian pine stands in Turkey https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2870-012 <p><b>Bilgili E, Coskuner KA, Usta Y, Saglam B, Kucuk O, Berber T, Goltas M</b></p><p><b>DIURNAL SURFACE FUEL MOISTURE PREDICTION MODEL FOR CALABRIAN PINE STANDS IN TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study presents a dynamic model for the prediction of diurnal changes in the moisture content of dead surface fuels in normally stocked Calabrian pine stands under varying weather conditions. The model was developed based on several empirical relationships between moisture contents of dead surface fuels and weather variables, and calibrated using field data collected from three Calabrian stands from three different regions of Turkey (Mugla, southwest; Antalya, south; Trabzon, north-east). The model was tested and validated with independent measurements of fuel moisture from two sets of field observations made during dry and rainy periods. Model predictions showed a mean absolute error (MAE) of 1.19% for litter and 0.90% for duff at Mugla, and 3.62% for litter and 14.38% for duff at Antalya. When two rainy periods were excluded from the analysis at Antalya site, the MAE decreased from 14.38% to 4.29% and R2 increased from 0.25 to 0.83 for duff fuels. Graphical inspection and statistical validation of the model indicated that the diurnal litter and duff moisture dynamics could be predicted reasonably. The model can easily be adapted for other similar fuel types in the Mediterranean region.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fuel Moisture Content, Modeling, Drying Rate, Vapor Pressure Deficit</p><p><i>iForest 12 (3): 262-271 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2870-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2870-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2870-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bilgili E, Coskuner KA, Usta Y, Saglam B, Kucuk O, Berber T, Goltas M Research Articles 2019-05-03 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2870-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of forest biomass components using airborne LiDAR and multispectral sensors https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2735-012 <p><b>Hernando A, Puerto L, Mola-Yudego B, Manzanera JA, García-Abril A, Maltamo M, Valbuena R</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF FOREST BIOMASS COMPONENTS USING AIRBORNE LIDAR AND MULTISPECTRAL SENSORS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In order to consider forest biomass as a real alternative for energy production, it is critical to obtain accurate estimates of its availability using non-destructive sampling methods. In this study, we estimate the biomass available in a Scots pine-dominated forest (Pinus sylvestris L.) located in Spain. The biomass estimates were obtained using LiDAR data combined with a multispectral camera and allometric equations. The method used to fuse the data was based on back projection, which assures a perfect match between both datasets. The results present estimates for each of the seven different biomass components: above ground, below ground, log, needles, and large, medium and small branches. The accuracy of the models varied between R2 values of 0.46 and 0.67 with RMSE% ranging from 15.72% to 35.43% with all component estimates below 20%, except for the model estimating biomass of big branches. The models in this study are suitable for the estimation of biomass and demonstrate that computation is possible at a fine scale for the different biomass components. These remote sensing methods are sufficiently accurate to develop biomass resource cartography for multiple energy uses.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Components, Forest Inventory, Airborne Laser Scanning, Multispectral Imagery, Data Fusion, Nearest Neighbor</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 207-213 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2735-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2735-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2735-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Hernando A, Puerto L, Mola-Yudego B, Manzanera JA, García-Abril A, Maltamo M, Valbuena R Research Articles 2019-04-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2735-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Genetic control of intra-annual height growth in 6-year-old Norway spruce progenies in Latvia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2777-012 <p><b>Matisons R, Zeltinš P, Danusevičius D, Džerina B, Desaine I, Jansons A</b></p><p><b>GENETIC CONTROL OF INTRA-ANNUAL HEIGHT GROWTH IN 6-YEAR-OLD NORWAY SPRUCE PROGENIES IN LATVIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coupling growth with periods of favourable weather conditions minimizes risks of frost damage and maximizes annual height increment. The phenology of the formation of height increment is therefore a trait related to the adaptability of trees to annual weather fluctuations. Strong genetic control of the timing of the onset and cessation of shoot elongation has been reported for Norway spruce, but little is known about its fluctuations that occur during the growth period. The strength of the genetic control of the height growth rate was assessed for young (6 years old) Norway spruce progenies originating from six open-pollinated stands from two local provenance regions. In 2010, the length of the growing period for the studied trees was ca. 60 days. Trees from the more continental provenance region, which had later onset and cessation of height growth (by ca. 2.5 days), exhibited slightly lower increments (by ca. 1%). Accordingly, the provenance region had a significant effect on height growth at the beginning and end of the growing period. Nevertheless, considerable genetic control of the growth rate was found throughout the entire growing period (particularly at the beginning and cessation, ha2 ≥ 0.20), except for a week-long interval around mid-summer (ha2 = 0.07). Similarly, the coefficient of additive genetic variation suggested that breeding could be applied for the improvement of height growth intensity throughout the season. The phenotypic correlations between weekly growth rates and tree height (before growth) were mostly non-significant, suggesting varying mechanisms of control, hence possibility for simultaneous improvement of the traits by breeding.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Height Growth Rate, Growing Period, Heritability, Picea abies, Local Populations</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 214-219 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2777-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2777-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2777-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Matisons R, Zeltinš P, Danusevičius D, Džerina B, Desaine I, Jansons A Research Articles 2019-04-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2777-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Matching seedling size to planting conditions: interactive response with soil moisture https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2801-012 <p><b>Oliet JA, Ortiz de Urbina E, Sánchez-Pinillos M, Tardío-Cerrillo G</b></p><p><b>MATCHING SEEDLING SIZE TO PLANTING CONDITIONS: INTERACTIVE RESPONSE WITH SOIL MOISTURE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Seedling size is a very important issue when producing plants for restoration projects. Scientific evidence on the appropriate size for drylands is contradictory. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of seedling size during first establishment by conducting a short term greenhouse experiment with Pinus canariensis containerized seedlings. A selection of large (mean height: 33.7 cm) and small (14.3 cm) one-year-old seedlings were planted in pots under two volumetric water content regimes: dry (7%) and wet (15%). Midday shoot water potential was measured in two periods: 10 (prior to root protrusion) and 30 (once the roots had protruded from the plug) days after planting. The length of protruding roots was measured after 30 days. One month after planting, the large seedlings under the dry regime produced more new roots than the small seedlings, but also showed the highest midday water potential values. Therefore, the greater root growth of the former did not offset the higher transpiration demand when planted in dry soils. These results suggest that under uncertainty about the soil humidity levels of dry areas, using small seedlings can improve their short-term survival after planting.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Planting Survival, Root Water Uptake, Seedling Size, Seedling Ecophysiology, Transpiration Demand, Water Potential, Seedling Morphology</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 220-225 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2801-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2801-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2801-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Oliet JA, Ortiz de Urbina E, Sánchez-Pinillos M, Tardío-Cerrillo G Research Articles 2019-04-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2801-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The manipulation of aboveground litter input affects soil CO2 efflux in a subtropical liquidambar forest in China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2812-012 <p><b>Yan W, Peng Y, Zhang C, Chen X</b></p><p><b>THE MANIPULATION OF ABOVEGROUND LITTER INPUT AFFECTS SOIL CO2 EFFLUX IN A SUBTROPICAL LIQUIDAMBAR FOREST IN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Litters on the forest floor represent an important organic carbon (C) sources from aboveground plants to the soil, which therefore have a significant influence on belowground processes such as soil respiration. In this study, dynamic property of soil respiration was investigated under aboveground litter manipulation treatments in a liquidambar forest in subtropical China. The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of changing aboveground litter inputs on soil CO2 emission in forests. The litter manipulation included litter addition (LA), litter removal (LR) and litter control (LC) treatments. Each litter treatment had six replications. Soil respiration rates were measured using an infrared gas analyzer system (LI-COR 8100) with soil chambers. The results showed that mean soil respiration rates increased significantly in LA plots (mean ± SE: 2.21 ± 0.44 μmol m-2 s-1; P<0.05) and decreased slightly in LR plots (1.17 ± 0.16 μmol m-2 s-1) when compared to control plots (1.42 ± 0.20 μmol m-2 s-1). On average, LA treatment significantly increased annual soil respiration by about 56% (837.5 ± 165 gC m-2 year-1), while LR treatment decreased soil respiration by approximately 17% (443.1 ± 61.7 gC m-2 year-1) compared with the control (535.5 ± 75.7 gC m-2 year-1). The “priming effect” was a primary contributor to the increase of soil respiration in LA treatments and the reduction of soil CO2 efflux was mainly ascribed to the elimination of organic C sources in LR treatments. Soil temperature was the main factor affecting seasonal variation in soil respiration. Up to the 90% to 95% seasonal variation in soil respiration is explained by soil temperature within each of the litter treatments. Our study indicated that changes in litter inputs due to climate change and human practices would significantly affected soil CO2 emission and would subsequently affect C balance in subtropical forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil CO2 Emission, Annual Litter Input, Deciduous Forests, Soil Temperature, Soil Water Contents, Subtropical China</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 181-186 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2812-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2812-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2812-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Yan W, Peng Y, Zhang C, Chen X Research Articles 2019-04-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2812-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Retaining unlogged patches in Mediterranean oak forests may preserve threatened forest macrolichens https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2917-012 <p><b>Fačkovcová Z, Guttová A, Benesperi R, Loppi S, Bellini E, Sanità di Toppi L, Paoli L</b></p><p><b>RETAINING UNLOGGED PATCHES IN MEDITERRANEAN OAK FORESTS MAY PRESERVE THREATENED FOREST MACROLICHENS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest management practices may heavily impact epiphytic (tree inhabiting) organisms. Retaining tree patches and buffer strips in logged stands may contribute to preserve ecosystem functioning and the vitality of epiphytic organisms in managed forests. To test these statements, the threatened forest macrolichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm. was used as a model species, since it is a “flag” indicator species of forest ecosystems with long ecological continuity. To this purpose, photosynthetic performances, thallus anatomy and water holding capacity (WHC) of samples of L. pulmonaria were investigated in a logged mixed oak forest (Tuscany, Italy), confronting lichen thalli from retained-forest patches and retained-isolated trees, 18 months after logging. Compared with those of retained-forest patches, thalli on the trunks of retained-isolated trees were thinner and showed lower vitality (as indicated by the potential quantum yield of primary photochemistry - FV/FM and the index of overall photosynthetic performance - PIABS), as well as lower water holding capacity. In contrast, thalli from forest patches had performances comparable to those of healthy samples from unlogged forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity Conservation, Ecosystem Services, Forest Logging, Lobaria pulmonaria, Photosynthetic Performance, Water Holding Capacity</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 187-192 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2917-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2917-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2917-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fačkovcová Z, Guttová A, Benesperi R, Loppi S, Bellini E, Sanità di Toppi L, Paoli L Research Articles 2019-04-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2917-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Detection and quantification of the air inoculum of Caliciopsis pinea in a plantation of Pinus radiata in Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2866-012 <p><b>Botella L, Bačová A, Dvorák M, Kudláček T, Pepori AL, Santini A, Ghelardini L, Luchi N</b></p><p><b>DETECTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF THE AIR INOCULUM OF CALICIOPSIS PINEA IN A PLANTATION OF PINUS RADIATA IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Caliciopsis pinea has been historically described as a secondary pathogen of pines. However, it has recently been associated with severe damages on Pinus radiata in Italy. Our study focused on the description of the seasonal spore dispersal of C. pinea and its relation to meteorological conditions (temperature, leaf wetness, relative humidity and precipitations). For this experiment one infected P. radiata plantation was sampled in Tuscany (Italy). A rotating arm spore trap together with a weather station were installed to sample the aerospora for 24 h every week from May to November 2016. Exposed tapes from spore traps were directly analyzed after DNA extraction by qPCR using specific primers and TaqMan MGB probe. The study shows an irregular occurrence of the inoculum of C. pinea throughout the whole sampling period with peak levels in mid-June and early August. The statistical analysis of the DNA and climatic data clearly show the strong influence of precipitation on the spore production of this pathogen. Furthermore, the very low detection limit of the qPCR experiment shows the efficacy and suitability of rotating arm spore traps for early detection of this pathogen.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Caliciopsis Canker, Monterey Pine, Aerospora, qPCR</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 193-198 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2866-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2866-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2866-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Botella L, Bačová A, Dvorák M, Kudláček T, Pepori AL, Santini A, Ghelardini L, Luchi N Short Communications 2019-04-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2866-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dielectric properties of paraffin wax emulsion/copper azole compound system treated wood https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2879-012 <p><b>Liao Y, Ma E, Liu R</b></p><p><b>DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF PARAFFIN WAX EMULSION/COPPER AZOLE COMPOUND SYSTEM TREATED WOOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In order to investigate the interactions among the waterproof agent, preservative and wood, the dielectric relaxation was measured for untreated wood and wood samples treated with different paraffin wax emulsion/copper azole (CA) compound systems at oven-dried and air-dried state, respectively. The Cole-Cole plot analysis was then conducted and the results were as follow. At oven-dried state (-60 °C), the dielectric characteristics of paraffin wax emulsion treated wood were basically the same as those of untreated wood; CA treatment increased the dielectric constant but decreased the dielectric loss factor and the trends of these two characteristic parameters were more remarkable at higher CA concentration; the dielectric properties of compound system treated wood under C4A grade were similar to those of CA treated wood but an increase in impregnation of paraffin wax emulsion gave rise to decreased dielectric constant and increased loss factor. At air-dried state (20 °C, 65% RH), compared with untreated samples, both the dielectric constant and loss factor were lower in waterproofing agent treated wood and these parameters reduced with increasing waterproofing agent concentration; for CA treated samples, the values of dielectric parameters increased and the trend was similar to those treated with the compound system under C4A grade.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood, Paraffin Wax Emulsion, Copper Azole, Dielectric Properties</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 199-206 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2879-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2879-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2879-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Liao Y, Ma E, Liu R Research Articles 2019-04-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2879-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Equations for estimating belowground biomass of Silver Birch, Oak and Scots Pine in Germany https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2862-012 <p><b>Röhling S, Demant B, Dunger K, Neubauer M, Oehmichen K, Riedel T, Stümer W</b></p><p><b>EQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING BELOWGROUND BIOMASS OF SILVER BIRCH, OAK AND SCOTS PINE IN GERMANY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study we derived allometric functions for estimating the belowground biomass (BGB) of Silver Birch (Betula pendula Roth), Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.), Sessile Oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.) and Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Germany. To assess the impact on German greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting, these new functions were further compared with BGB functions currently used in France and Sweden. For developing new BGB functions 48 Silver Birches, 39 Pedunculate and Sessile Oaks and 54 Scots Pines were destructively sampled. The sampled trees spanned a DBH range from 8.2 to 52.9 cm for Silver Birch, from 7.4 to 42.0 cm for Oak and from 7.2 to 53.2 cm for Scots Pine. After fitting the data, the following values of model efficiency were achieved: 0.81 for Silver Birch, 0.98 for Oak and 0.95 for Scots Pine. The model root mean square error varies between 5.2 kg for Oak, 13.7 kg for Scots pine and 26.9 kg for Silver Birch. Comparison with the currently applied BGB functions in the German GHG inventory from France and Sweden showed that the use of these functions results in systematically different estimates for the BGB of Silver Birch and Oak. Thus, our findings indicate that BGB functions recommended for other European countries (in particular France and Sweden) are not appropriate for estimating the BGB for the tree species concerned in Germany. Currently, the derived data-set for BGB of Silver Birch, Oak and Scots Pine is the largest in Germany and the developed functions are thus the best available for estimating national BGB stock and stock change in Germany at the moment.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Belowground Biomass, Allometric Equations, National Greenhouse Gas Inventory, Betula pendula, Quercus robur, Quercus petraea, Pinus sylvestris</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 166-172 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2862-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2862-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2862-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Röhling S, Demant B, Dunger K, Neubauer M, Oehmichen K, Riedel T, Stümer W Research Articles 2019-03-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2862-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Reviewing climatic traits for the main forest tree species in Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2835-012 <p><b>Pecchi M, Marchi M, Giannetti F, Bernetti I, Bindi M, Moriondo M, Maselli F, Fibbi L, Corona P, Travaglini D, Chirici G</b></p><p><b>REVIEWING CLIMATIC TRAITS FOR THE MAIN FOREST TREE SPECIES IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The future dynamics of forest species and ecosystems depend on the effects of climate change and are related to forest management strategies. The expected impacts of climate change are linked to forest growth and productivity. An increase in the length of the growing season and greater productivity are likely as well as shifts in average climatic values and more variable frequencies, intensities, durations and timings of extreme events. The main aim of this work is to assess and describe the climatic requirements for Italian forest tree species. We used 7,272 field observations from Italian National Forest Inventory plots and average annual temperatures and precipitation as interpolated from raster maps with 1 km spatial resolution. On this basis we evaluated the current observed distributions of the 19 most important tree species in Italy with respect to potential climatic limits based on expert knowledge and the available literature. We found that only 46% of the observations fall within the potential joint temperature and precipitation limits as defined by expert knowledge. For precipitation alone, 70% of observations were within the potential limits, and for temperature alone, 80% of observations were within the potential limits. Similarity between current observed and potential limits differ from species-to-species with broadleaves in general more frequently distributed within the potential climatic limits than conifers. We found that ecological requirements and potential information should be revised for some species, particularly for the Pinus genus and more frequently for precipitation. The results of the study are particularly relevant given the threat of climate change effects for Italian forests which are broadly acknowledged to be a biodiversity hotspot. Further investigations should be aimed at modelling the effects of climate changes on Italian forests as a basis for development of mitigation and adaptation forest management strategies.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: National Forest Inventory, Sustainable Forest Management, Spatial Analysis, Forest Monitoring, Climatic Drivers</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 173-180 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2835-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2835-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2835-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pecchi M, Marchi M, Giannetti F, Bernetti I, Bindi M, Moriondo M, Maselli F, Fibbi L, Corona P, Travaglini D, Chirici G Research Articles 2019-03-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2835-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Hemlock woolly adelgid niche models from the invasive eastern North American range with projections to native ranges and future climates https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2883-012 <p><b>Kantola T, Tracy JL, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Saarenmaa H, Coulson RN, Trabucco A, Holopainen M</b></p><p><b>HEMLOCK WOOLLY ADELGID NICHE MODELS FROM THE INVASIVE EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN RANGE WITH PROJECTIONS TO NATIVE RANGES AND FUTURE CLIMATES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand - HWA) is invasive in eastern North America where it causes extensive mortality to hemlock communities. The future of these communities under projected climate change is an issue of landscape ecological interest and speculation. We employed the MaxEnt algorithm with the random subset feature selection algorithm (RSFSA) in creating HWA niche models. Final models were ensembles of 12 statistically best models with six predictors each. Out of 119 climatic, topographic, and soil variables, 42 were used in at least one final model. Soil features, followed by climate and topographic features, were most common in selected models. The three most important variables among all models were November potential evapotranspiration, slope, and percent Ochrepts soil. The potential distributions of HWA within eastern North America were projected under historical and four future climate scenarios for 2050 and 2070 under low and high CO2 emissions. The mean of the minimum values for the minimum temperature of the coldest month from the 12 MaxEnt model projections in eastern North America was -15.8°C. This value was close to -15°C, the extreme minimum temperature found for both HWA occurrence points and previously reported HWA cold temperature limits. These results indicate that HWA may be close to equilibrium distribution in eastern North America under current climate. We also reverse-casted the eastern North American MaxEnt model back onto the HWA native ranges in eastern Asia and western North America. The projections match best with native ranges in Asian islands, such as Japan, and the Cascade Mountains in western North America. Statistically significant HWA range shifts of 221-468 km northwards and 110-164 km eastwards were projected by the 12 models for 2050-2070. The 2070 high CO2 emission scenario models projects HWA suitability throughout most of the northern range of eastern hemlock.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecological Niche Modeling, Climate Change, Hemlock Woolly Adelgid, Invasive Species, MaxEnt, Feature Selection</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 149-159 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2883-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2883-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2883-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kantola T, Tracy JL, Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa P, Saarenmaa H, Coulson RN, Trabucco A, Holopainen M Research Articles 2019-03-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2883-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Lenticel infection in Fraxinus excelsior shoots in the context of ash dieback https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2897-012 <p><b>Nemesio-Gorriz M, McGuinness B, Grant J, Dowd L, Douglas GC</b></p><p><b>LENTICEL INFECTION IN FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR SHOOTS IN THE CONTEXT OF ASH DIEBACK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Common ash (Faxinus excelsior L.) in Europe is declining on a continental scale due to the action of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, an invasive forest pathogen that causes ash dieback disease leading to the collapse and eventual death of ash trees through shoot infection in the crown and through stem collar infection. This study confirms for the first time lenticels as entry points for pathogens to enter shoot bark. Results show the impact of lenticel infection at a very early stage of invasion by H. fraxineus in a F. excelsior provenance trial and its correlation values with other factors such as shoot dieback, canker-like lesions and bud burst. No significant provenance effects were observed for incidence of shoot dieback, lenticel necrosis or canker-like lesions on shoots, but provenance effects were significant for bud burst phenology. The strongest correlation was observed between lenticel necrosis and canker-like lesions on the lenticels of shoots. Boheremia spp. were most frequently isolated from necrotic ash lenticels and confirmed by ITS sequencing, but also species of Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Aspergillus, Neonectria, Didymella and Hymenoscyphus fraxineus. Finally, lenticel density was similar in sets of ash genotypes that were characterized as having a high and low susceptibility to ash dieback.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ash Dieback, Lenticel, ADB, Phenology</p><p><i>iForest 12 (2): 160-165 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2897-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2897-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2897-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Nemesio-Gorriz M, McGuinness B, Grant J, Dowd L, Douglas GC Research Articles 2019-03-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2897-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Allelopathic effects of dominant ground vegetation species on initial growth of Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings in response to different temperature scenarios https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2904-012 <p><b>Sirgedaite-Šežiene V, Baležentiene L, Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V, Baliuckas V</b></p><p><b>ALLELOPATHIC EFFECTS OF DOMINANT GROUND VEGETATION SPECIES ON INITIAL GROWTH OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS L. SEEDLINGS IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT TEMPERATURE SCENARIOS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The dominant species of ground vegetation cover in clear-cuts impact the regeneration of Scots pine forests due to the biochemical properties of these dominant species. Environmental conditions in clear-cuts, specifically increased light and temperature, can alter the biochemical impact of dominant species on subsequent Scots pine regeneration processes. To investigate this, plant species diversity, frequency and cover were estimated in order to identify the dominant species of ground vegetation in clear-cut areas over a two-year period. Afterward, the impact of dominant species extracts on pine seed germination and seedling physiology at different temperature scenarios was evaluated. The species Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. and Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull were recorded as dominant in 1-yr-old clear-cut areas, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea L., Rumex acetosella L., and Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth were dominant in 2-yr-old clear-cut areas. The prepared aqueous extracts of all dominant species exhibited strong inhibitory effects on pine seed germination and seedling morpho-physiological traits (the length of the radicle and hypocotyl; chlorophyll a, b, a/b and carotenoid content), resulting in the reduction of ex situ pine adaptive capacity at higher air temperature (24°C) compared to that at lower temperature (20°C). Significantly (p<0.05) stronger inhibitory effects of root and shoot extracts produced from all dominant species on chlorophyll a, b and a/b content were recorded at higher temperature (22-24°C) compared to lower (20°C) temperature. A significantly lower content of carotenoids was observed in the control (24°C) temperature. Thus, a high increase of ambient temperature may cause unfavourable conditions for Scots pine seedling growth in boreal forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carotenoids, Chlorophylls, Clear-cut, Germination, Plant Extract</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 132-140 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2904-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2904-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2904-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sirgedaite-Šežiene V, Baležentiene L, Varnagiryte-Kabašinskiene I, Stakenas V, Baliuckas V Research Articles 2019-02-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2904-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Influence of pH, nitrogen and sulphur deposition on species composition of lowland and montane coniferous communities in the Tatrzanski and Slowinski National Parks, Poland https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2203-012 <p><b>Uzieblo AK, Staszewski T, Chmura D</b></p><p><b>INFLUENCE OF PH, NITROGEN AND SULPHUR DEPOSITION ON SPECIES COMPOSITION OF LOWLAND AND MONTANE CONIFEROUS COMMUNITIES IN THE TATRZANSKI AND SLOWINSKI NATIONAL PARKS, POLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Nitrogen and sulphur deposition is considered as a negative factor for biodiversity, usually leading to changes in species composition and structure of plant communities, and ultimately to the impoverishment of biodiversity. In this study we investigated the variation over time (2001, 2006, 2011) in species composition and structure of the understory vegetation at varying levels of sulphur and nitrogen deposition in two conifer plantations (>100 year-old) growing in different climate areas of Poland (Scots pine at the Slowinski National Park, northern seaside; Norway spruce at the Tatrzanski National Park, southern mountains). The structure of the floor vegetation at both sites changed markedly during the studied decade, as clearly confirmed by principal component analysis. Among the environmental variables analyzed (NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, pH in the throughfall and in soil solution sampled at two different depths), only nitrates were non-significantly correlated with PC axes. The results confirmed the negative effects of the concentration of both elements on undergrowth and tree recruitment in the coastal stand (Empetro nigri-Pinetum). On the other hand, in the mountain stand (Abieti-Piceetum) we observed an increase over time of nitrophilous species typical of the beech forest, which represent the natural vegetation of this area, suggesting a gradual natural restoration of the native vegetation in the long run.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Nitrogen Deposition, Sulphur Deposition, Climatic Changes, Coniferous Communities, Biodiversity</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 141-148 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2203-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2203-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2203-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Uzieblo AK, Staszewski T, Chmura D Research Articles 2019-02-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2203-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Big data and evaluation of cultural ecosystem services: an analysis based on geotagged photographs from social media in Tuscan forest (Italy) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2821-011 <p><b>Bernetti I, Chirici G, Sacchelli S</b></p><p><b>BIG DATA AND EVALUATION OF CULTURAL ECOSYSTEM SERVICES: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON GEOTAGGED PHOTOGRAPHS FROM SOCIAL MEDIA IN TUSCAN FOREST (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The paper presents a methodology to quantify the suitability of forest stands for the potential delivery of cultural ecosystem services (CES). The quantification of CES represents a complicated task in the framework of ecosystem service valuation. Compared to traditional investigations, focusing on the study of the aesthetic appreciation of a particular territory, the use of geotagged photographs seems to be a promising alternative to appraise CES. Thus, in order to analyse CES with a particular focus on the aesthetic appreciation of forest stands, this study exploits big data through the analysis of photos shared on the Flickr social network. Crowdsourced datasets are used to depict the geographic location and density of pictures - expressed as the number of photos per unit of surface - as well as their relationship to forest variables and logistic characteristics. The implemented geostatistical model is used to spatialise the results at the regional level (Tuscany forests, Italy). Among the outputs, high values of CES are stressed for high forest and protected areas. From a forest species viewpoint, silver fir, coastal Mediterranean pine, beech and mixed forests seem to be more appreciated compared to other stand typologies such as oaks (e.g., pubescent or Turkey oak) and thermophilic broad-leaved species. Additional quantitative parameters (e.g., elevation, biomass stock and distance to main roads) were significant to the CES assessment. The potential applications of the technique to support forest planning and management are discussed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Aesthetic Value, Social Network, Maximum Entropy Models, Tag-cloud, Geographic Information Systems</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 98-105 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2821-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2821-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2821-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bernetti I, Chirici G, Sacchelli S Research Articles 2019-02-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2821-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seven spruce species on a mountain site - performance, foliar nutrients, and forest floor properties in stands 20 years old https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2731-011 <p><b>Špulák O, Kacálek D, Balcar V</b></p><p><b>SEVEN SPRUCE SPECIES ON A MOUNTAIN SITE - PERFORMANCE, FOLIAR NUTRIENTS, AND FOREST FLOOR PROPERTIES IN STANDS 20 YEARS OLD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Norway spruce is often considered to have a negative impact on a site, yet it is native to many mountain regions of Europe. The relative influence of Norway spruce on site properties has frequently been compared with that of both broadleaved and other coniferous tree species. In our study, growth, as well as needle, forest floor, and topsoil chemistry were compared between Norway spruce and introduced spruce species (white, black, red, Serbian, Sitka, and blue spruce), all growing on the same, formerly polluted mountain site. There were few differences in needle nutrient status between the introduced spruce species and native Norway spruce. The chemistry of forest floor horizons beneath some of the non-native species showed less acidity and better conditions of the soil sorption complex. There were no significant differences in the nutrient pools, indicating that the influence of the various spruce species on the site was comparable. Given the small differences observed in the various nutritional characteristics, it appears that, under the conditions of the study site, the alternative spruces had substituted for the role of Norway spruce before its recovery in the 2000s. The six spruces grew quite consistently during 2001-2012, while the mean height of Norway spruce shifted from the lowest 176 cm (2001) to one of the tallest. At 710 cm (2012), its height had become comparable with that of Sitka. The poorest performing were black spruce (due to bark beetle attack) and blue spruce (due to bud blight infestation and decline).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Spruce, Performance, Foliar Nutrients, Forest Floor, Soil</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 106-113 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2731-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2731-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2731-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Špulák O, Kacálek D, Balcar V Research Articles 2019-02-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2731-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Gliding patterns of Siberian flying squirrels in relation to forest structure https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2954-011 <p><b>Suzuki KK, Yanagawa H</b></p><p><b>GLIDING PATTERNS OF SIBERIAN FLYING SQUIRRELS IN RELATION TO FOREST STRUCTURE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: It is widely accepted that the evolution of gliding ability is correlated with forest environments, but differences in gliding locomotion in relation to forest structure remains poorly elucidated in mammals. Although the cost of gliding locomotion decreases with increasing glide distance per unit vertical drop (glide ratio), gliding mammals often use costly low-ratio glides and seldom exploit maximum-ratio glides. In this study, we evaluated our hypothesis that low-ratio glides are related to forest structure by measuring glide distance, vertical drops and landing tree heights in Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans), and we also recorded their behaviour in landing trees. Glide ratio decreased with increasing landing tree height. Squirrels landed on taller trees using low-ratio glides and tended to depart from them quickly without spending much time there, but used high-ratio glides to land on shorter trees for foraging or nesting. Thus, flying squirrels use two different gliding behaviours depending on their immediate objective, where inefficient low-ratio glides are used to move to higher trees for continued gliding. This approach might be necessary for efficiency and safety in subsequent glides, because taller trees facilitate long-distance glides and significantly decrease energy costs and landing impact. Therefore, the location of tall trees in forests and/or average canopy height might alter glide path routes. This study provides important evidence that forest structure affects gliding patterns and provides insight on how forest management could influence the gliding locomotion of Siberian flying squirrels.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Behaviour, Forest Structure, Forest Management, Gliding, Locomotion, Mammal, Tree Height</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 114-117 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2954-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2954-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2954-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Suzuki KK, Yanagawa H Short Communications 2019-02-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2954-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessment of presence and distribution of Armillaria and Heterobasidion root rot fungi in the forest of Vallombrosa (Apennines Mountains, Italy) after severe windstorm damage https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2929-012 <p><b>Dálya LB, Capretti P, Ghelardini L, Jankovský L</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF PRESENCE AND DISTRIBUTION OF ARMILLARIA AND HETEROBASIDION ROOT ROT FUNGI IN THE FOREST OF VALLOMBROSA (APENNINES MOUNTAINS, ITALY) AFTER SEVERE WINDSTORM DAMAGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: One of the main problems for the management and conservation of silver fir stands has long been pathogens causing root rot, in particular Armillaria spp. and Heterobasidion annosum s.l. These opportunistic pathogens are especially threatening now that climate change related stress is increasing tree susceptibility to disease and vulnerability to windstorms. The northern Apennines Mountains (central Italy) are forecast to be one of the areas with the highest temperature increase in the next future. However, no systematic assessment exists of the risk posed by the disturbance due to secondary pathogens in the Apennine forests. In the Nature Reserve of Vallombrosa (northern Apennines), where silver fir forests have been managed and conserved for centuries since the Middle Ages, making it an ideal site for studying these parasites, the high presence of H. annosum was reported already in 1990, while only sporadic observations are available on Armillaria species. The aim of this work was to examine the occurrence of both pathogens, since detailed knowledge about their distribution may assist forest management planning and decision-making. Systematic sampling was undertaken at the intersection of 52 grid points covering the whole forest. Different fungal species from soil and fungal samples (fruiting bodies or rhizomorphs) were identified by combining morphological descriptions with molecular methods. The analyses confirmed the presence of H. abietinum in about 70% of the investigated points. The fungus was detected at two new localities above 1000 metres suggesting a possible expansion of the parasite at upward elevation, which might be associated with climate change. Armillaria was widespread: almost 90% of the samples resulted positive, and four different Armillaria species were successfully identified. The most frequent species were A. cepistipes, whose rhizomorphs were especially abundant, and A. ostoyae, which was often detected just in soil samples. At sites where A. cepistipes was found to coexist with A. gallica, these two species might specialize themselves to necrotrophic and saprotrophic lifestyle, respectively. Besides, there were unexpected findings of A. mellea, supposed to be a residual from the previous rotation of broadleaves.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Abies alba, Armillaria spp., Butt Rot, Climate Change Disturbances, Heterobasidion annosum, Root Rot, Silver Fir, Windstorm Damage</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 118-124 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2929-012<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2929-012" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2929-012</a></p><hr size="1"/> Dálya LB, Capretti P, Ghelardini L, Jankovský L Research Articles 2019-02-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2929-012 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Fuel consumption comparison of two forwarders in lowland forests of pedunculate oak https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2872-011 <p><b>Pandur Z, Šušnjar M, Bačić M, Ðuka A, Lepoglavec K, Nevečerel H</b></p><p><b>FUEL CONSUMPTION COMPARISON OF TWO FORWARDERS IN LOWLAND FORESTS OF PEDUNCULATE OAK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fuel consumption of forest machinery and vehicles depends mainly on terrain conditions, working methods, drivers’ skills, engine load under working conditions, engine speed, type and technical characteristics of the machine. In timber harvesting operations, fuel consumption is significant for both, economic (costs), and environmental issues (80-95% of exhaust emissions and soot particles are associated with fuel consumption). The objective of this study was to compare fuel consumption in two different forwarders and to analyse two different measuring devices for fuel consumption. Fuel consumption was measured on a 6-wheeled Valmet 840.2 forwarder and an 8-wheeled Valmet 860.4 during roundwood and energy wood extraction in winter period. A differential fuel flow meter and a fuel measuring probe were used for measuring fuel consumption as well as a Fleet Management System (FMS) for transmitting measured data. Fuel consumption was expressed in six different ways depending on the stage of the working cycle, time, travelled distance, load volume and load mass. Finally, both the advantages and disadvantages of the used fuel measuring devices were gained. The results indicated higher fuel consumption of the smaller Valmet 840.2 forwarder due to lower soil bearing capacity and longer extraction distances. For both forwarders, higher fuel consumption (expressed in l t-1 km-1) was observed while extracting energy wood due to its lower overall mass.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forwarder, Fuel Measuring, Timber Extraction, Load, Roundwood, Energy Wood</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 125-131 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2872-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2872-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2872-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pandur Z, Šušnjar M, Bačić M, Ðuka A, Lepoglavec K, Nevečerel H Research Articles 2019-02-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2872-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Use of δ13C as water stress indicator and potential silvicultural decision support tool in Pinus radiata stand management in South Africa https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2628-011 <p><b>Fischer PM, du Toit B</b></p><p><b>USE OF δ13C AS WATER STRESS INDICATOR AND POTENTIAL SILVICULTURAL DECISION SUPPORT TOOL IN PINUS RADIATA STAND MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In this study, the carbon isotope ratio in tree rings was investigated as a potential measure of water availability and drought stress in Pinus radiata stands in South Africa. An understanding of water availability and its variation in space is fundamental to the implementation of increasingly site-specific management regimes that have the potential to improve stand productivity. Fourteen plantation compartments, situated on water shedding (convex) terrain were identified where reliable weather data existed and a water balance model could be run. This output was used to derive water stress indicators: (a) relative canopy conductance (gc/gcmax) and (b) the ratio of actual to potential evapotranspiration (ETa/ETp). The water stress indicators (calculated per year of growth) were related to δ13C values in five tree rings formed in the five years before mid-rotation thinning took place. The water balance model used adequately described soil water availability throughout each growing season and indicated that most severe stand water stress occurred during the summer months of the study period (November to April). The ETa/ETp ratio for this period as well as the relative canopy conductance proved to be good measures of water stress. The 5-year averages of the ETa/ETp ratios (taken over the driest 6 month period) ranged from 0.17 to 0.32 (winter rainfall zone) and 0.44 to 0.70 (all-year rainfall zone). The 5-year averages of ETa/ETp ratios could be accurately predicted (p< 0.0001; adjusted r2 = 0.83) with multiple regression using δ13C values in whole-wood samples (i.e., earlywood and latewood) and the site index of stands (where site index is the average height of the dominant 20% trees in the stand at base age 20). The δ13C values in tree rings across the planted range of P. radiata in South Africa can therefore be used to identify broad categories of water availability for purposes of increasingly site-specific silvicultural management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Stable Carbon Isotope, Tree Rings, Water Availability, Drought Stress, Site-specific Forest Management, Monterey Pine</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 51-60 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2628-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2628-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2628-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fischer PM, du Toit B Research Articles 2019-01-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2628-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Gas exchange, biomass allocation and water-use efficiency in response to elevated CO2 and drought in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis, Meliaceae) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2813-011 <p><b>Oliveira MF, Marenco RA</b></p><p><b>GAS EXCHANGE, BIOMASS ALLOCATION AND WATER-USE EFFICIENCY IN RESPONSE TO ELEVATED CO2 AND DROUGHT IN ANDIROBA (CARAPA SURINAMENSIS, MELIACEAE)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Prolonged droughts are predicted for some parts of the Amazon; however, it is still unclear how Amazonian trees will respond to water stress under the ongoing increase in CO2 concentration. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of elevated CO2 (eCO2) and drought on photosynthetic rates, water-use efficiency, and biomass allocation in andiroba (Carapa surinamensis). The plants were grown in pots at ambient (400 ppm CO2) and eCO2 (700 ppm) at two water regimes, soil at 50% field capacity, FC (drought) and soil at 100% FC for 163 days. We measured light saturated photosynthesis on a mass basis (Asat-mass), stomatal conductance to CO2 on a mass basis (gsCO2-mass), whole-plant water-use efficiency (WUEP), biomass accumulation, specific leaf area (SLA) and total leaf area. At eCO2, Asat-mass increased 28% in well-watered plants and 93% under drought, whereas gsCO2-mass declined 39% in well-watered plants at eCO2, with no effect of drought on gsCO2-mass at eCO2. The total biomass gain improved 73% at eCO2 and over CO2 levels it was reduced (54%) by drought. WUEP improved (188%) at eCO2 in well-watered plants and 262% under drought. SLA declined 23% at eCO2, but the effect of drought on SLA was null. On the contrary, total leaf area was greatly reduced (67%) by drought, but it was not affected by eCO2. The large increase in total biomass and the substantial improvement in WUEP under eCO2, and the sharp decline in leaf area under water stress widen our knowledge on the physiology of this important species for the forest management of large areas in the Amazon region.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carboxylation Efficiency, Nonstructural Carbohydrates, Specific Leaf Area, Shoot-root Ratio, Tree Growth</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 61-68 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2813-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2813-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2813-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Oliveira MF, Marenco RA Research Articles 2019-01-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2813-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Allometric models for estimating biomass, carbon and nutrient stock in the Sal zone of Bangladesh https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2758-011 <p><b>Mahmood H, Siddique MR, Costello L, Birigazzi L, Abdullah SR, Henry M, Siddiqui BN, Aziz T, Ali S, Al Mamun A, Forhad MI, Akhter M, Iqbal Z, Mondol FK</b></p><p><b>ALLOMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING BIOMASS, CARBON AND NUTRIENT STOCK IN THE SAL ZONE OF BANGLADESH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Allometric models are commonly used to estimate biomass, nutrients and carbon stocks in trees, and contribute to an understanding of forest status and resource dynamics. The selection of appropriate and robust models, therefore, have considerable influence on the accuracy of estimates obtained. Allometric models can be developed for individual species or to represent a community or bioregion. In Bangladesh, the nation forest inventory classifies tree and forest resources into five zones (Sal, Hill, Coastal, Sundarbans and Village), based on their floristic composition and soil type. This study has developed allometric biomass models for multi-species of the Sal zone. The forest of Sal zone is dominated by Shorea robusta Roth. The study also investigates the concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium and Carbon in different tree components. A total of 161 individual trees from 20 different species were harvested across a range of tree size classes. Diameter at breast height (DBH), total height (H) and wood density (WD) were considered as predictor variables, while total above-ground biomass (TAGB), stem, bark, branch and leaf biomass were the output variables of the allometric models. The best fit allometric biomass model for TAGB, stem, bark, branch and leaf were: ln (TAGB) = -2.460 + 2.171 ln (DBH) + 0.367 ln (H) + 0.161 ln (WD); ln (Stem) = -3.373 + 1.934 ln (DBH) + 0.833 ln (H) + 0.452 ln (WD); ln (Bark) = -5.87 + 2.103 ln (DBH) + 0.926 ln (H) + 0.587 ln (WD); ln (Branch) = -3.154 + 2.798 ln (DBH) - 0.729 ln (H) - 0.355 ln (WD); and ln (Leaf) = -4.713 + 2.066 ln (DBH), respectively. Nutrients and carbon concentration in tree components varied according to tree species and component. A comparison to frequently used regional and pan-tropical biomass models showed a wide range of model prediction error (35.48 to 85.51%) when the observed TAGB of sampled trees were compared with the estimated TAGB of the models developed in this study. The improved accuracy of the best fit model obtained in this study can therefore be used for more accurate estimation of TAGB and carbon and nutrients in TAGB for the Sal zone of Bangladesh.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Common Model, Forest Inventory, Phytomass, Tropical Forest</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 69-75 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2758-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2758-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2758-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mahmood H, Siddique MR, Costello L, Birigazzi L, Abdullah SR, Henry M, Siddiqui BN, Aziz T, Ali S, Al Mamun A, Forhad MI, Akhter M, Iqbal Z, Mondol FK Research Articles 2019-01-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2758-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Biodiversity conservation and wood production in a Natura 2000 Mediterranean forest. A trade-off evaluation focused on the occurrence of microhabitats https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2617-011 <p><b>Santopuoli G, di Cristofaro M, Kraus D, Schuck A, Lasserre B, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION AND WOOD PRODUCTION IN A NATURA 2000 MEDITERRANEAN FOREST. A TRADE-OFF EVALUATION FOCUSED ON THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROHABITATS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The most significant European forest-related strategies highlight the importance of multifunctional forests for human wellbeing, due to the provision of a wide range of goods and services. However, managing competing aims, such as timber production, economic drivers and biodiversity conservation is often difficult for practitioners. In order to assess the loss and gain of ecosystem services caused by forestry, trade-off evaluation has been increasingly used to aid decision-making. In this study, four silvicultural scenarios are simulated using the Marteloscope approach to evaluate the trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and timber production. Tree-related Microhabitats (TreMs) are used as a proxy to evaluate forest habitat value, while timber production is assessed by the number of harvested trees, biomass removal and economic income. This study takes an innovative approach by investigating TreMs using the Marteloscope in mixed Mediterranean forest. The main findings from this paper confirm that tree-related microhabitats can be considered ecological indicators effective in identifying important habitat trees, to assess forest habitat value and support tree marking for thinning operations and management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biodiversity Conservation, Sustainable Forest Management, Microhabitats, Habitat Tree, Marteloscope, Timber Production, Precision Forestry</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 76-84 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2617-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2617-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2617-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Santopuoli G, di Cristofaro M, Kraus D, Schuck A, Lasserre B, Marchetti M Research Articles 2019-01-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2617-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing food sustainable intensification potential of agroforestry using a carbon balance method https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2578-011 <p><b>Crous-Duran J, Graves AR, Garcia-de-Jalón S, Paulo JA, Tomé M, Palma JH</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING FOOD SUSTAINABLE INTENSIFICATION POTENTIAL OF AGROFORESTRY USING A CARBON BALANCE METHOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Food security, climate change mitigation, and land use challenges are interlinked and need to be considered simultaneously. One possible solution is sustainable intensification, which is the practice of increasing food production per area of land whilst also reducing the environmental impacts associated with this. Agroforestry has been stated to be a practice that meets this definition. In this study, a new methodology is presented to assess the potential of different management options as sustainable intensification practices. The methodology is based on comparing the carbon emissions associated with the production of food and the carbon sequestered for that same activity for a particular quantity of food produced over a specific area and over a specific time. The resulting indicator, the “carbon balance” is the difference between the greenhouse gasses emitted (considered as negative values) and carbon sequestered (positive values) estimated in Mg CO2eq per Mg of food produced on one hectare of land for one year. The carbon balance quantifies the global warming potential associated with sustainable intensification by integrating a process-based model with life cycle analysis and is able to estimate above- and below-ground biomass and soil carbon content. This methodology is tested in Portugal for wheat production under crop monoculture and agroforestry systems. The results show agroforestry to be a suitable practice for sustainable intensification compared to a crop monoculture as it just slightly decreased wheat yields whilst providing a positive carbon balance from year 50 onwards of approximately 1 Mg of CO2eq sequestered per Mg of wheat produced.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change Mitigation, Food Security, Land-use Occupation, Regulating Ecosystem Services, Soil Fertility, Life Cycle Analysis, Yield-SAFE, Clipick, Carbon Sequestration</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 85-91 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2578-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2578-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2578-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Crous-Duran J, Graves AR, Garcia-de-Jalón S, Paulo JA, Tomé M, Palma JH Research Articles 2019-01-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2578-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Changes in moisture exclusion efficiency and crystallinity of thermally modified wood with aging https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2723-011 <p><b>Tarmian A, Mastouri A</b></p><p><b>CHANGES IN MOISTURE EXCLUSION EFFICIENCY AND CRYSTALLINITY OF THERMALLY MODIFIED WOOD WITH AGING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study aimed to investigate whether aging affects moisture exclusion efficiency and crystallinity of thermally modified wood. For this purpose, wood blocks of hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and oak (Quercus castanifolia), modified at 180 °C for 3 hours inside a ThermoWood kiln were exposed to a six-cycle artificial aging procedure. Aging reduced the efficiency and crystallinity of the modified woods. A significant negative correlation was found between the wood crystallinity and equilibrium moisture content (EMC) which indicates that change in the crystallinity index (CrI) measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) affects the affinity of wood to moisture. The increased affinity of the modified wood to moisture after aging is probably due to the leaching of thermal degradation products as observed by Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Aging, Crystallinity, Moisture Exclusion Efficiency, Thermally Modified Wood</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 92-97 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2723-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2723-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2723-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tarmian A, Mastouri A Research Articles 2019-01-24 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2723-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Quantifying and modeling water availability in temperate forests: a review of drought and aridity indices https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2934-011 <p><b>Speich MJR</b></p><p><b>QUANTIFYING AND MODELING WATER AVAILABILITY IN TEMPERATE FORESTS: A REVIEW OF DROUGHT AND ARIDITY INDICES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Climatic water availability is a major determinant of forest structure and composition, while drought events may severely impact forest dynamics. In recent decades, an increasing number of severe drought events has been reported in forests around the world. In the future, climate models project increasingly dry conditions in many temperate regions. Various tools have been applied to better understand the effects of drought on forests, such as dendrochronological analyses, climatic trend analyses and dynamic models. With these approaches, water availability is often summarized as a single scalar, termed a drought or aridity index. As droughts are complex phenomena, such indices are always associated with a loss of information. Many different such indices exist, and have been developed for various purposes. This review asks whether some of these indices are more suitable than others to quantify water availability in temperate forests. In a first step, the rationale and theoretical background of different drought indices are spelled out and compared among each other. Then, evaluations and intercomparisons of drought indices from the literature are reviewed. The implementation of drought indices in dynamic forest models is also discussed. Finally, two current research questions are identified: the role of dry air for physiological drought, and the suitability of various drought indices under climate change. It appears from this review that indices accounting for evaporative demand generally perform better than indices based on precipitation alone. When comparing sites with different edaphic conditions, indices accounting for soil moisture storage are more suitable. Nevertheless, results from intercomparisons show considerable divergence, and it is not possible to clearly favor one index. Furthermore, a differential response of tree species to different drought indices is often observed, although no clear pattern emerges from this comparison. More intercomparisons of indices, across climates and species, might provide valuable knowledge. Another key finding is that the properties of indices also depend on choices regarding, e.g., the calculation of evaporative demand, or the underlying water balance model. Reporting such methodological details could greatly increase the value of future evaluations of drought indices.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Drought Indices, Water Availability, Soil Moisture, Climate Change, Dynamic Forest Modeling</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 1-16 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2934-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2934-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2934-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Speich MJR Review Papers 2019-01-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2934-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Patterns of forest dynamics in a secondary old-growth beech-dominated forest in the Jizera Mountains Beech Forest Reserve, Czech Republic https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2702-011 <p><b>Lábusová J, Morrissey RC, Trotsiuk V, Janda P, Bače R, Cada V, Mikoláš M, Mrhalová H, Schurman JS, Svobodová K, Mateju L, Synek M, Svoboda M</b></p><p><b>PATTERNS OF FOREST DYNAMICS IN A SECONDARY OLD-GROWTH BEECH-DOMINATED FOREST IN THE JIZERA MOUNTAINS BEECH FOREST RESERVE, CZECH REPUBLIC</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Restoring the structural characteristics of secondary old-growth forests that were previously managed is increasingly debated to help increase the area of more complex forests which provide a broader array of forest services and functions. The paucity of long-term data sets in Central Europe has limited our ability to understand the ongoing ecological processes required for effective restoration programs for old-growth forests. To address this, we used repeated census data from eight permanent plots to evaluate forest structural dynamics over a 12-year period in the largest complex of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Czech Highlands without intensive forestry intervention for almost 50 years. Our results showed that previously managed forests can exhibit structural qualities typically associated with old-growth forests after management has ceased for a period. The stand structural characteristics (e.g., density of large and old trees) is comparable with protected reserves of old-growth European beech-dominated forests. The average stand age was 196 years, but the oldest tree was 289 years old. The annual mortality rate was 0.43% for all species, and the U-shaped distribution indicating size-dependent mortality is likely an important process that is balanced by the turnover of new tree recruitment. During the study period, we detected that the diameter distribution tended towards a rotated sigmoid distribution. The lasting effects of the most recent forest management are evident in the scarcity of dead wood, and a prolonged process of dead wood accumulation has begun. Thus, the abandonment of all management activities in near-natural forest reserves, including dead wood removal, will ensure that the forests will develop characteristics typical of old-growth forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dead Wood, Diameter Distribution, Fagus sylvatica, Forest Reserve, Forest Structure, Mortality, Old-growth Forest</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 17-26 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2702-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2702-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2702-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Lábusová J, Morrissey RC, Trotsiuk V, Janda P, Bače R, Cada V, Mikoláš M, Mrhalová H, Schurman JS, Svobodová K, Mateju L, Synek M, Svoboda M Research Articles 2019-01-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2702-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of mild drought on the morphology of sun and shade needles in 20-year-old Norway spruce trees https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2809-011 <p><b>Gebauer R, Volarík D, Urban J, Børja I, Nagy NE, Eldhuset TD, Krokene P</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF MILD DROUGHT ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF SUN AND SHADE NEEDLES IN 20-YEAR-OLD NORWAY SPRUCE TREES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Several studies have looked at how individual environmental factors influence needle morphology in conifer trees, but interacting effects between drought and canopy position have received little attention. In this study, we characterized morphological responses to experimentally induced drought stress in sun exposed and shaded current-year Norway spruce needles. In the drought plot trees were suffering mild drought stress, with an average soil water potential at 50 cm depth of -0.4 MPa. In general, morphological needle traits had greater values in sun needles in the upper canopy than in shaded needles in the lower canopy. Needle morphology 15 months after the onset of drought was determined by canopy position, as only sun needle morphology was affected by drought. Thus, canopy position was a stronger morphogenic factor determining needle structure than was water availability. The largest influence of mild drought was observed for needle length, projected needle area and total needle area, which all were reduced by ~27% relative to control trees. Needle thickness and needle width showed contrasting sensitivity to drought, as drought only affected needle thickness (10% reduction). Needle dry mass, leaf mass per area and needle density were not affected 15 months after the onset of mild drought. Our results highlight the importance of considering canopy position as well as water availability when comparing needle structure or function between conifer species. More knowledge about how different canopy parts of Norway spruce adapt to drought is important to understand forest productivity under changing environmental conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Position, Drought, Crown Light Gradient, Needle Structure, Picea abies, Transpiration</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 27-34 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2809-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2809-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2809-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Gebauer R, Volarík D, Urban J, Børja I, Nagy NE, Eldhuset TD, Krokene P Research Articles 2019-01-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2809-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dimensionless numbers for the net present value and the perpetual value of sustainable timber harvests from a monospecific uneven-aged forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2715-011 <p><b>López Torres I, Belda Fullana C</b></p><p><b>DIMENSIONLESS NUMBERS FOR THE NET PRESENT VALUE AND THE PERPETUAL VALUE OF SUSTAINABLE TIMBER HARVESTS FROM A MONOSPECIFIC UNEVEN-AGED FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper proposes a simple and direct method to provide reliable approximations of the net present value (NPV) and the perpetual value (PV) of sustainable timber harvests from a monospecific uneven-aged forest based on dimensionless numbers. In addition, two new dimensionless numbers ρNPV and ρPV are introduced. These use the NPV or PV derived from the sale of timber throughout a harvest cycle, plus the final stocking value (as numerator), and the fair value of standing timber under IAS 41 (as denominator). They can be interpreted as economic performance indicators for forest management, inspired by the return on assets accounting concept, showing how profitable the forest is, relative to its total value, with sustainability and stability criteria. Those approximations to the variables NPV, PV, ρNPV and ρPV, were obtained under conditions of stable equilibrium from a matrix model. In order to exemplify and test the results, the model used data from uneven-aged managed Pinus nigra stands, considering three levels of tree diameter growth, six levels of basal area and 33 levels of recruitment, creating a total of 594 planning scenarios. Furthermore, the study revealed the existence of strong linear correlations between those variables and a dimensionless number.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dimensionless Numbers, NPV/PV, Equilibrium, Sustainable Harvesting, Matrix Model, IAS 41</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 35-42 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2715-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2715-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2715-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> López Torres I, Belda Fullana C Research Articles 2019-01-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2715-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Ectomycorrhizae of Norway spruce from its southernmost natural distribution range in Serbia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2729-011 <p><b>Katanić M, Orlović S, Grebenc T, Bajc M, Pekeč S, Drekić M, Kraigher H</b></p><p><b>ECTOMYCORRHIZAE OF NORWAY SPRUCE FROM ITS SOUTHERNMOST NATURAL DISTRIBUTION RANGE IN SERBIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) reaches its southernmost limit in the mountainous regions of south Serbia and Bulgaria. The species is a regionally important timber species for the wood industry and a significant host for various ectomycorrhizal fungi, including edible species. We analysed ectomycorrhizal community and fine root parameters of high continental / subalpine Norway spruce stands at three sites (Stara planina, Kopaonik, Tara) located in protected areas in Serbia. In addition, we assessed the potential effects of altitude and growing season on the ectomycorrhizal diversity and fine root parameters. Using standardised sampling in combination with morpho-anatomical and molecular identification of ectomycorrhizae, we recorded 29 different anatomorphotypes. None of the identified fungi belonged to commercial edible fungal species. Compared to other Norway spruce ectomycorrhiza studies in central Europe, sites in Serbia exhibited lower species diversity and different dominant species composition, with Cenococcum spp. and Russula spp. as the dominant ectomycorrhizal fungi. A number of ectomycorrhizal types and the value of the species richness index differed between Stara planina and Tara in the autumn, but the influence of site and season on the studied diversity indices was not significant. The total number of fine roots increased in the spring, while percentage of vital ectomycorrhizal root tips increased in the autumn. This study was the first examination of Norway spruce ectomycorrhizal communities at the edge of the natural geographical range of the species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ectomycorrhiza, Picea abies Karst., Community Structure, Diversity, Fine Roots</p><p><i>iForest 12 (1): 43-50 (2019)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2729-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2729-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2729-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Katanić M, Orlović S, Grebenc T, Bajc M, Pekeč S, Drekić M, Kraigher H Research Articles 2019-01-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2729-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing the relative role of climate on litterfall in Mediterranean cork oak forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2825-011 <p><b>Andivia E, Bou J, Fernández M, Caritat A, Alejano R, Vilar L, Vázquez-Piqué J</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING THE RELATIVE ROLE OF CLIMATE ON LITTERFALL IN MEDITERRANEAN CORK OAK FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Litterfall plays a key role in the dynamic of forest ecosystems, ultimately determining forest productivity and carbon and nutrient cycling. Increasing our understanding on the role of structural and environmental factors controlling litterfall amount and seasonality is of paramount importance for modelling and estimating soil carbon sequestration and nutrient cycling under climate change scenarios. However, the effect of climatic conditions on litterfall has been scarcely studied, especially in Mediterranean ecosystems. Here, we used nine years of seasonally collected litterfall data in two contrasting Mediterranean cork oak forests to evaluate the effect of climatic variables on leaf fall and litterfall. First, we isolated the litterfall seasonal trend and the between-sites differences in production by using linear mixed models. Then, we evaluated the effect of climatic variables and whether this effect was site-specific. We found a consistent litterfall seasonal pattern, mainly determined by leaf shedding (70% of litterfall). Leaf fall mainly occurs in spring with a second but much smaller peak in autumn some years. Mean temperature, precipitation and mean wind speed strongly influenced litterfall, but this effect was site-specific. In the forest site located at higher latitude and altitude, leaf fall increased linearly with temperature and showed a positive quadratic response to precipitation. In the water-limited site, leaf fall was reduced as temperature increased and did not respond to precipitation. These results have implications for modelling and predicting soil carbon sequestration, nutrient cycling, and the forest ecosystem productivity. Specifically, carbon and nutrient cycling models can be improved by incorporating idiosyncratic forest sites responses to climatic variability.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate, Leaf Fall, Litterfall, Modelling, Plant-soil Interactions, Quercus suber, Seasonality</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 786-793 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2825-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2825-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2825-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Andivia E, Bou J, Fernández M, Caritat A, Alejano R, Vilar L, Vázquez-Piqué J Research Articles 2018-12-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2825-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of exogenous nitrogen and phosphorus inputs on the microbe-soil interaction in the secondary Castanopsis sclerophylla forest in east China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2673-011 <p><b>Teng Z, Cui J, Wang J, Fu X, Xu X</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS INPUTS ON THE MICROBE-SOIL INTERACTION IN THE SECONDARY CASTANOPSIS SCLEROPHYLLA FOREST IN EAST CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Soil microbes play a key role in the formation and decomposition of organic materials and in the improvement of the ecological environment. Despite continuous increases in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs due to the atmospheric deposition or fertilization, the response of soil to exogenous inorganic nutrients inputs remains elusive. By a manipulative experiment we simulated N and P depositions in a subtropical secondary Castanopsis sclerophylla forest in east China over the period 2011-2015, to evaluate the impact of inorganic nutrient addition on soil bacterial communities. Four treatments were administered (control and nutrient-enrichment: N, P, and N+P), with N added at a total of 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in the form of NH4NO3, and P at 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1 in Ca(H2PO4)2, sprayed near the soil surface at the end of each trimester. Quantitative PCR technique and Illumina platform-based sequencing analysis of the V3-V4 16S rRNA gene region were performed on total DNA extracted from soil samples to characterize the soil bacterial community abundance and diversity. As Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the predominant phyla in all conditions, treatments did not alter the distribution of bacterial phyla, while their relative abundances responded differently to N, P additions. A GLMM analysis showed that N input significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the relative abundance of Acidobacteria (13.11%), Bacteroidetes (0.6%), Elusimicrobia (0.21%), Nitrospirae (0.1%) and TM6 (0.04%). Relative abundance after P treatment significantly (P < 0.01) decreased for Nitrospirae (0.07%), and pronounced interactive effects of N and P additions (N:P) were observed on phylum Nitrospirae (P < 0.01) and TM6 (P < 0.05). Moreover, redundancy analysis revealed that soil pH was closely related to the bacterial community (r2 = 0.622, P = 0.015). Our findings suggest that exogenous N and P inputs affected the relative abundances and caused compositional shifts in the local bacterial community that closely associated with soil pH, thus providing the evidence that microbe-soil interactions are influenced by N and P availability in subtropical forest ecosystem of east China.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: 16S rRNA, Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions, Bacterial Populations, Soil PH, Subtropical Secondary Castanopsis sclerophylla Forest</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 794-801 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2673-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2673-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2673-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Teng Z, Cui J, Wang J, Fu X, Xu X Research Articles 2018-12-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2673-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Diversity and distribution patterns of medium to large mammals in a silvicultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2721-011 <p><b>Campos BM, Charters JD, Verdade LM</b></p><p><b>DIVERSITY AND DISTRIBUTION PATTERNS OF MEDIUM TO LARGE MAMMALS IN A SILVICULTURAL LANDSCAPE IN SOUTH-EASTERN BRAZIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Agricultural landscapes cover approximately 35% of Brazil and are the second greatest threat to biodiversity worldwide. In Brazil, seven millions hectars of land is covered with Eucalyptus plantations, which is considered to have low conservation value. However, studies have shown that heterogeneous silvicultural landscapes, made up of Eucalyptus matrices and patches dedicated to conservation, are able to support a considerable diversity of wild mammals. This study aims to assess the diversity and distribution patterns of medium-to-large-sized mammals in a silvicultural landscape in Angatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Nineteen species were detected by camera traps within the study area. Diversity indices did not vary among habitat types (i.e., native vegetation, abandoned pasture and Eucalyptus plantations), suggesting that the species use the landscape as a whole. A relatively diverse range of predator species was found in the area, suggesting that future monitoring programs should focus on predator-prey relationships. A low diversity of frugivores was detected, indicating that management actions should be taken to facilitate their local recovery. Our results stress the fundamental importance of the conservation areas (Permanent Preservation Areas and Legal Reserve) in silvicultural landscapes, as these areas help maintain complexity of the landscape structure.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Agroecosystem, Wildlife Management, Mammals, Eucalyptus, Camera-trapping</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 802-808 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2721-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2721-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2721-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Campos BM, Charters JD, Verdade LM Research Articles 2018-12-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2721-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Environmental factors affecting formation of lammas shoots in young stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies Karst.) in Latvia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2539-011 <p><b>Katrevics J, Neimane U, Dzerina B, Kitenberga M, Jansons J, Jansons A</b></p><p><b>ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING FORMATION OF LAMMAS SHOOTS IN YOUNG STANDS OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES KARST.) IN LATVIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Norway spruce is a relatively fast-growing tree species that is primarily regenerated by planting, which requires significant investments. The formation of lammas shoots (i.e., second flushing in late summer) have been proven to affect the quality and productivity of Norway spruce stands. The aim of our study was to assess the proportion of trees with lammas shoots in young stands of Norway spruce and to investigate the factors affecting their formation. Data have been collected at the end of 2011 in 102 three- to seven-year-old Norway spruce plantations randomly selected across different forest types in the central part of Latvia, and a subset of 21 stands were inventoried again at the end of 2012. In each stand, 20 sample plots were systematically established where trees with and without lammas shoots were counted and micro-environmental factors (moisture, competition, and browsing) were assessed on a three-grade scale. On average, the proportion of trees with lammas shoots was 6.5%. There was no significant effect of the stand age (from 3 to 7 years) on the proportion of trees with lammas shoots nor was there any age-related trend. The effect of forest type on the presence of lammas shoots was not significant. Micro-environmental factors had an important influence on the proportion of trees with lammas shoots. The proportion of lammas shoots in stands with no competition was significantly higher (14.5%) compared to stands with medium and high competition (6.0% and 2.2%, respectively). Similarly, a significantly higher proportion of trees with lammas shoots (11.7%) was observed in sites with normal moisture regime than in sites with slight or notable excess moisture, reaching 4.8% and 1.7%, respectively. Although the influence of browsing damage was not statistically significant, its trend was similar to that observed for competition and moisture regime. Overall, the proportion of trees with lammas shoots was highest in stands showing the most suitable micro-environmental conditions for Norway spruce.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Second Flushing, Vegetation Competition, Tending, Moisture Excess, Browsing Damage</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 809-815 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2539-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2539-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2539-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Katrevics J, Neimane U, Dzerina B, Kitenberga M, Jansons J, Jansons A Research Articles 2018-12-14 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2539-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Distribution and habitat suitability of two rare saproxylic beetles in Croatia - a piece of puzzle missing for South-Eastern Europe https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2753-011 <p><b>Rukavina I, Kostanjšek F, Jelaska SD, Pirnat A, Šerić Jelaska L</b></p><p><b>DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT SUITABILITY OF TWO RARE SAPROXYLIC BEETLES IN CROATIA - A PIECE OF PUZZLE MISSING FOR SOUTH-EASTERN EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Due to habitat loss and fragmentation, the hermit beetle, Osmoderma eremita species complex (Coleoptera; Scarabidae) and the European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are considered threatened in many European countries. Their presence in a large part of South-Eastern Europe has been sporadically recorded and these findings are mainly historical. Here we present the most recent findings of both species, assembled mainly throughout this first systematic study aiming to collect data on the hermit beetle within mapping and monitoring activities of saproxylic species protected by the European Habitat Directive (Annexes II and IV of Council Directive 92/43/EEC) within the Mediterranean, Continental and Alpine biogeographical regions of Croatia, and current literature data. To facilitate mapping activities and species range monitoring to improve the proper management of suitable habitats, we created habitat suitability maps using recent findings for both species, and predicted distribution were overlapped and analysed with historical data and protected areas. Most of the individuals were captured using flight intercept cross-vein funnel traps baited with pheromone for the hermit beetle placed within natural forest dominated by oak, beech and montane beech-fir forests, on sites with and without any forest management. Among set of 11 environmental variables, autumn precipitation, spring mean temperature and slope contributed most to the beetle distribution models. Data analyses indicated that the European red click beetle has much wider environmental envelope in which it can occur and that the hermit beetle can be used as surrogate species for the European red click beetle.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: European Red Click Beetle, Hermit Beetle, Mapping and Monitoring, MaxEnt, Natura 2000, Nature Conservation, Protected Areas</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 765-774 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2753-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2753-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2753-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rukavina I, Kostanjšek F, Jelaska SD, Pirnat A, Šerić Jelaska L Research Articles 2018-11-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2753-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Is Tuber brumale a threat to T. melanosporum and T. aestivum plantations? https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2785-011 <p><b>Ori F, Leonardi P, Stagnini E, Balestrini V, Iotti M, Zambonelli A</b></p><p><b>IS TUBER BRUMALE A THREAT TO T. MELANOSPORUM AND T. AESTIVUM PLANTATIONS?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: True truffles in the genus Tuber are the most valuable ectomycorrhizal fungi and their cultivation has become widespread around the world. Competition with other ectomycorrhizal fungi and especially with undesired Tuber species, like T. brumale, can threaten the success of a truffle plantation. In this work, the competitiveness of T. brumale towards T. melanosporum and T. aestivum was assessed in a 14 year-old plantation carried out planting seedlings inoculated with these three truffle species in adjacent plots. Analyses of both truffle ectomycorrhizas and extra-radical mycelium were carried out in the transects separating the T. brumale plot from T. melanosporum and T. aestivum plots. The results confirm the competitiveness of T. brumale against T. aestivum and T. melanosporum due to its major ability to colonize the soil around its ectomycorrhizas. However, its competitiveness is limited to the transect areas and it was never found inside T. melanosporum plot. These results remark that, in presence of optimal conditions for T. melanosporum and T. aestivum, the greatest risk of contamination with T. brumale is due to wrong greenhouse activity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Competition, Black Truffles, Extra-Radical Mycelium, Ectomycorrhizas, Species-Specific Primers</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 775-780 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2785-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2785-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2785-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ori F, Leonardi P, Stagnini E, Balestrini V, Iotti M, Zambonelli A Research Articles 2018-11-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2785-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Culturable fungi associated with wood decay of Picea abies in subalpine forest soils: a field-mesocosm case study https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2846-011 <p><b>Oliveira Longa CM, Francioli D, Gómez-Brandón M, Ascher-Jenull J, Bardelli T, Pietramellara G, Egli M, Sartori G, Insam H</b></p><p><b>CULTURABLE FUNGI ASSOCIATED WITH WOOD DECAY OF PICEA ABIES IN SUBALPINE FOREST SOILS: A FIELD-MESOCOSM CASE STUDY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fungi are the principal wood decomposers in forest ecosystems and their activity provides wood necromass to other living organisms. However, the wood decay mechanisms and the associated microbial community are largely unknown, especially in Alpine areas. In this study, the culturable fraction of fungal communities associated with the decomposition of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst) deadwood in subalpine forest soils were determined using microbiological methods coupled with molecular identification. Fungal communities were evaluated using in-field mesocosms after one year of exposition of P. abies wood blocks along an altitudinal gradient ranging from 1200 up to 2000 m a.s.l. comprising eight subalpine sites, four of them located at north- and other four at south-facing slopes. Although many saprotrophic species were isolated from the wood blocks, several white-rot species as the pathogenic fungi Armillaria cepistipes and Heterobasidion annosum, along with soft-rot fungi such as Lecytophora sp. were identified. Our results further indicated that the wood-inhabiting fungal community was mainly influenced by topographic features and by the chemical properties of the wood blocks, providing first insights into the effect of different slope exposure on the deadwood mycobiome in the subalpine forest ecosystem.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Wood-inhabiting Fungi, Basidiomycota, Subalpine Forest, Wood Decomposition, Norway Spruce, Slope Exposure</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 781-785 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2846-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2846-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2846-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Oliveira Longa CM, Francioli D, Gómez-Brandón M, Ascher-Jenull J, Bardelli T, Pietramellara G, Egli M, Sartori G, Insam H Short Communications 2018-11-28 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2846-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Prediction of ozone effects on net ecosystem production of Norway spruce forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2805-011 <p><b>Jurán S, Edwards-Jonášová M, Cudlín P, Zapletal M, Šigut L, Grace J, Urban O</b></p><p><b>PREDICTION OF OZONE EFFECTS ON NET ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION OF NORWAY SPRUCE FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Future ground-level concentrations of phytotoxic ozone are projected to grow in the Northern Hemisphere, at a rate depending on emission scenarios. We explored the likely changes in net ecosystem production (NEP) due to the increasing concentration of tropospheric ozone by applying a Generalized Additive Mixed Model based on measurements of ozone concentration ([O3]) and stomatal ozone flux (FsO3), at a mountainous Norway spruce forest in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. A dataset covering the growing period (May-August 2009) was examined in this case study. A predictive model based on FsO3 was found to be marginally more accurate than a model using [O3] alone for prediction of the course of NEP when compared to NEP measured by the eddy covariance technique. Both higher [O3] and FsO3 were found to reduce NEP. NEP simulated at low, pre-industrial FsO3 (0.5 nmol m-2 s-1) was higher by 24.8% as compared to NEP assessed at current rates of FsO3 (8.32 nmol m-2 s-1). However, NEP simulated at high FsO3 (17 nmol m-2 s-1), likely in the future, was reduced by 14.1% as compared to NEP values at current FsO3. The interaction between environmental factors and stomatal conductance is discussed in this paper.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon, CO2 Assimilation, Model, Stomatal Ozone Flux</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 743-750 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2805-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2805-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2805-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jurán S, Edwards-Jonášová M, Cudlín P, Zapletal M, Šigut L, Grace J, Urban O Research Articles 2018-11-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2805-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The responses of soil microbial community and enzyme activities of Phoebe zhennan cultivated under different soil moisture conditions to phosphorus addition https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2725-011 <p><b>Olatunji OA, Pan K, Tariq A, Zhang L, Wu X, Sun X, Luo H, Song D, Li N</b></p><p><b>THE RESPONSES OF SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY AND ENZYME ACTIVITIES OF PHOEBE ZHENNAN CULTIVATED UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MOISTURE CONDITIONS TO PHOSPHORUS ADDITION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The importance of conservation and ecological restoration of the rare and economically important tree Phoebe zhennan is increasingly recognized. To this purpose, phosphorus (P) addition has been proposed to improve soil biological attributes and face the anticipated drought under climate change, though few studies have investigated its effect on the interaction between the soil microorganisms and plant host, as well as on ecosystem productivity. We investigated the effect of P addition on soil chemical properties, microbial communities, and enzyme activities in a soil planted with P. zhennan under two levels of water treatments (optimum water and drought treatments). P additions had no significant effect on microbial communities, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), pH and soil moisture (SM), though the available P (aP) increased. Compared with no P treatment, alkaline phosphate and β-fructofuranosidase activities increased with P additions in the drought treatment. Drought decreased the total phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs), arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), and fungi PLFAs compared to the well-watered. These findings indicated that P additions does not ameliorate the impact of drought on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities, except alkaline phosphate and β-fructofuranosidase, and P may not be responsible for regulating biochemical processes essential for maintaining the fertility of soil planted with P. zhennan under drought conditions. It is hypothesized that the lack of effects of P addition on the majority of the microbial properties could be due to the soil mechanism employed by P. zhennan to tolerate harsh conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Alkaline Phosphatase, Biomass, Drought, Enzymes, Microbial, Phoebe zhennan</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 751-756 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2725-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2725-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2725-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Olatunji OA, Pan K, Tariq A, Zhang L, Wu X, Sun X, Luo H, Song D, Li N Research Articles 2018-11-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2725-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Post-fire recovery of Abies cephalonica forest communities: the case of Mt Parnitha National Park, Attica, Greece https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2744-011 <p><b>Christopoulou A, Kazanis D, Fyllas NM, Arianoutsou M</b></p><p><b>POST-FIRE RECOVERY OF ABIES CEPHALONICA FOREST COMMUNITIES: THE CASE OF MT PARNITHA NATIONAL PARK, ATTICA, GREECE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Mountain coniferous forests of Southern Europe seem to be increasingly affected by large fires. Endemic Greek fir (Abies cephalonica) forests were among the most affected ecosystems by the 2007 extreme wildfires in Greece. The aim of this study is to investigate the pattern of post-fire regeneration of fir forest plant communities of Mount Parnitha National Park, in Attica (Greece), after a large wildfire. A network of 8 severely burned sites across the mountain ridge was established in order to monitor natural regeneration of A. cephalonica as well as post-fire floristic composition and species richness. Field campaigns took place in two distinct time periods, one close to the fire event and one 8 to 10 years after. Generalized linear models were used to explore the effects of distance and microhabitat variables on the post-fire regeneration of the Greek fir. Distance from the unburned patches, slope and cover of woody species significantly affected A. cephalonica seedling establishment and hence its natural post-fire regeneration. Floristic composition and plant species richness of the recovering fir communities changed through time. During the initial phase, high species richness was recorded, mainly because of the high contribution of herbaceous species. During the second period, species richness was lower and similar to that recorded in the unburned fir communities. It is during this period when the first seedlings of the Greek fir managed to establish, although their density is rather low to ensure full recovery of the forest.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Greek Fir, Mountain Forests, Post-fire Regeneration, Vegetation Dynamics, Secondary Succession</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 757-764 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2744-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2744-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2744-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Christopoulou A, Kazanis D, Fyllas NM, Arianoutsou M Research Articles 2018-11-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2744-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Soil CO2 efflux in uneven-aged and even-aged Norway spruce stands in southern Finland https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2658-011 <p><b>Kumpu A, Mäkelä A, Pumpanen J, Saarinen J, Berninger F</b></p><p><b>SOIL CO2 EFFLUX IN UNEVEN-AGED AND EVEN-AGED NORWAY SPRUCE STANDS IN SOUTHERN FINLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Even-aged forests usually act as carbon sinks during most of their rotation. However, after clearcut they become sources of carbon for a period of several years. Applying uneven-aged forest management with selective cuttings will maintain tree cover and reduce the environmental impact on forest floor. The aim of this study was to compare the soil CO2 efflux between uneven-aged and even-aged Norway spruce stands with similar site properties, to investigate the effect of management practices on soil CO2 efflux and its possible correlation with soil environmental and chemical properties. We measured soil CO2 efflux in even- and uneven-aged Norway spruce stands (Picea abies [L.] Karst) in southern Finland during the summer of 2013 using closed chamber method on fixed measuring points. The study included two uneven-aged stands and two even-aged stands (a clearcut site and a mature even-aged stand). Soil moisture and soil temperature were measured at the same time as soil CO2 efflux. Soil cores were collected from the topsoil of each study plot to determine soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations. Mean soil CO2 efflux through the summer was highest in the clearcut plot (0.367 mg m-2 s-1) followed by the uneven-aged stands (0.298 and 0.257 mg m-2 s-1, respectively) and the smallest fluxes were measured in the mature even-aged stand (0.224 mg m-2 s-1). There was no statistically significant difference in soil CO2 efflux between the even- and uneven-aged stands of the same site fertility. Even- and uneven-aged stands did not differ significantly in soil moisture or soil temperature. Soil CO2 efflux increased steadily with soil temperature, whereas increasing soil moisture considerably increased soil CO2 efflux at lower moisture levels but only moderately at higher soil moisture levels. Soil carbon and nitrogen concentration did not differ between the study plots of the same fertility. Uneven-aged structure forestry did not prevent the increase in soil CO2 efflux after cuttings. However, the large variation in soil CO2 efflux rates within the uneven-aged stands suggests that the stand level CO2 efflux can be controlled with the intensity of the cutting.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Uneven-aged Forest Structure, Even-aged Forest Structure, Soil CO2 Efflux, Norway spruce</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 705-712 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2658-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2658-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2658-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kumpu A, Mäkelä A, Pumpanen J, Saarinen J, Berninger F Research Articles 2018-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2658-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relationship between volatile organic compounds released and growth of Cunninghamia lanceolata roots under low-phosphorus conditions https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2797-011 <p><b>Lai H, Wu K, Wang N, Wu W, Zou X, Ma X, Wu P</b></p><p><b>RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS RELEASED AND GROWTH OF CUNNINGHAMIA LANCEOLATA ROOTS UNDER LOW-PHOSPHORUS CONDITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To understand whether Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) can conserve energy by reducing root volatiles to maintain growth under low phosphorus (P) conditions, we cultivated two half-sib families of Chinese fir that display high and low P use efficiency under conditions of normal P supply and total P deficiency. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to determine the content of root volatiles, and the relationships among root volatiles and root growth index, P content, and distribution were analyzed. There were significantly fewer volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the rhizosphere of these two fir families, No. 25 and No. 32, under P deficiency. Low P supply significantly promoted root growth in No. 25, increasing both average diameter and volume. A negative correlation was found between the volatiles and the increment of root average diameter and surface area. The belowground P distribution and the root to shoot P concentration (Pr/Ps) were higher in No. 25 than in No. 32. The total amount of VOCs, as well as the amount of 18 individual volatiles were positively correlated with P accumulation, aboveground P distribution, and belowground P distribution, but the opposite pattern was seen in Pr/Ps for family No. 25 seedlings. We conclude that the content and types of VOCs differ among the Chinese fir genotypes. Under low-P stress, the roots of Chinese fir reduce the release of VOCs to maintain seedling growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cunninghamia lanceolata, Low-phosphorus Stress, Root Growth, Root Volatile Organic Compounds, Energy Balance</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 713-720 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2797-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2797-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2797-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Lai H, Wu K, Wang N, Wu W, Zou X, Ma X, Wu P Research Articles 2018-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2797-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Distribution of aluminium fractions in acid forest soils: influence of vegetation changes https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2498-011 <p><b>Pavlu L, Drabek O, Stejskalova S, Tejnecky V, Hradilova M, Nikodem A, Boruvka L</b></p><p><b>DISTRIBUTION OF ALUMINIUM FRACTIONS IN ACID FOREST SOILS: INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION CHANGES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study examines aluminium as a potentially phytotoxic element in acidic forest soils. Concentrations of Al forms in soils are generally controlled by soil chemical conditions, such as pH, organic matter, base cation contents, etc. Moreover, soil conditions are influenced by the vegetation cover. This study analyzed the distribution of Al forms in soils after changes in vegetation. HPLC/IC was used for the separation of three Al fractions in two soil extracts according to their charge. An aqueous extract (AlH2O) simulated the natural soil conditions and bioavailable Al fractions. Potentially available Al form was represented by a 0.5 M KCl extract (AlKCl). We demonstrated that the vegetation type influences the concentrations of different Al fractions, mainly in the surface organic horizons. Differences were more common in the KCl extract. The trivalent fraction was less influenced by vegetation changes than the mono- and divalent fractions. Afforestation increased the concentrations of AlKCl and AlH2O. In contrast, grass expansion after deforestation led to significantly decreased concentrations of AlKCl and AlH2O. Concentrations of AlH2O in organic horizons were higher in spruce forest than in beech forest. A long-term effect of liming on soil pH and concentrations of potentially toxic Al fractions was not apparent. The results provide information on the variations of Al fractions distributions following vegetation type changes and indicate the existence of some natural mechanisms controlling Al toxicity. Furthermore, the results can be used in the management of forested areas endangered by soil acidification.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Aluminium Fractionation, Forest Soil, Afforestation, Deforestation, HPLC/IC</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 721-727 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2498-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2498-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2498-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pavlu L, Drabek O, Stejskalova S, Tejnecky V, Hradilova M, Nikodem A, Boruvka L Research Articles 2018-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2498-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Drought tolerance in cork oak is associated with low leaf stomatal and hydraulic conductances https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2749-011 <p><b>Rzigui T, Jazzar L, Baaziz Khaoula B, Fkiri S, Nasr Z</b></p><p><b>DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN CORK OAK IS ASSOCIATED WITH LOW LEAF STOMATAL AND HYDRAULIC CONDUCTANCES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To investigate the role of seeds origin in drought tolerance, the response to water deprivation of cork oak seedlings differing in climatic conditions at their geographical origin was compared. Gaâfour is the provenance from the driest site and Feija is the provenance from the wettest site. Net photosynthesis (An), stomatal conductance (gs) and leaf water potential were measured during dehydration. A delayed decrease in leaf water potential is observed after water withholding in Gaâfour as compared to Feija leaves. At the onset of dehydration, An and gs were higher in Feija. After withholding watering, Gaâfour leaves were able to maintain a higher An and gs than Feija leaves. Most likely, drought tolerance in Gaâfour leaves is associated to their lower gs under well-hydrated conditions. The stomatal density (Ds) and specific leaf area (SLA) were not different in well-watered leaves but, leaf hydraulic conductance was lower in Gaâfour leaves when compared to Feija leaves. Our results suggested that lower stomatal and hydraulic conductances of Gaâfour leaves could be involved in bringing about the better resistance to dehydration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Drought, Cork Oak, Photosynthesis, Stomatal Conductance, Hydraulic Conductance</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 728-733 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2749-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2749-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2749-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rzigui T, Jazzar L, Baaziz Khaoula B, Fkiri S, Nasr Z Research Articles 2018-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2749-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) content in stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies) in central Europe https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2521-011 <p><b>Becvárová P, Horváth M, Sarapatka B, Zouhar V</b></p><p><b>DYNAMICS OF SOIL ORGANIC CARBON (SOC) CONTENT IN STANDS OF NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES) IN CENTRAL EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Norway spruce is the main forest tree species in the Czech Republic. Until now, little attention has been given in the literature to the dynamics of soil organic carbon (SOC) content under Norway spruce stands as a function of stand characteristics. The aim of this study is to estimate soil organic carbon (SOC) content and stock changes in organic and surface mineral soil horizons on forest sites with a dominant representation of Norway spruce. In the study area, a significantly higher content of SOC was found in the surface mineral soil horizon than in the organic soil horizon. In both soil horizons, there was evidence of an increasing trend of SOC with the increasing age of forest stands, a decreasing trend of SOC with increasing density of stocking and an increasing trend of SOC with increasing altitude. The relationship of SOC content with soil group (Podzol vs. non-Podzol) has also been demonstrated. The greatest potential for long-term carbon sequestration in soils was shown in older stands (101-190 years) dominated by Norway spruce with lower density of stocking, located in forest vegetation zones (1010-1225 m a.s.l.) where natural mountain Norway spruce forests currently occur. According to our results, Norway spruce stands may perform a stable function of carbon sequestration in the soil at these sites, especially in the mineral soil horizon.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Soil, C Sequestration, Picea abies, Site Conditions, Stand Characteristics, Climate Change</p><p><i>iForest 11 (6): 734-742 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2521-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2521-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2521-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Becvárová P, Horváth M, Sarapatka B, Zouhar V Research Articles 2018-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2521-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Short- and long-term natural regeneration after windthrow disturbances in Norway spruce forests in Bulgaria https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2754-011 <p><b>Tsvetanov N, Dountchev A, Panayotov M, Zhelev P, Bebi P, Yurukov S</b></p><p><b>SHORT- AND LONG-TERM NATURAL REGENERATION AFTER WINDTHROW DISTURBANCES IN NORWAY SPRUCE FORESTS IN BULGARIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Norway spruce forests are among the forests most affected by natural disturbances in Europe. One of the key aspects is the regeneration of the disturbed areas, which is decisive for later forest development. We studied the natural regeneration after two windthrows that occurred 30 (1983) and 50 years ago (1962) in an old-growth forest over 150-year-old in the Parangalitsa Reserve and a recent windthrow (2001) in a 130-year-old single cohort forest in the Bistrishko branishte Reserve in Bulgaria. We set up study plots along transects, counted regeneration and substrates, and analyzed age using tree rings. Post-disturbance regeneration made up 62-81% of all recorded trees and was more important than advance regeneration, but it strongly differed among the windthrows. Our data indicated two discrete peaks of post-disturbance regeneration. The first peak started immediately after the windthrows and was dominated by Norway spruce and rowan, while the second one started about 30 years later and was dominated by spruce. Pioneers such as Populus tremula, Salix caprea and Pinus sylvestris were less prominent than expected, contributing up to 21% of the total regeneration. Despite the fact that the highest density of initial regeneration was found on mounds from uprooted trees, the largest total number in the three studied areas was on intact forest floor, which hosted between 69 and 80% of all regeneration. The importance of coarse woody debris rose significantly two to three decades after the disturbances and was particularly important for the secondary regeneration, which consisted of Picea abies and Abies alba.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Picea abies, Natural Regeneration, Windthrows, Natural Disturbances, Southeastern Europe</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 675-684 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2754-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2754-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2754-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tsvetanov N, Dountchev A, Panayotov M, Zhelev P, Bebi P, Yurukov S Research Articles 2018-10-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2754-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: What if Eurasian jay Garrulus glandarius would larder acorns instead of scatter them? https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2793-011 <p><b>Kurek P, Dobrowolska D, Wiatrowska B, Dylewski L</b></p><p><b>WHAT IF EURASIAN JAY GARRULUS GLANDARIUS WOULD LARDER ACORNS INSTEAD OF SCATTER THEM?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Jays usually store acorns at separate sites, but in some cases a part of jay’s caches consists of more than one acorn. Storing acorns separately (scatter hoarding) or in clusters (larder hoarding) seems to be an important factor for further survival of seeds and seedlings. Scatter hoarding is favorable for jays, but what would happen if jays prepared caches consisting of more than one acorn? We put a following question: what is the importance and impact of acorn concentration per cache for the seedlings’ mortality and their growth characteristics? In 2013 an experimental plot was established. 1400 acorns of Quercus robur L. were sewed in 600 holes in three combinations called growing mode - singly, in twos and in fours. The mortality of seedlings depended on growing mode (Z = 6.24, P < 0.001) and year (Z = -2.42, P = 0.016). In the third year of the experiment the mortality of seedlings growing from acorns sewed in fours reached almost 90%, while in the case of seedlings growing separately the mortality was stable, reaching no more than 23%. Both growing mode (F = 26.49, P < 0.001) and year (F = 52.59, P < 0.001) had a significant impact on seedling growth increment. Seedlings growing in fours had a significantly higher growth increment than these growing separately and in twos. We concluded that seedlings growing separately had a higher survival rate, but lower growth increment than those coming from acorns sewed in clumps.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Eurasian Jay, Acorns, Scatter Hoarding, Larder Hoarding, Seedlings Survival, Seed Dispersal</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 685-689 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2793-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2793-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2793-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kurek P, Dobrowolska D, Wiatrowska B, Dylewski L Research Articles 2018-10-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2793-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The effect of silver and copper nanoparticles on the growth and mycorrhizal colonisation of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a container nursery experiment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2855-011 <p><b>Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M, Szaniawski A, Studnicki M, Bederska-Blaszczyk M, Olchowik J, Urban A</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECT OF SILVER AND COPPER NANOPARTICLES ON THE GROWTH AND MYCORRHIZAL COLONISATION OF SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) IN A CONTAINER NURSERY EXPERIMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recent research points to the possibility of nanoparticles being used as fertilisers, growth stimulators, and promoters of plant resistance or pesticides. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of nanoparticles of silver and copper (AgNPs and CuNPs) on growth parameters and spontaneous mycorrhizal colonisation of roots in 2-year-old container-grown seedlings of Scots pine. Foliar applications of nanoparticles were made through two growing seasons, four times a season, at concentrations of 0, 5, 25 and 50 ppm. Comparisons of the ultrastructures characterising the needles, stems and roots of the treated or untreated pines were conducted with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The deployed CuNPs stimulated mycorrhizal colonisation at all concentrations, although the growth of seedlings was only promoted at a concentration of 25 ppm. Higher concentrations of AgNPs (25 and 50 ppm) inhibited the formation of mycorrhizae, though the lowest concentration (5 ppm) produced an increase in both mycorrhizal colonisation and the dry mass of roots. The species of ectomycorrhizal fungi found were Thelephora terrestris, Suillus bovinus and Sphaerosporella brunnea. The TEM results comparing treated and control (untreated) needles revealed changes in the chloroplasts from lens-shaped to spherical. Furthermore, an increase in the number of plastoglobules and the presence of large osmophilic globules in the cytoplasm associated solely with the needles of pines receiving 50 ppm nanoparticles were observed. In contrast, ultrastructural changes in stems and roots associated with the applications of NPs were not found. Overall, the results indicated that CuNPs and AgNPs could be used as stimulators of growth in general, and mycorrhizal colonisation in particular, among container-grown Scots pines. However, further work is needed to determine their optimal doses and concentrations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Nanoparticles, Ectomycorrhizae, Toxicity, Growth Stimulation</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 690-697 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2855-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2855-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2855-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Aleksandrowicz-Trzcinska M, Szaniawski A, Studnicki M, Bederska-Blaszczyk M, Olchowik J, Urban A Research Articles 2018-10-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2855-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Managed and unmanaged silver fir-beech forests show similar structural features in the western Pyrenees https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2720-011 <p><b>Horvat V, García De Vicuña J, Biurrun I, García-Mijangos I</b></p><p><b>MANAGED AND UNMANAGED SILVER FIR-BEECH FORESTS SHOW SIMILAR STRUCTURAL FEATURES IN THE WESTERN PYRENEES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest structure is considered one of the basic features of the forest ecosystem and it is widely studied with the aim of developing sustainable management strategies. The usual approach is to compare structural features of stands in managed and unmanaged forests. Managed stands are those disturbed in some way by silvicultural practices, whereas unmanaged stands are subject to natural disturbance dynamics and may serve as a reference. Up to now, there has been insufficient research into sustainable management strategies for Pyrenean silver fir-beech forests and the structure of managed and unmanaged stands has not yet been evaluated. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed characterisation of the structural attributes of these mixed mountain forests in the western Pyrenees and compare managed and unmanaged stands regarding selected stand parameters. Potential differences between managed and unmanaged stands were assessed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. Diameter distribution was modelled using third-order polynomials and non-linear regression was performed to compare the tree heights in managed and unmanaged stands. Stand structure was similar in both management categories. The diameter distribution of Pyrenean unmanaged silver fir-beech stands showed a tendency towards a rotated sigmoid distribution. Our results indicate that the recommended diameter distribution has been preserved in managed stands despite they were intensively managed in the past, whilst the unmanaged stands are still in the process of developing old-growth attributes because management was abandoned too recently for significant changes in forest structure to have occurred.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Management, Gaps, Pyrenees, Stand Structure</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 698-704 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2720-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2720-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2720-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Horvat V, García De Vicuña J, Biurrun I, García-Mijangos I Research Articles 2018-10-23 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2720-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects on soil characteristics by different management regimes with root sucker generated hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L. × P. tremuloides Michx.) on abandoned agricultural land https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2853-011 <p><b>Rytter RM, Rytter L</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS ON SOIL CHARACTERISTICS BY DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT REGIMES WITH ROOT SUCKER GENERATED HYBRID ASPEN (POPULUS TREMULA L. × P. TREMULOIDES MICHX.) ON ABANDONED AGRICULTURAL LAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fast-growing Populus species are becoming frequently used at afforestation of arable land globally and hybrid aspen is promising for short rotation forestry in the northern hemisphere. Knowledge about growth performance of the second-generation plantations, i.e., consisting of root sucker generated shoots after clearcutting of the original stand, is increasing, but less information is available on the effects on soil properties, especially with varying management. We followed the soil effects of three different management regimes, including 4-, 8- and 16-year rotations with thinning measures in the two longer rotations, in root sucker generated hybrid aspen on former agricultural land. The study was performed in a randomized block design and changes in soil variables were estimated by repeated sampling, i.e., at root sucker initiation and after eight years. Concentrations and pools of soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil nutrients, pH and bulk density were analysed in the 0-15 and 15-30 cm mineral soil. Common for all management regimes were unchanged SOC and nutrient pools; pH and bulk density were also unaffected during the study period. Afforestation effects on the vertical distribution of nutrients, i.e., redistribution of NH4-N, K and Mg from deeper to shallower soil by plant uptake and release through litter decomposition, were observed in all management regimes. A different effect was noted for NO3-N where a declining trend was observed. This could indicate a leakage of the ion, but NO3-N distributions in soils are variable which makes interpretations difficult. The results suggest that different management strategies have small initial effects on mineral soil characteristics. However, soil changes need to be followed for an extended period to get more information on the long-term impact of afforestation and management of root sucker generated stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Afforestation, Bulk Density, Nutrient Removal, pH, Rotation Time, Soil Organic Carbon (SOC), Soil Nutrients</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 619-627 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2853-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2853-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2853-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rytter RM, Rytter L Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2853-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The spread of the non-native pine tortoise scale Toumeyella parvicornis (Hemiptera: Coccidae) in Europe: a major threat to Pinus pinea in Southern Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2864-011 <p><b>Garonna AP, Foscari A, Russo E, Jesu G, Somma S, Cascone P, Guerrieri E</b></p><p><b>THE SPREAD OF THE NON-NATIVE PINE TORTOISE SCALE TOUMEYELLA PARVICORNIS (HEMIPTERA: COCCIDAE) IN EUROPE: A MAJOR THREAT TO PINUS PINEA IN SOUTHERN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Invasive pests are considered a major threat to biodiversity, conservation and agriculture. The Italian peninsula is a major site of intensive commercial exchange and transport of plants and goods, being consequently one of the European countries most invaded by alien insects. Hemiptera Coccomorpha are the largest group of non-native species recorded in Europe. For example, in the last 70 years more than 50 scale insect species have been accidentally introduced into Italy, 50% of which are now well established. This study was conducted to investigate the biology and the damage of the non-native pine tortoise scale Toumeyella parvicornis Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccidae) accidentally introduced a few years ago into southern Italy. T. parvicornis is multivoltine in the invaded territories, being able to complete at least three generations per year, overwintering in the adult female stage. Oviposition periods during 2015-2017 surveys occurred from late April to end of May, from July to first half of August, and from mid-September to November. Fecundity was positively correlated to body size of gravid females and varied among the generations. Investigations on natural control by autochthonous species showed a seasonal activity of Metaphycus flavus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), parasitizing mainly immature male individuals. The morpho-molecular approach confirms the hypothesis of an ongoing shift of parasitoid populations from other indigenous soft scales to the invasive one. Unfortunately, the low level of natural control was ineffective in hampering the spread of T. parvicornis, and preventing the dieback of local pine species, Pinus pinea, as observed in all invaded areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Invasive Pest, Europe, Toumeyella parvicornis, Life History, Pinus pinea, Natural Control</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 628-634 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2864-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2864-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2864-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Garonna AP, Foscari A, Russo E, Jesu G, Somma S, Cascone P, Guerrieri E Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2864-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Post-fire recovery of the plant community in Pinus brutia forests: active vs. indirect restoration techniques after salvage logging https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2645-011 <p><b>Ürker O, Tavsanoglu &, Gürkan B</b></p><p><b>POST-FIRE RECOVERY OF THE PLANT COMMUNITY IN PINUS BRUTIA FORESTS: ACTIVE VS. INDIRECT RESTORATION TECHNIQUES AFTER SALVAGE LOGGING</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Although reforestation is frequently utilized in many Mediterranean Basin countries to restore burned Mediterranean pine woodlands, post-fire recovery of the plant community is often neglected. To compare the post-fire recovery of the plant community following active and indirect post-fire restoration techniques, we studied three post-fire regeneration treatments in a salvage-logged Pinus brutia forest, including two active (plantation and seeding) restoration techniques and one indirect (natural regeneration). An unburned pine stand was also included in the study. We applied the point-intercept method to obtain data on the presence and cover of individual species and functional groups in six replicate one-hectare plots for each treatment. We found no significant differences in plant species richness among post-fire treatments; however, plant community composition and vegetation structure were significantly different between treatments. There was a shift in plant community structure when active restoration techniques were applied, from the woody- and resprouter-dominated plant community of the unburned site to an annual herbaceous- and non-resprouter-dominated one. Our results suggest that active restoration by planting tree saplings in Mediterranean pine forests after a fire may decrease the plant community’s resilience and provide empirical evidence that pine plantation treatments change the plant species composition of these forests. These results have important implications for post-fire management of Mediterranean Basin pine forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire, Mediterranean Pine Forest, Plant Cover, Plant Functional Groups, Post-fire Restoration, Resilience, Species Diversity, Turkish Red Pine</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 635-642 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2645-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2645-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2645-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ürker O, Tavsanoglu &, Gürkan B Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2645-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Predicting the impacts of climate change on the distribution of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. in the central and eastern Alborz Mountains, Iran https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2559-011 <p><b>Fatemi SS, Rahimi M, Tarkesh M, Ravanbakhsh H</b></p><p><b>PREDICTING THE IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF JUNIPERUS EXCELSA M. BIEB. IN THE CENTRAL AND EASTERN ALBORZ MOUNTAINS, IRAN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years, global climate change has had significant biological, temporal, and spatial effects on many terrestrial habitats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on the geographic distribution of Juniperus excelsa and prioritize its habitats for protection against these effects until 2070. The study was conducted using the MaxEnt species distribution model and two data series GFDL-CM3 and MRI-CGCM3 under scenarios RCP2.6 and RCP4.5 of the 5th IPCC report. Our results revealed that elevation, minimum temperature of coldest month, precipitation of coldest quarter, annual mean temperature, and slope aspect, in that order, have the greatest effects on the species’ distribution in the study area. Under optimistic scenario RCP2.6, both models predicted that the species’ presence area will grow, but under RCP4.5, models predicted that by 2070, some parts of its habitat in western and central heights will be lost because of change in climate parameters like minimum temperature of coldest month and precipitation of coldest quarter. Under the latter scenario, the northeastern parts of the study area showed no changes in terms of climatic parameters and climatic niche. The results of both climate data series indicated that the Juniperus excelsa will slowly migrate to higher elevations to cope with the changing climate. Assessment of the results through field studies showed that outputs of GFDL-CM3 are closer to the reality.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Juniperus excelsa, Climate Change, Irano-Turanian Forests, MaxEnt Model, Climatic Niche</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 643-650 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2559-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2559-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2559-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fatemi SS, Rahimi M, Tarkesh M, Ravanbakhsh H Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2559-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Delineation of seed collection zones based on environmental and genetic characteristics for Quercus suber L. in Sardinia, Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2572-011 <p><b>De Dato G, Teani A, Mattioni C, Marchi M, Monteverdi MC, Ducci F</b></p><p><b>DELINEATION OF SEED COLLECTION ZONES BASED ON ENVIRONMENTAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERISTICS FOR QUERCUS SUBER L. IN SARDINIA, ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The assessment of seed zones or regions of provenance (RoP) to preserve local adaptation of tree species is an effective tool for the correct management of forest reproductive materials. The RoP for a species or sub-species is the area or group of areas subject to sufficiently uniform ecological conditions in which stands or seed sources show similar phenotypic or genetic characters, taking into account altitudinal boundaries where appropriate. However, the delineation of RoPs is commonly based on estimates of intrinsic environmental homogeneity, mainly climate and/or soil characteristics. The integration of genetic data into RoP maps is an important strategy to obtain a sound tool for managing forest reproductive materials. A study on Quercus suber (cork oak) in Sardinia (Italy) was carried out with the aim of determining ecological regions of provenance, investigating the genetic diversity among populations at the regional scale and identifying possible areas of interest for valorising the available germplasm. Identification of these areas was performed by Reserve Selection Analysis, which allows to identify priority areas by assessing the minimum number of sites required to include all the genetic diversity estimated by genetic analysis. Four spatial clusters were obtained based on environmental data: the northern and northern-eastern parts of the island were included in the Northern RoP; the second RoP covered the western part; and the third RoP enclosed the south-eastern region. The last group was distributed on the central part of the island (Central RoP) and includes the higher elevations. The sampled populations showed a low differentiation among populations and low diversity. According to the Reserve Selection Analysis, four conservation priority areas were identified. These indications can be useful at the local level because these sites can be proposed as stands for seed collection for future plantations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Regions of Provenance, Quercus suber, Seed Collection Zones, Spatial Genetic Structure, Sardinia</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 651-659 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2572-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2572-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2572-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> De Dato G, Teani A, Mattioni C, Marchi M, Monteverdi MC, Ducci F Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2572-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Towards the economic valuation of ecosystem production from cork oak forests in Sardinia (Italy) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2558-011 <p><b>Corona P, Quatrini V, Schirru M, Dettori S, Puletti N</b></p><p><b>TOWARDS THE ECONOMIC VALUATION OF ECOSYSTEM PRODUCTION FROM CORK OAK FORESTS IN SARDINIA (ITALY)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A spatially explicit approach for stand-scale economic valuation of current and future potential of cork forests with respect to ecosystem production is developed and presented. The approach, which relies in large part on the mensuration of stand top height and number of trees as main drivers, has been tested on the pure cork forests of Sardinia (Italy). The test was conducted to assess the effects of alternative silvicultural options on cork and fodder production, carbon sequestration, and water yield. Under current conditions, the surveyed pure cork oak forest stands in Sardinia are characterized, on average, by an annual economic production of 93 euro ha-1 yr-1 as concerns cork, 37 euro ha-1 yr-1 as concerns carbon sequestration and 261 euro ha-1 yr-1 as concerns water yield. The value of cork production on an 11-year cycle equals 1023 euro ha-1 on average. The total economic production values among the tested silvicultural alternatives have proven to be characterized by relatively small differences, due to the trade-offs among the considered goods and services. Therefore, at least under conditions similar to those surveyed, managers may safely rely on different stand density options, without any relevant detrimental effect on total economic production. The tested spatial visualization of the economic values of goods and services production can be useful in supporting forest management planning, e.g., to identify priority areas in order to maximize ecosystem production for local communities. The approach proposed here and tested to this end proves to be readily applicable to other cork contexts with similar characteristics under Mediterranean conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Management, Cork Production, Fodder Production, Carbon Sequestration, Water Yield</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 660-667 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2558-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2558-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2558-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Corona P, Quatrini V, Schirru M, Dettori S, Puletti N Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2558-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Indicators for the assessment and certification of cork oak management sustainability in Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2587-011 <p><b>Pollastrini M, Chiavetta U, Cutini A, Casula A, Maltoni S, Dettori S, Corona P</b></p><p><b>INDICATORS FOR THE ASSESSMENT AND CERTIFICATION OF CORK OAK MANAGEMENT SUSTAINABILITY IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Sustainable forest management (SFM) is crucial for forest ecosystem productivity and conservation, especially in systems such as cork oak (Quercus suber L.) threatened by human activities and biotic and abiotic factors. In this study SFM indicators with particular reference to cork oak forests in the region of Sardinia (Italy) are proposed and tested. Sustainable and responsible management options specifically aimed at cork oak forest management and chain of custody certification are also provided. A set of ten indicators was proposed and assessed by an expert panel in cork oak management. Five indicators were also tested against data on structure, origin, health condition and management in 285 forest compartments managed by FoReSTAS (Regional Forest Agency for Land and Environment of Sardinia, Italy), including 361 sampling plots and 5345 trees. In order to investigate the priorities and perceptions of SFM experts and stakeholders, a survey was also carried out by completion of a questionnaire on the technical issues of cork oak woodland management. The survey results highlighted a need to improve environmental and economic performance by means of SFM and certification. The indicators tested in Sardinian cork oak woodlands showed that about 80% of the stands fulfilled management sustainability requirements. The suggested SFM indicators can effectively support proactive management and conservation measures, representing a valuable tool in the current context of growing environmental and socioeconomic awareness.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus suber, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Management Planning, Non-wood Forest Products, Sardinia, Italy</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 668-674 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2587-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2587-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2587-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pollastrini M, Chiavetta U, Cutini A, Casula A, Maltoni S, Dettori S, Corona P Research Articles 2018-10-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2587-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Perspective on the control of invasive mesquite trees and possible alternative uses https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2456-011 <p><b>Ellsworth SW, Crandall PG, Lingbeck JM, O’Bryan CA</b></p><p><b>PERSPECTIVE ON THE CONTROL OF INVASIVE MESQUITE TREES AND POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE USES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Mesquite trees continue to invade forests and range lands in many countries across the world. The cost to remove these trees is staggering. In Texas, landowners spent $25 million over a 10-year period to clear 300.000 ha of mesquite trees, a fraction of the 22 million ha of Texas land affected by this invasion. Estimates are that the mesquite continues to negatively impact one to two percent of additional land in selected counties each year in Texas. However, the problem is not unique to Texas, but rather to the 44 species of mesquite trees, belonging to the genus Prosopis found in the pea family (Fabaceae), introduced across the southern United States, South Asia, Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean. In response, researchers are searching for economically viable uses for harvested trees and seeds to provide an alternative to the high cost of removal. If viable uses for harvested mesquite trees and seeds are found, then sustained pressure will limit and ultimately reduce the negative impact from these invasive trees. One key factor to controlling this invasive species is to find economically and environmentally sustainable uses to help pay the costs of removal or perhaps make removal less necessary. Traditional uses of mesquite are as a building material, as a source of food for both animals and humans and as wood for charcoal. Emerging uses of mesquite are new applications as a biofuel and as a bio-filter medium for water. Moreover, forestry land management of mesquite has adapted to include the tree as a component of hunting lands. New control methodologies and technologies are based on an increased understanding of mesquite growth patterns, using recommended practices that reduce control and eradication costs while improving the efficiency of land management. Previous land management practices have proven that excessive application of herbicides, physical removal of mesquite trees, or human-induced brush fires, if not carefully planned, only worsen mesquite infestations. The growing problem of mesquite land management provides an opportunity for continued research into novel ways to utilize mesquite biomass, of both wood and seed pods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mesquite, Land Management, Prosopis spp., Biofuel</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 577-585 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2456-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2456-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2456-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ellsworth SW, Crandall PG, Lingbeck JM, O’Bryan CA Review Papers 2018-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2456-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Exploring patterns, drivers and structure of plant community composition in alien Robinia pseudoacacia secondary woodlands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2687-011 <p><b>Campagnaro T, Nascimbene J, Tasinazzo S, Trentanovi G, Sitzia T</b></p><p><b>EXPLORING PATTERNS, DRIVERS AND STRUCTURE OF PLANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN ALIEN ROBINIA PSEUDOACACIA SECONDARY WOODLANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Invasive alien tree species can strongly impact biodiversity and future projections predict their spread over natural, semi-natural and human habitats. However, little is known about plant communities that form during the first stages of invasion. We investigated the composition of plant communities in alien Robinia pseudoacacia L. secondary forests growing on grasslands and cultivated areas abandoned during the last 35-40 years in north-eastern Italy to understand whether these formations could cause floristic homogenization of plant communities composition. On the basis of a cluster analysis, plant communities were assigned to seven syntaxonomic categories and split into four groups characterized by the occurrence of 20 species indicative of (a) nitrogen-rich, (b) true forest and (c) open habitat conditions. RDA analysis enabled main stand and environmental variables filtering these communities to be identified and β-diversity components were partitioned through the SDR (Similarity - richness Difference - species Replacement) simplex approach. Plant composition patterns were significantly associated to variability in elevation, stand vertical structure, shrub cover, mean tree diameter and height, and basal area. Shrub cover discriminates between plant communities associated with open or shaded conditions. The partition of β-diversity components revealed that replacement is the prominent process structuring plant communities in these secondary forests. Our study showed that secondary Robinia forests growing on abandoned lands may host compositionally heterogeneous plant communities, thus contributing to regional biodiversity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Black Locust, Alien Tree Species, Biological Invasion, Species Replacement, Plant Composition</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 586-593 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2687-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2687-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2687-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Campagnaro T, Nascimbene J, Tasinazzo S, Trentanovi G, Sitzia T Research Articles 2018-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2687-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Shrub encroachment alters topsoil C:N:P stoichiometric ratios in a high-altitude forest cutover https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2803-011 <p><b>Feng D, Bao W</b></p><p><b>SHRUB ENCROACHMENT ALTERS TOPSOIL C:N:P STOICHIOMETRIC RATIOS IN A HIGH-ALTITUDE FOREST CUTOVER</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The effect of shrub encroachment on soil carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometric ratios are largely still unknown. We investigated this effect and the effect of shrub size in a high altitude forest cutover among four common shrub species: Cerasus trichostoma, Ribes glaciale, Rosa omeiensis and Salix sphaeronymphe. The difference in topsoil C:N ratio between meadows and shrub islands was greatly influenced by shrub species and plant sizes. Topsoil N:P and C:P ratios were always higher in shrub islands than in meadows, irrespective of shrub species and plant size. The expansion of shrubs merely increased the topsoil C:N ratio beneath Cerasus and Rosa, and increased the topsoil N:P and C:P ratios beneath the four shrub species. The increase in stoichiometric ratio followed an identical pattern among the four shrub species as shrub size increased. There were always higher topsoil C:P and N:P ratios beneath Ribes than under the other shrub species with the same plant size. This study clearly suggests that the effect of shrub islands on soil C:N:P stoichiometric ratios was dependent on shrub species and size. Our results are conducive to clarifying the currently confusion in secondary successional trends of soil C:N:P stoichiometry.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Species, Shrub Islands, Shrub Size, Soil Stoichiometry</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 594-599 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2803-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2803-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2803-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Feng D, Bao W Short Communications 2018-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2803-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Changes in the properties of grassland soils as a result of afforestation https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2556-011 <p><b>Podwika M, Solek-Podwika K, Ciarkowska K</b></p><p><b>CHANGES IN THE PROPERTIES OF GRASSLAND SOILS AS A RESULT OF AFFORESTATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The effects of afforestation on physical, physico-chemical, and biological properties of grassland soils were investigated in three sites (215-230 m a.s.l.) located within the urban area of Krakow (southern Poland) after 45-60 years since the introduction of forest tree species. We compared the contents of nutrients and the composition of humus between forest and adjacent grassland soils, as well as the quality of the forest soils in relation to the introduced tree species (alder, pine, oak, birch, maple, elm). We hypothesized that afforestation of grassland soils results in the increase of acidity and nutrient contents. Studied soils belong to Dystric Gleysols (forest) and Eutric Gleysols (grassland). Overall, 168 soil samples were taken from two layers (0-10 cm and 10-30 cm) both from forest and grassland soils. The results showed an increase of organic carbon (up to 150%), total nitrogen (up to 70%) and total acidity (up to 18 times), as well as a decrease of pH (up to 40%) and activity of dehydrogenase (up to 60%) in forest soils in relation to the respective grassland soils. The most intensive changes were observed in the topsoil layers (0-10 cm). We also calculated the Soil Quality index (SQI) based on PCA in which only soil parameters with high load factors were taken into consideration. SQI ranged from 0.39 to 0.41 in grassland soils and from 0.33 to 0.37 in forest soils. Among forest soils, the highest value of SQI was obtained for stands dominated by black alder, indicating that such species is the most suitable for afforestation purposes under the study conditions. The results may be helpful in the realization of afforestation plans of humid grassland soils.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Land Use Change, Physico-chemical Soil Properties, Soil Quality Index</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 600-608 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2556-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2556-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2556-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Podwika M, Solek-Podwika K, Ciarkowska K Research Articles 2018-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2556-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Early responses of biodiversity indicators to various thinning treatments in mountain beech forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2733-011 <p><b>Lombardi F, Lella SD, Altieri V, Benedetto SD, Giancola C, Lasserre B, Kutnar L, Tognetti R, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>EARLY RESPONSES OF BIODIVERSITY INDICATORS TO VARIOUS THINNING TREATMENTS IN MOUNTAIN BEECH FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent decades, the conservation of biodiversity has become one of the main areas under consideration in managing forests in an ecologically sustainable way. Forest management practices are primary drivers of diversity and may enhance or decrease forest biodiversity, according to the measures applied (thinning options). We have focused on three beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests across a latitudinal gradient in Italy, characterised by different structures resulting from dissimilar management. We tested the short-term effects of differently-based silvicultural intervention vs. stands where no silvicultural practices were applied on biodiversity indicators and related proxies: deadwood amounts, microhabitat density, floristic richness and life form abundance. In each study area, the occurrence of the above indicators and proxies was evaluated before and after the implementation of crop tree thinning (CTT) and thinning from below (LT) methods, comparing them with control areas where no interventions were performed. After two years, the management options resulted in different responses of the investigated parameters. The CTT increased deadwood amounts in comparison with the LT ones, while stumps increased significantly after the LT thinning. Microhabitats increased significantly where intervention was not undertaken. On the contrary, they remained unaltered after the LT treatments. CTT thinning created favourable conditions for the development of microhabitats and their proliferation in the long term. Two years after the application of the CTT thinning treatment, all forest stands demonstrated a significant increase in their floristic richness and herb layer cover. Significant differences were also found in both the frequency and cover of life forms in relation to silvicultural treatment. These findings provide a better understanding of short-term effects of silvicultural treatment useful for maintaining biodiversity in mountain beech forests.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Deadwood, Microhabitats, Understory Vegetation, Mountain Forests, Sustainable Forest Management, Italian Forests</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 609-618 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2733-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2733-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2733-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Lombardi F, Lella SD, Altieri V, Benedetto SD, Giancola C, Lasserre B, Kutnar L, Tognetti R, Marchetti M Research Articles 2018-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2733-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Bayesian geographically weighted regression and its application for local modeling of relationships between tree variables https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2574-011 <p><b>Subedi N, Zhang L, Zhen Z</b></p><p><b>BAYESIAN GEOGRAPHICALLY WEIGHTED REGRESSION AND ITS APPLICATION FOR LOCAL MODELING OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN TREE VARIABLES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Geographically weighted regression (GWR) has become popular in recent years to deal with spatial autocorrelation and heterogeneity in forestry and ecological data. However, researchers have realized that GWR has some limitations, such as correlated model coefficients across study areas, strong influence of outliers, weak data problem, etc. In this study, we applied Bayesian geographically weighted regression (BGWR) and a robust BGWR (rBGWR) to model the relationship between tree crown and diameter using observed tree data and simulated data to investigate model fitting and performance in order to overcome some limitations of GWR. Our results indicated that, for observed tree data, the rBGWR estimated tree crown more accurate than both BGWR and GWR. For the simulated data, 74.1% of the estimated slope coefficients by rBGWR and 73.4% of the estimated slope coefficients by BGWR were not significantly different (α = 0.05) from the corresponding simulated slope coefficients. The estimation of model coefficients by rBGWR was not sensitive to outliers, but the coefficient estimation by GWR was strongly affected by those outliers. The majority of the coefficient estimates by rBGWR and BGWR for weak observations were not significantly (α = 0.05) different from the simulated coefficients. Therefore, BGWR (including rBGWR) may be a better alternative to overcome some limitations of GWR. In addition, both BGWR and rBGWR were more powerful than GWR to detect the spatial areas with non-constant variance or spatial outliers.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Spatial Autocorrelation, Spatial Heterogeneity, Robust Regression, Spatially Varying Coefficients Models</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 542-552 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2574-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2574-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2574-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Subedi N, Zhang L, Zhen Z Research Articles 2018-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2574-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Auxin (IAA) and soluble carbohydrate seasonal dynamics monitored during xylogenesis and phloemogenesis in Scots pine https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2734-011 <p><b>Fajstavr M, Paschová Z, Giagli K, Vavrčík H, Gryc V, Urban J</b></p><p><b>AUXIN (IAA) AND SOLUBLE CARBOHYDRATE SEASONAL DYNAMICS MONITORED DURING XYLOGENESIS AND PHLOEMOGENESIS IN SCOTS PINE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The metabolic activity of phytohormones and the accumulation of carbohydrates affect the reactivation of the cambial zone and the radial increment of woody plants. We aimed to monitor the dynamics of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration and amounts of soluble carbohydrates during xylem and phloem formation of one growing season (2015). Six sample trees of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), aged 80 years on average, growing in the Sobešice research site (404 m a.s.l.) in the Czech Republic were selected. We obtained microcore samples at weekly intervals by the Trephor tool method for cell formation analysis and spectrophotometric determination of IAA and soluble carbohydrate contents. We found that time of the highest concentration of IAA (last week of April) coincided with time of the maximum number of cells in the cambial zone and highest expansion of the cell enlargement stage. When the IAA concentration was too low to be measured, latewood tracheids started to form, and late phloem sieve cell formation ceased. The highest concentration of soluble carbohydrates was 200.40 ± 21.6 µg GLU per sample (May 14). This coincided with the fastest weekly xylem cell increment. This research shows that IAA and soluble carbohydrate dynamics directly affects xylem and phloem formation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus sylvestris L., Indole-3-Acetic Acid, Xylem, Phloem, Tracheids, Earlywood, Latewood</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 553-562 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2734-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2734-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2734-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fajstavr M, Paschová Z, Giagli K, Vavrčík H, Gryc V, Urban J Research Articles 2018-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2734-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing the performance of fire danger indexes in a Mediterranean area https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2679-011 <p><b>Sirca C, Salis M, Arca B, Duce P, Spano D</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING THE PERFORMANCE OF FIRE DANGER INDEXES IN A MEDITERRANEAN AREA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The fire danger (FD) defines the conditions less or more favourable for a fire ignition success and its propagation. FD indexes, that integrates environmental variables related to FD in more or less complex equations and systems, are widely used in wildfire prone countries for both scientific and operational purposes. Assessing the performance of FD indexes is challenging and this issue is quite debated within the fire community, which has been trying to apply several methodologies to evaluate FD indexes. The main aim of this work is to give a contribution to this effort. The analysis was conducted using data from a fire-prone Mediterranean area (Sardinia island, Italy), where 8 FD indexes were evaluated and compared using different statistical approaches. We calculated the daily FD values for the period 2000-2007 over the study area. A set of statistical tools (namely Spearman rank correlation, Index Value Distribution and Percentile Analysis, and Logistic Regression) were applied to evaluate the performance of each FD index by comparing FD values with fire occurrence indicators. The statistical tests revealed a large variability in FD indexes performance, depending also on fire activity conditions. Our results showed that two of the tested FD indexes reached a good overall performance. Findings from this study can help both the scientific community and local fire managers, supporting the evaluation of early warning systems and fire prevention strategies in the Mediterranean Basin.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fire Risk, Fire Danger Rating, Mediterranean Basin, Fire Occurrence, Wildfire</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 563-571 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2679-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2679-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2679-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sirca C, Salis M, Arca B, Duce P, Spano D Research Articles 2018-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2679-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Plant phenotype affects oviposition behaviour of pine processionary moth and egg survival at the southern edge of its range https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2675-011 <p><b>Hezil S, Chakali G, Battisti A</b></p><p><b>PLANT PHENOTYPE AFFECTS OVIPOSITION BEHAVIOUR OF PINE PROCESSIONARY MOTH AND EGG SURVIVAL AT THE SOUTHERN EDGE OF ITS RANGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Morphological traits of Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis) needles in native and planted stands at the southern edge of its range influence oviposition behaviour of the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa). Extreme environmental conditions result in a reduction in needle size of the host plant which corresponds to a lower rate of fecundity in the moth. Our results showed that egg batches were laid closer to the needle buds, especially on native trees with short needles, and this resulted in increased egg mortality. Number of eggs laid by the female moths did not vary between native and planted stands, nor did the number of parasitized eggs of the two common Hymenopteran parasitoids, Baryscapus servadeii and Ooencyrtus pityocampae. The observed differences in egg mortality are likely due to abiotic factors associated with the position of the egg batch on the needles. Thaumetopoea pityocampa eggs require a thermal niche for optimal development, and further measurements are required to determine the thermal threshold of these eggs. Understanding the role of climate in T. pityocampa populations will be an important factor for the survival of the Aleppo pine forests and protecting it from desertification.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Algeria, Egg Parasitoid, Pinus halepensis, Plantation, Thaumetopoea pityocampa</p><p><i>iForest 11 (5): 572-576 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2675-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2675-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2675-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Hezil S, Chakali G, Battisti A Research Articles 2018-09-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2675-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evergreen Quercus aquifolioides remobilizes more soluble carbon components but less N and P from leaves to shoots than deciduous Betula ermanii at the end-season https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2633-011 <p><b>Cong Y, Wang A, He HS, Yu FH, Tognetti R, Cherubini P, Wang X, Li MH</b></p><p><b>EVERGREEN QUERCUS AQUIFOLIOIDES REMOBILIZES MORE SOLUBLE CARBON COMPONENTS BUT LESS N AND P FROM LEAVES TO SHOOTS THAN DECIDUOUS BETULA ERMANII AT THE END-SEASON</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Remobilization is an important mechanism of resource conservation in plants. However, our understanding of whether the responses of resource remobilization to global warming differ between deciduous and evergreen trees remains unclear. We assessed resource remobilization from leaves to 1-year-old shoots in a deciduous (Betula ermanii) and an evergreen (Quercus aquifolioides) species along elevational gradients (i.e., temperature gradient) at the end of growing season. We aimed to test the hypotheses that the reallocation rate increased with increasing elevation and that more resources were reallocated from leaves to storage tissues in deciduous species than in evergreen species. We analyzed the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), and compared the differences in remobilization efficiency of NSC, N, and P between leaves and shoots within each species and between the two species along the elevational gradients. Due to the different strategies of evergreen and deciduous species in nutrients use, the deciduous species had higher N and P remobilization rate, but lower remobilization rate of sugars, starch, and NSC than the evergreen species at the end of growing season. The remobilization rate of NSC, N, and P was significantly higher in trees at their upper limits compared to lower elevations. Our results suggest that trees reallocate resources from leaves to storage tissues before leaf senescence or at the end of growing season, to increase the resource use efficiency and to adapt to the harsh alpine environments. These results contribute to better understanding of the alpine treeline phenomenon in a changing world.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Altitudinal Gradient, Non-structural Carbohydrates, Sugars, Starch, Nutrients, Reallocation</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 517-525 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2633-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2633-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2633-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cong Y, Wang A, He HS, Yu FH, Tognetti R, Cherubini P, Wang X, Li MH Research Articles 2018-08-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2633-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Forest certification map of Europe https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2668-011 <p><b>Maesano M, Ottaviano M, Lidestav G, Lasserre B, Matteucci G, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Marchetti M</b></p><p><b>FOREST CERTIFICATION MAP OF EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forests cover nearly 40% of European land, with different country percentage and patchy distribution. The European forestry sector highlights that forest areas have different ownership: private (by firms, individual, or organizations) and public (State, communities or municipalities). The number of forestry holdings, size of landholding, and ownership types influence and drive forest management, governance and various other socio-economic linked issues. Moreover, forest owners determine management objectives and policies which influence the application of Sustainable Forest Management (SFM) practices. Several tools were developed to promote SFM, including forest certification. Numerous forest certification schemes are present across the world but the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) and the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) are those prevalent. However, a map of certified forests is lacking, although mapping would be essential to locate the percentage of forest that are certified to be sustainably managed. The study mapped forest certification across 43 European states, according to 499 FSC and 284 PEFC reports and assessed the proportion of certified forest area on public and private land and the rate of increase. This research was carried out collecting information on European certified forest companies/owners and locating geographically their forests at sub-national level (regions, NUTS 2). The database of the Joint COST Action FACESMAP/UNECE/FAO was an important data source. At European level, about six percent of the forest is certified under FSC scheme, while about seven percent under PEFC scheme. As forest certification is a useful tool to manage forests aiming at the integration of economic, ecological and social sustainability, the knowledge of the location and area of certified forest in Europe could be important in motivating decision makers to increase these sustainably managed areas.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Policy, Sustainable Forest Management, Forest Certification, Forest Owners, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 526-533 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2668-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2668-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2668-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Maesano M, Ottaviano M, Lidestav G, Lasserre B, Matteucci G, Scarascia Mugnozza G, Marchetti M Technical Reports 2018-08-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2668-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tree biomass and carbon density estimation in the tropical dry forest of Southern Western Ghats, India https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2190-011 <p><b>Padmakumar B, Sreekanth NP, Shanthiprabha V, Paul J, Sreedharan K, Augustine T, Jayasooryan KK, Rameshan M, Mohan M, Ramasamy EV, Thomas AP</b></p><p><b>TREE BIOMASS AND CARBON DENSITY ESTIMATION IN THE TROPICAL DRY FOREST OF SOUTHERN WESTERN GHATS, INDIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change highlights the significance of carbon storage and emission in forests towards climate change mitigation. The aim of this study was to quantify the tree biomass and carbon density (carbon storage) in the tropical dry forest of the Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary of Kerala located in the Southern Western Ghats, India. We investigated the species-wise contribution of carbon (C) storage, as well as the species-wise and plot-wise correlation between carbon and other dendrometric variables. We also analysed the girth (diameter) wise distribution of carbon and tree density in the study region. The study was conducted in eight selected sample plots of the region, each with an area of 0.1 hectare. Species-specific volume and specific gravity relationship coupled with suitable regression equation were used to estimate biomass. Tree carbon was assumed to be 47% of the biomass. The results showed that the average biomass and carbon density of the vegetation were 64.13 t ha-1 and 30.46 t-C ha-1, respectively. Among the 32 species identified, Tamarindus indica L. (17%), Hardwickia binata Roxb. (14%), Terminalia arjuna (Roxb. ex DC.) Wight & Arn (10%) and Pleiospermium alatum (Wight & Arn.) Swingle (10%) were dominant as for carbon storage. The correlation analysis showed that basal area is a good predictor of tree biomass and carbon, while the role of tree density and tree diversity remain uncertain in determining carbon storage. With respect to diametric class distribution, tree density showed a reverse J-shaped pattern indicating the sustainable regeneration of the analysed forest, where the small- (diameter at breast height 3-9 cm) to medium-sized trees (diameter at breast height 10-69 cm) were found to contribute to more than 50% of biomass and carbon in the forest. The study provides useful information for carbon mitigation strategies in a tropical dry forest in the Southern Western Ghats.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Above Ground Tree Biomass, Carbon, Tropical Dry Forest, Kerala, Southern Western Ghats</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 534-541 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2190-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2190-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2190-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Padmakumar B, Sreekanth NP, Shanthiprabha V, Paul J, Sreedharan K, Augustine T, Jayasooryan KK, Rameshan M, Mohan M, Ramasamy EV, Thomas AP Research Articles 2018-08-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2190-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of imperfect detection on the estimation of niche overlap between two forest dormice https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2738-011 <p><b>Paniccia C, Di Febbraro M, Frate L, Sallustio L, Santopuoli G, Altea T, Posillico M, Marchetti M, Loy A</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF IMPERFECT DETECTION ON THE ESTIMATION OF NICHE OVERLAP BETWEEN TWO FOREST DORMICE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Quantification of niche overlap represents an important topic in several aspects of ecology and conservation biology, although it could be potentially affected by imperfect detection, i.e., failure to detect a species at occupied sites. We investigate the effect of imperfect detection on niche overlap quantification in two arboreal rodents, the edible dormouse (Glis glis) and the hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius). For both species, we used Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) to estimate the occurrence probability and Occupancy Models (OM) to calculate occurrence and detection probabilities. By comparing these predictions through niche equivalency and similarity tests, we first hypothesised that methods correcting for imperfect detection (OM) provide a more reliable estimate of niche overlap than traditional presence/ absence methods (GLMM). Furthermore, we hypothesised that GLMM mainly estimate species detectability rather than actual occurrence, and that a low number of sampling replicates provokes an underestimation of species niche by GLMM. Our results highlighted that GLMM-based niche overlap yielded significant outcomes only for the equivalency test, while OM-based niche overlap reported significant outcomes for both niche equivalency and similarity tests. Moreover, GLMM occurrence probabilities and OM detectabilities were not statistically different. Lastly, GLMM predictions based on single sampling replicates were statistically different from the average occurrence probability predicted by GLMM over all replicates. We emphasized how accounting for imperfect detection can improve the statistical significance and interpretability of niche overlap estimates based on occurrence data. Under a habitat management perspective, an accurate quantification of niche overlap may provide useful information to assess the effects of different management practices on species occurrence.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Occupancy Models, Generalized Linear Mixed Models, Forest Management, Niche Overlap</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 482-490 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2738-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2738-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2738-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Paniccia C, Di Febbraro M, Frate L, Sallustio L, Santopuoli G, Altea T, Posillico M, Marchetti M, Loy A Research Articles 2018-07-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2738-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The concept of green infrastructure and urban landscape planning: a challenge for urban forestry planning in Belgrade, Serbia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2683-011 <p><b>Vasiljević N, Radić B, Gavrilović S, Šljukić B, Medarević M, Ristić R</b></p><p><b>THE CONCEPT OF GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE AND URBAN LANDSCAPE PLANNING: A CHALLENGE FOR URBAN FORESTRY PLANNING IN BELGRADE, SERBIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The beginning of the 21st century has witnessed a growth in our understanding of the importance of planning urban landscapes in the context of urban population growth and unpredictable climatic conditions. In the search for responses to the challenges set by the development of contemporary urban landscapes, researchers have offered solutions based on the concept of sustainable and resilient cities, whose spatial development would be based on an interdisciplinary approach to strategy development: biodiversity, urban ecological networks and connectivity, multifunctionality and modularity. Although the concepts of a green infrastructure, in their spatial and functional dimensions, allow the application of such strategies, there are still problems when it comes to implementation and measuring the results achieved. At the same time, there is a growing discussion of the important role played by urban forestry in the context of the collaborative planning of urban landscapes and the application of the ideas of a green infrastructure. The key question is: what are the modalities of application of the concept of green infrastructure in the process of planning the development of the modern city and how can the resulting benefits be evaluated? With the modalities of application of the concept of green infrastructure in mind, we discuss its multi-scale and multifunctional dimensions as applied in the case of Serbia. The realisation of the green infrastructure concept is presented through the example of the Urban Forest Management Plan for the City of Belgrade - Mladenovac Municipality. The results of using the spatial-ecological approach in creating the plan and establishing connectivity as a new aim in forest management planning show that the implementation of the green infrastructure concept, and the achieved multifunctional ecosystem values, can be presented on the basis of the parameters of landscape metrics. In light of the new urban world, future research should focus on the application of the landscape ecological approach of the green infrastructure concept in collaborative planning at the urban landscape scale, which allows the creation of ecosystem services and benefits to human well-being.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Green Infrastructure (GI), Urban Landscape Planning, Urban Forestry, Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity, Recreation, Connectivity</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 491-498 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2683-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2683-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2683-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vasiljević N, Radić B, Gavrilović S, Šljukić B, Medarević M, Ristić R Research Articles 2018-07-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2683-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Real-Time PCR for Ceratocystis platani detection: in-depth validation to assess the diagnostic potential and include additional technical options https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2527-011 <p><b>Lumia V, Modesti V, Brunetti A, Wilkinson CL, Di Lernia G, Harrington TC, Pilotti M</b></p><p><b>REAL-TIME PCR FOR CERATOCYSTIS PLATANI DETECTION: IN-DEPTH VALIDATION TO ASSESS THE DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL AND INCLUDE ADDITIONAL TECHNICAL OPTIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A high-performing detection method is essential to safeguard those countries that are still unaffected by canker stain, a devastating disease of Platanus spp. caused by Ceratocystis platani. We previously developed EvaGreen and Taqman-based Real-Time PCR to detect this pathogen, but in-depth validation is needed to guarantee users about its effectiveness and promote its utilization. In this work we present a validation study designed according to EPPO standards, focusing on the analytical and diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. We extend its technical application using SYBR Green. By performing standard curves and eight-replication-based experiments, we established the detection limit at 3 fg C. platani gDNA per PCR reaction. The repeatability and the operator-based reproducibility of the Real-Time PCR was demonstrated. Different gDNA extraction events by different operators and different gDNA extraction modalities did not affect the detection limit. The detection limit threshold cycle was earliest with SYBR Green, followed by Taqman, and EvaGreen. Spiking 6 µl DNA extractions of uninfected, necrotized wood with 3 fg C. platani gDNA confirmed the detection limit: 3 fg C. platani gDNA per PCR reaction, i.e., 0.5 fg gDNA per µl of wood extract. The assays tolerated 6 µl of necrotic C. platani-infected wood extracts without inhibition except for long-dead wood samples, while the 2 µl dose consistently allowed for successful detection. Detection of the pathogen in infected samples showed the highest diagnostic sensitivity with the SYBR Green assay. Agarose gel electrophoresis and staining was validated for visualizing amplicons, even at the detection limit. The specificity of the method was tested against 23 isolates representing the diversity of Ceratocystidaceae, and most species were not detected at 5 ng gDNA. However, some South American strains of the C. fimbriata complex were detected at doses as low as 5 fg. The method remains specific for C. platani detection as no other Ceratocystidaceae are known to colonize plane tree and the species within the geographic range of canker stain of plane tree were only detected at 500 pg or more gDNA. This work paves the way for a performance study of inter-laboratory comparisons.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canker Stain, Real-Time PCR, Validation, EvaGreen, Taqman, SYBR Green</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 499-509 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2527-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2527-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2527-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Lumia V, Modesti V, Brunetti A, Wilkinson CL, Di Lernia G, Harrington TC, Pilotti M Research Articles 2018-07-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2527-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of genetic parameters between optimal and marginal populations of oriental sweet gum on adaptive traits https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2450-011 <p><b>Alan M</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF GENETIC PARAMETERS BETWEEN OPTIMAL AND MARGINAL POPULATIONS OF ORIENTAL SWEET GUM ON ADAPTIVE TRAITS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Genetic parameters of 9 oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis Mill.) populations were estimated at a common garden test. Open-pollinated seeds were collected from 16-27 families for each population. The common garden test was established in 2009 using a randomized complete block design in 25 blocks with single tree plot, with each block included 223 families. Breast height diameter, height and crown diameter were measured at the age of five. The purpose of study was to compare the genetic parameters of optimal and marginal populations and to assess the findings for genetic conservation. The study revealed significant variability in all traits evaluated. In variance components, variation among populations was three times higher than that of families. Individual heritability estimates for breast height diameter, height and crown diameter pooled across the whole dataset (marginal and optimal populations) were 0.21 ± 0.04, 0.27 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.03 and additive genetic coefficients of variation were 13.4%, 9.1% and 7.1%, respectively. Individual heritability estimates for breast height diameter, height and crown diameter in marginal and optimal populations were 0.27 ± 0.10, 0.19 ± 0.08 and 019 ± 0.08 and 0.19 ± 0.04, 0.29 ± 0.05 and 0.09 ± 0.03, respectively. Additive genetic coefficients of variation for breast height diameter, height and crown diameter were 16.7%, 8.3% and 10.8% in marginal and 12.8%, 9.1% and 6.2% in optimal populations, respectively. While breast height diameter and crown diameter were more heritable for marginal populations, height was more heritable for optimal populations. These findings are discussed in terms of genetic conservation of oriental sweet gum.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Liquidambar orientalis, Genetic Variation, Individual Heritability, Gene Conservation, Climate Change</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 510-516 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2450-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2450-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2450-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Alan M Research Articles 2018-07-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2450-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Weak isolation by distance and geographic diversity gradients persist in Scottish relict pine forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2454-011 <p><b>González-Díaz P, Cavers S, Iason GR, Booth A, Russell J, Jump AS</b></p><p><b>WEAK ISOLATION BY DISTANCE AND GEOGRAPHIC DIVERSITY GRADIENTS PERSIST IN SCOTTISH RELICT PINE FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Gene flow is one of the main factors shaping genetic diversity within and among tree populations, and occurs through pollen and seed dispersal. Recent findings of pollen-release asynchronies in distant populations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within Scotland suggest that gene dispersal among more distant populations might be less effective than previously thought. Limited gene dispersal is one of the major factors causing genetic structure for neutral markers, and pollen-release asynchrony could have driven isolation by distance (IBD) among Scottish populations. Previous studies of neutral markers found little differentiation among Scottish populations of Scots pine, however they did not consider IBD over the full Scottish range. We analysed data from 6 nuclear simple sequence repeats (SSR) and 5 chloroplast SSR loci in a total of 540 individuals of Scots pine from 18 populations across Scotland. Our aim was to assess contemporary levels and distribution of genetic variation and to test if the distribution of genetic diversity was consistent with IBD. We also analysed patterns of gene flow that could have contributed to the observed patterns of variation. Levels of genetic diversity were high, for both nuclear and chloroplast markers within populations, and there was no significant differentiation among populations. A weak signal of IBD was present. We found an increase in nuclear diversity towards the East along with greater gene flow in a West-East direction commensurate with the prevailing winds. Our findings suggest that this wind-driven gene flow is dominant over genetic drift and prevents differentiation among the Scottish populations. It may also counteract any pollen-release asynchronies among populations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Pinus sylvestris, Genetic Diversity, Gene Flow, Isolation by Distance, Prevailing Winds</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 449-458 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2454-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2454-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2454-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> González-Díaz P, Cavers S, Iason GR, Booth A, Russell J, Jump AS Research Articles 2018-07-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2454-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessing the availability of forest biomass for bioenergy by publicly available satellite imagery https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2655-011 <p><b>Vacchiano G, Berretti R, Motta R, Mondino Borgogno E</b></p><p><b>ASSESSING THE AVAILABILITY OF FOREST BIOMASS FOR BIOENERGY BY PUBLICLY AVAILABLE SATELLITE IMAGERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest biomass is a renewable energy source, more climate-friendly than fossil fuels and widely available in Europe. The wood energy chain has been suggested as a means to re-activate forest management and improve the value of forest stands in marginalized rural areas. However, wall-to-wall estimates of forest biomass, needed to design the location and size of power and heat biomass plants in any given territory, are notoriously difficult to obtain. This paper tests an algorithm to predict forest biomass using publicly available Landsat satellite imagery in the Liguria region, northern Italy. We used regional forest inventory data to train and validate an artificial neural network (ANN) classifier that uses remotely-sensed information such as three principal components of Landsat-5 TM spectral bands, the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and topography, to retrieve aboveground live tree volume. Percent root mean square error was -9% and -23% for conifers and broadleaves respectively in the calibration dataset, and -27% and -24% in the validation dataset. The reconstructed volume map was updated to present day using current volume increment rates reported by the Italian National Forest Inventory. A wall-to-wall map of forest biomass from harvest residues was finally produced based on species-specific wood density, biomass expansion factors, volume logged for timber assortments, forest accessibility, and topography. Predicted aboveground forest volume ranged from 81 to 391 m3 ha-1. In forests available for wood supply (70% of the total), planned volume removals averaged 25.4 m3 ha-1, or 18.7% of the average standing stock across. Biomass available for bioenergy supply was 1.295.921 million Mg dry matter or 8.95 Mg ha-1. This analysis workflow can be replicated in all mountain regions with a predominant broadleaved coppice component.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Artificial Neural Networks, Mixed Forests, Landsat, Mediterranean Mountains, Vegetation Indices, Wood Energy Chain</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 459-468 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2655-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2655-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2655-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vacchiano G, Berretti R, Motta R, Mondino Borgogno E Research Articles 2018-07-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2655-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growing season water balance of an inner alpine Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2626-011 <p><b>Wieser G, Gruber A, Oberhuber W</b></p><p><b>GROWING SEASON WATER BALANCE OF AN INNER ALPINE SCOTS PINE (PINUS SYLVESTRIS L.) FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We estimated components of the water cycle of a 150-year-old Pinus sylvestris forest in an inner Alpine dry valley of the Tyrol, Austria throughout five growing seasons. Forest canopy transpiration (TC) was measured by sap flow measurements scaled to the stand canopy level. Estimates of understory transpiration and forest floor evaporation (ETU) were derived from the soil water budget method, while interception (I) was modelled. Growing season cumulative evapotranspiration (ET = TC + ETU + I) varied between 256 and 322 mm or 51 to 79% of the growing season precipitation. The contribution of TC, ETU, and I to ET were 33, 40 and 27% respectively. Although these values of each layer (evapo)-transpiration are in good agreement with studies carried out in other European Scots pine forests, our estimated growing season total forest water use (Ttot = Tc + ETu) of 200-244 mm is at the lower end of values reported for coniferous forest ecosystems, and thus reflects an adaptation to the low shallow soil water availability. We conclude that Scots pine forests in inner alpine dry valleys are able to cope with high evaporative demand, even when shallow soil water availability is limited.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Water Balance, Scots Pine, Dry Inner Alpine Valley, Evapotranspiration, Interception, Runoff</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 469-475 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2626-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2626-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2626-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wieser G, Gruber A, Oberhuber W Research Articles 2018-07-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2626-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Long-term effects of stem girdling on needle structure in Scots pine https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2648-011 <p><b>Gebauer R, Plichta R, Foit J, Cermák V, Urban J</b></p><p><b>LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF STEM GIRDLING ON NEEDLE STRUCTURE IN SCOTS PINE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Stem girdling is the process of completely removing a strip of cork and phloem tissue. Phloem is the living tissue which serves as the main long-distance pathway for transporting carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis to all parts of the plant where needed, from source leaves to sinks. Stem girdling has been used to study several functional aspects of phloem and their direct impacts on tree growth. Although both photosynthesis and transpiration processes take place in needles, no studies exist which investigate the effect of source-sink disturbance on needle structure. In this study, we evaluated changes in needle morphology and anatomy in current-year Scots pine needles 227 and 411 days after girdling (DAG). Although the studied needle parameters recorded 227 DAG were from 2 to 20% higher than the same parameters in control needles, the differences were not significant. On the other hand, needles 411 DAG were thinner, with decreased cross-sectional areas, phloem areas, vascular cylinder areas, needle dry mass, needle density, and needle flatness when compared to control needles. Marked variations in needle growth were observed 411 DAG, with a smaller number of correlations among almost all studied needle parameters in needles 411 DAG when compared to control needles or needles 227 DAG. Structural development determining needle flatness, needle density, and leaf mass per area (LMA) appeared to have driving factors that were independent of the other studied needle parameters, as correlations with other parameters were not significant in any treatment. The changes in overall needle structure observed after long-term stem girdling provide new insights into the processes that occur as a result of source-sink disturbances. This type of data could be helpful, for example, in studies specifically focused on phloem transport, tree carbon relationships, or investigations modeling gas exchange. Our study might also support gene expression studies, which could provide further knowledge about the regulatory mechanisms that determine needle size and structural form.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Anatomy, Cross-section, Morphology, Pinus sylvestris, Phloem, Source-Sink Disturbance</p><p><i>iForest 11 (4): 476-481 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2648-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2648-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2648-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Gebauer R, Plichta R, Foit J, Cermák V, Urban J Research Articles 2018-07-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2648-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Linking deadwood traits with saproxylic invertebrates and fungi in European forests - a review https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2670-011 <p><b>Parisi F, Pioli S, Lombardi F, Fravolini G, Marchetti M, Tognetti R</b></p><p><b>LINKING DEADWOOD TRAITS WITH SAPROXYLIC INVERTEBRATES AND FUNGI IN EUROPEAN FORESTS - A REVIEW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Deadwood is a substantial component of forests playing a central role in many ecosystem processes. It provides habitats for a multitude of wood-dependent organisms, maintaining the ecosystem health and reducing the effect of natural disturbances. Deadwood is recognized as an indicator of local species diversity and contributes to the global carbon pools and nutrient cycles. Despite its importance, how saproxylic communities respond to deadwood dynamics across multiple spatial and temporal scales is still not clear. With the present review, we aim to summarize the effects of deadwood characteristics on the diversity and composition of saproxylic insects and fungi, with focus on European forests. We also discuss the influence of other biotic and abiotic components that indirectly affect these communities by altering wood continuity and variety. Niche differentiation is the main ecological driver of saproxylic organisms, as the presence of multiple microhabitats supports differently specialized taxa. The assemblage and richness of these saproxylic communities within forest ecosystems can be considered as indicators of climate-smart forestry trajectories. This aspect deserves to be regarded as a major target in sustainable forest management plans, especially in mountain areas, where the conservation of threatened species and the promotion of biodiverse forests are considered a priority.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Deadwood Accumulation, Deadwood Decomposition, Saproxylic Insects, Saproxylic Fungi, European Forests, Conservation-oriented Forestry</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 423-436 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2670-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2670-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2670-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Parisi F, Pioli S, Lombardi F, Fravolini G, Marchetti M, Tognetti R Review Papers 2018-06-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2670-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Respiratory costs of woody tissues in a Quercus pyrenaica coppice https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2599-011 <p><b>Salomón RL, Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Gil L, Valbuena-Carabaña M</b></p><p><b>RESPIRATORY COSTS OF WOODY TISSUES IN A QUERCUS PYRENAICA COPPICE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Long-term coppicing leads to the development of massive root systems. A disproportionate carbon investment in root maintenance has been pointed as a cause of the widespread decline of abandoned coppices. We aimed at assessing how coppicing has influenced root and shoot development and related carbon loss ascribed to maintenance of woody tissues in Quercus pyrenaica. For this goal, results from published studies on root dynamics, woody biomass and respired CO2 fluxes in an abandoned Q. pyrenaica coppice were integrated and extended to quantify overall respiratory expenditures of above- and below-ground woody organs. Internal and external CO2 fluxes together with soil CO2 efflux were monitored in eight stems from one clone across a growing season. Stems and roots were later harvested to quantify the functional biomass and scale up root and stem respiration (RR and RS, respectively) to the clone and stand levels. Below- and above-ground biomass was roughly equal. However, the root-to-shoot ratio of respiration (RR/RS) was generally below one. Relatively higher RS suggests enhanced metabolic activity aboveground during the growing season, and highlights an unexpected but substantial contribution of RS to respiratory carbon losses. Moreover, soil and stem CO2 efflux to the atmosphere in Q. pyrenaica fell in the upper range of reported rates for various forest stands distributed worldwide. We conclude that both RS and RR represent an important carbon sink in this Q. pyrenaica abandoned coppice. Comparatively high energetic costs in maintaining multiple stems per tree and centennial root systems might constrain aboveground performance and contribute to coppice stagnation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Loss, CO2 Fluxes, Coppice Stagnation, Oak, Resprouting Species, Root Respiration, Stem Respiration</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 437-441 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2599-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2599-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2599-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Salomón RL, Rodríguez-Calcerrada J, Gil L, Valbuena-Carabaña M Short Communications 2018-06-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2599-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Preliminary results of the tolerance to inorganic contaminants and phytoextraction potential of twelve ornamental shrub species tested on an experimental contaminated site https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2716-011 <p><b>Vincent G, Shang K, Zhang G, Labrecque M</b></p><p><b>PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE TOLERANCE TO INORGANIC CONTAMINANTS AND PHYTOEXTRACTION POTENTIAL OF TWELVE ORNAMENTAL SHRUB SPECIES TESTED ON AN EXPERIMENTAL CONTAMINATED SITE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In urban areas of China, several plant species are commonly used for ornamental purposes. Many of these plants have demonstrated a good capacity to resist these varied urban stresses, and it would be relevant to verify whether they can be grown on polluted sites and demonstrate some phytoremediation potential. Twelve ornamental shrub species were chosen to be tested for tolerance to inorganic contaminants and capacity to absorb and concentrate heavy metals in their aerial parts. A large split-plot trial comprising 20 plots was set up, and soil was spiked with different metals (Cu, Pb and Zn). In general, all twelve shrub species performed well regardless of the treatment. Two Hibiscus species, H. mutabilis and H. syriacus “Hamabo” were particularly productive. In terms of capacity to uptake metals, two of the best performing species were Spiraea japonica, for copper, and Nandina domestica, for lead. Bioconcentration and transfer factors were low. This could be related to weak development of the root systems in these recently established plants. Species with high yield, such as the two Hibiscus species, presented more interesting values in terms of quantity of metal extracted, and could eventually be recommended for decontamination of soils polluted by inorganics.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phytoremediation, Phytoectraction, Trace Elements, Ornamental Shrub Species, Urban Stresses</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 442-448 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2716-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2716-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2716-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vincent G, Shang K, Zhang G, Labrecque M Research Articles 2018-06-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2716-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nutrient uptake, allocation and biochemical changes in two Chinese fir cuttings under heterogeneous phosphorus supply https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2657-011 <p><b>Farooq TH, Tigabu M, Ma X, Zou X, Liu A, Odén PC, Wu P</b></p><p><b>NUTRIENT UPTAKE, ALLOCATION AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN TWO CHINESE FIR CUTTINGS UNDER HETEROGENEOUS PHOSPHORUS SUPPLY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plant-available nutrients in soils are usually distributed in a heterogeneous or patchy manner. Plant responses to low levels of phosphorous (P) are not uniform across and within species. In this study, we examined the adaptive role of physiological plasticity (increased rate of nutrient uptake in localized zones) to the heterogeneous distribution of P in the soil, and whether low P stress transcends to the shoot and triggers similar biochemical changes that enhance tolerance. Two Chinese fir clones with high P efficiency (M1, which is tolerant to low P, and M4 which is able to decouple fixed P) were chosen as the research materials and their physiological responses to low P stress were examined using a sand culture experiment. For both clones, there was no significant difference in nutrient concentration between P-replete and P-deficient patches. Heterogeneous P supply did not affect the allocation of nutrients to the above-ground parts of the plants. The activity of acid phosphatase (APase) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content increased initially but declined with increasing duration of stress, while the content of soluble protein and total chlorophyll contents remained unaffected by the heterogeneous P supply. We conclude that physiological plasticity plays no role in adaptation to low P stress in these clones, while the changes in APase activity and MDA content in needles suggest functional metabolic processes are involved in enhancing P-efficiency in these clones.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chinese Fir, Physiological Plasticity, Low Phosphorus Stress, Acid Phosphatase Activity, Nutrient Accumulation</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 411-417 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2657-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2657-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2657-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Farooq TH, Tigabu M, Ma X, Zou X, Liu A, Odén PC, Wu P Research Articles 2018-06-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2657-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Moisture in modified wood and its relevance for fungal decay https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2406-011 <p><b>Thybring EE, Kymäläinen M, Rautkari L</b></p><p><b>MOISTURE IN MODIFIED WOOD AND ITS RELEVANCE FOR FUNGAL DECAY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Water plays an essential role in fungal decay of wood, and limiting the cell wall moisture content by chemical modification can effectively improve the durability of the material. Investigating the wood-water relations of modified material under climatic conditions relevant for fungal decay are, however, experimentally challenging. Most studies in literature therefore focus on moisture sorption under conditions outside those of importance for fungal decay. This review discusses the validity of such data for characterising the wood-water relations at very humid climatic conditions, relevant for fungal decay. Moreover, the review attempts to cover the basics of fungal decay, the important role of water, and how controlling water content by modification can improve durability.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Modification, Wood, Moisture, Experimental Techniques</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 418-422 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2406-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2406-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2406-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Thybring EE, Kymäläinen M, Rautkari L Review Papers 2018-06-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2406-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Response of juvenile progeny of seven forest tree species and their populations to simulated climate change-related stressors, heat, elevated humidity and drought https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2340-011 <p><b>Pliura A, Jankauskiene J, Lygis V, Suchockas V, Bajerkevičiene G, Verbylaite R</b></p><p><b>RESPONSE OF JUVENILE PROGENY OF SEVEN FOREST TREE SPECIES AND THEIR POPULATIONS TO SIMULATED CLIMATE CHANGE-RELATED STRESSORS, HEAT, ELEVATED HUMIDITY AND DROUGHT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The study aimed to evaluate response and phenotypic plasticity of juvenile progeny of seven forest tree species Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Quercus robur, Fraxinus excelsior, Alnus glutinosa, Betula pendula and Populus tremula and their populations to climate change-related stressors, simulated in a phytotron - heat and elevated humidity and heat and drought - in comparison to performance in ambient (control) conditions. Treatment effect on sapling morphometric, physiological and biochemical traits was significant except for health condition, transpiration and photosynthetic rates and water use efficiency (WUE). Species effect and species-by-treatment interaction were strongly significant in most traits studied, indicating a great inter-specific variability of responses to the applied treatments. Compared to control, stem diameter increment was lower for most species following both hot-wet and hot-dry treatments, while treatment impact on height increment was less pronounced and sometimes even positive. Drought caused significant defoliation in P. tremula, A. glutinosa and B. pendula, while under hot-wet treatment the defoliation in most species was lower than in control. Following hot dry treatment, WUE in P. abies, P. sylvestris and B. pendula was lower than following both hot-wet treatment and control, while in P. tremula, A. glutinosa and Q. robur WUE was higher. This suggests that the latter species are able to maintain a balance between photosynthesis and transpiration. Photosynthetic rate was highest in P. tremula, B. pendula and A. glutinosa, however it was much more negatively affected by water deficit in these three species than in other tested species. In most cases, drought had a negative effect on production of pigments in deciduous tree species, which, together with increased amounts of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, indicated a presence of an oxidative stress. Significant population effect and population-by-treatment interactions found for most traits showed different plasticity and response of tree populations to the treatments. Although, only 19% of the populations showed significant ecovalencies. Some of the observed reactions may not be considered as adaptive acclimation as decreasing growth of some species and populations indicates deteriorating performance which may lead to changes in their competitiveness, thus compromising regeneration, persistence of natural successions and sustainability of forest ecosystems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change, Stress, Growth, Physiology, Transpiration, Photosynthesis, Water Use Efficiency, Biochemical Parameters, Phenotypic Plasticity</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 374-388 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2340-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2340-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2340-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pliura A, Jankauskiene J, Lygis V, Suchockas V, Bajerkevičiene G, Verbylaite R Research Articles 2018-05-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2340-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: COSMO-SkyMed potential to detect and monitor Mediterranean maquis fires and regrowth: a pilot study in Capo Figari, Sardinia, Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2623-011 <p><b>Vaglio Laurin G, Avezzano R, Bacciu V, Frate FD, Papale D, Virelli M</b></p><p><b>COSMO-SKYMED POTENTIAL TO DETECT AND MONITOR MEDITERRANEAN MAQUIS FIRES AND REGROWTH: A PILOT STUDY IN CAPO FIGARI, SARDINIA, ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Mediterranean maquis is a complex and widespread ecosystem in the region, intrinsically prone to fire. Many species have developed specific adaptation traits to cope with fire, ensuring resistance and resilience. Due to the recent changes in socio-economy and land uses, fires are more and more frequent in the urban-rural fringe and in the coastlines, both now densely populated. The detection of fires and the monitoring of vegetation regrowth is thus of primary interest for local management and for understanding the ecosystem dynamics and processes, also in the light of the recurrent droughts induced by climate change. Among the main objectives of the COSMO-SkyMed radar constellation mission there is the monitoring of environmental hazards; the very high revisiting time of this mission is optimal for post-hazard response activities. However, very few studies exploited such data for fire and vegetation monitoring. In this research, Cosmo-SkyMed is used in a Mediterranean protected area covered by maquis to detect the burnt area extension and to conduct a mid-term assessment of vegetation regrowth. The positive results obtained in this research highlight the importance of the very high-resolution continuous acquisitions and the multi-polarization information provided by COSMO-SkyMed for monitoring fire impacts on vegetation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cosmo-SkyMed, Maquis, Fire, Mediterranean Vegetation</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 389-395 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2623-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2623-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2623-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vaglio Laurin G, Avezzano R, Bacciu V, Frate FD, Papale D, Virelli M Research Articles 2018-05-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2623-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Climate change may threaten the southernmost Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii (Dunal) Franco populations: an ensemble niche-based approach https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2588-011 <p><b>Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Duque-Lazo J, Manzanedo RD, Sánchez-Salguero R, Palacios-Rodriguez G</b></p><p><b>CLIMATE CHANGE MAY THREATEN THE SOUTHERNMOST PINUS NIGRA SUBSP. SALZMANNII (DUNAL) FRANCO POPULATIONS: AN ENSEMBLE NICHE-BASED APPROACH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We used Species Distribution Modeling to predict the probability of Iberian pine (Pinus nigra subsp. salzmannii [Dunal] Franco) occurrences in southern Spain in response to environmental variables and to forecast the effects of climate change on their predicted geographical distribution. The ensemble modeling approach “biomod2” was used, together with present Iberian pine data, to predict the current potential distribution based on bioclimatic explanatory variables (200 m resolution) and to forecast future suitability by studying three periods (2040, 2070, and 2100), considering the Global Circulation Models BCM2, CNCM3, and ECHAM5, and the regional model EGMAM, for different scenarios (SRAB1, SRA2, SRB1). Model evaluation was performed using Kappa, True Skills Statistic (TSS), and Area Under the Curve (AUC) values. The biomod2 approach highlighted the average number of days with a minimum temperature equal to or below 0°C, annual precipitation, and aridity index as the most important variables to describe the P. nigra occurrence probability. Model performances were generally satisfactory and the highest AUC values and high stability of the results were given by GAM and GLM, but MaxEnt and the SRE model were scarcely accurate according to all our statistics. The ensemble Species Distribution Modeling of P. nigra in Andalusia predicted the highest probability of species occurrence in the eastern areas, Sierra de Cazorla being the area with the highest occurrence of P. nigra in Andalusia. In the future habitat, the general probability of P. nigra occurrence in Andalusia will decrease widely; the species is expected to lose habitat suitability at moderate altitudes and its occurrence probability will have decreased by nearly 70% on average by 2100, affected by the selected scenario. Populations in Sierra de Cazorla are those most suitable for P. nigra growth, even under the most pessimistic scenarios. It is likely that the natural southern populations of P. nigra will be very sensitive to changes in climate.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Species Distribution Modeling, Climate Change, Ensemble Modeling, Iberian Pine, Mediterranean Relict Forests</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 396-405 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2588-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2588-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2588-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Duque-Lazo J, Manzanedo RD, Sánchez-Salguero R, Palacios-Rodriguez G Research Articles 2018-05-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2588-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Notes: Effect of tree age on chemical compounds of ancient Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana) needles in Northwest Turkey https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2665-011 <p><b>Turfan N, Alay M, Sariyildiz T</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF TREE AGE ON CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF ANCIENT ANATOLIAN BLACK PINE (PINUS NIGRA SUBSP. PALLASIANA) NEEDLES IN NORTHWEST TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plant primary and secondary metabolites are chemical compounds synthesized for essential functions, such as growth and development (primary metabolites), and specific functions, such as pollinator attraction or defense against herbivory (secondary metabolites). Their concentrations in plants are genetically determined, but are also affected by environmental factors. Among these factors, plant age has been reported to influence plant chemical compounds under similar environmental conditions. We aimed to investigate the chemical compounds of ancient Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana) needles from trees of different ages. Needles of over 500-, 200-, 100-, 50-, and 25-year-old black pine trees growing under similar environmental conditions were sampled and analyzed for photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids), proline, total soluble protein, glucose, sucrose, total soluble sugar, peroxidation level (MDA-malondialdehyde), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and antioxidants such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities. Significant differences for chemical composition associated with age were found. In general, results showed that over 500-year-old Anatolian black pine had the highest proline, total soluble protein, H2O2, sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates, APX, CAT and SOD concentrations, whereas they had the lowest chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and glucose concentrations. However, 200-year-old trees had the highest glucose, but the lowest chlorophyll b, proline, H2O2 and total soluble carbohydrates. 50- and 25-year-old trees together showed the highest chlorophyll a and b, total chlorophyll, total carotenoid and MDA, but lowest total soluble protein and sucrose. In conclusion, these results provide valuable insight into the chemical composition of Anatolian black pine needles in relation to their age, and can be used for complementing studies on tree growth-defence relationships.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ancient Trees, Anatolian Black Pine, Chemical Composition, Turkey</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 406-410 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2665-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2665-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2665-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Turfan N, Alay M, Sariyildiz T Technical Notes 2018-05-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2665-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Recovery of above-ground tree biomass after moderate selective logging in a central Amazonian forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2534-011 <p><b>Otani T, Lima AJ, Suwa R, Amaral MR, Ohashi S, Pinto AC, Dos Santos J, Kajimoto T, Higuchi N, Ishizuka M</b></p><p><b>RECOVERY OF ABOVE-GROUND TREE BIOMASS AFTER MODERATE SELECTIVE LOGGING IN A CENTRAL AMAZONIAN FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We examined the recovery and dynamics of living tree above-ground biomass (AGB) after selective logging in an Amazonian terra firme forest managed by a private company. The forest consisted of 24 blocks (including one set aside for conservation) selectively logged in different years on a managed schedule. Trees ≥10 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh) were surveyed in 2006 in 192 0.25-ha plots, in 2010 in 119 plots, and in 2012-2013 in 54 plots. A logistic growth model factoring in logging dynamics and mean AGB of a block in these years was established. Referencing the mean AGB of the unlogged forest, the model indicated that the logged forest would take on average 14 years to regain its preharvest AGB after selective logging at 1.9 trees ha-1 (dbh > 50 cm). In 2010 and 2012-2013, the AGB increased significantly for small and large trees (10-20 cm and >60 cm dbh, respectively) in the logged forest. In contrast, it decreased significantly for medium-sized trees (30-50 cm dbh) in the unlogged forest. Comparisons with the previous studies mainly conducted in the other regions of Amazon suggested that the estimated AGB recovery period with moderate logging intensity was almost appropriate and likely acceptable to forest managers.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Annual Increment, Dynamics, Logistic Growth, Recovery Period, Terra Firme Forest</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 352-359 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2534-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2534-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2534-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Otani T, Lima AJ, Suwa R, Amaral MR, Ohashi S, Pinto AC, Dos Santos J, Kajimoto T, Higuchi N, Ishizuka M Research Articles 2018-05-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2534-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Photosynthesis of three evergreen broad-leaved tree species, Castanopsis sieboldii, Quercus glauca, and Q. myrsinaefolia, under elevated ozone https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2493-011 <p><b>Watanabe M, Kinose Y, Izuta T</b></p><p><b>PHOTOSYNTHESIS OF THREE EVERGREEN BROAD-LEAVED TREE SPECIES, CASTANOPSIS SIEBOLDII, QUERCUS GLAUCA, AND Q. MYRSINAEFOLIA, UNDER ELEVATED OZONE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The main goal of this study was to obtain detailed information on photosynthetic responses of evergreen broad-leaved tree species to ozone (O3). For this, two-year-old seedlings of Castanopsis sieboldii, Quercus glauca, and Q. myrsinaefolia were grown for one growing season, from 15 May to 27 October 2014 under three levels of gas treatments, charcoal-filtered air and 1.0 time and 1.5 times ambient O3 concentrations. We analysed the intercellular CO2 concentration-response curve of the net photosynthetic rate, i.e., the A/Ci curve, in July and October, and growth measurement was carried out at the end of the experiment in October. We observed a difference in O3 susceptibility among the species. Negative effects of O3 were observed on the growth and photosynthetic traits of C. sieboldii, while no significant effects on these traits were noted in the two Quercus species. The decrease in light-saturated net photosynthetic rate (Asat) of C. sieboldii under elevated O3 was accompanied with a significant decrease in the maximum rate of carboxylation (Vcmax). Decreases of leaf nitrogen content and nitrogen use efficiency to Rubisco are considered as factors contributing to lower Vcmax in C. sieboldii seedlings under elevated O3. In addition to the decrease in Vcmax, O3 exposure induced marginal increase of stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. These results indicate that both biochemical and diffusion processes in photosynthesis are responsible for the decrease in Asat of C. sieboldii under elevated O3.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ozone, Photosynthesis, Biochemical Limitation of Photosynthesis, Stomatal Closure, Evergreen Broad-leaved Tree Species</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 360-366 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2493-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2493-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2493-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Watanabe M, Kinose Y, Izuta T Research Articles 2018-05-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2493-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Wildfire risk and its perception in Kabylia (Algeria) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2546-011 <p><b>Sahar O, Leone V, Limani H, Rabia N, Meddour R</b></p><p><b>WILDFIRE RISK AND ITS PERCEPTION IN KABYLIA (ALGERIA)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This research aims to study wildfire perception by residents living in Wildland Urban Interface (WUI) in Kabylia (Algeria). We conducted an exploratory qualitative survey contacting 254 randomly selected individuals in eight hamlets of the Mizrana forest. Face-to-face questionnaires were administered to understand the fire risk problem. Respondents think that their homes are not exposed to fire risk and perceive their hamlets are protected against wildfires; on the contrary, they perceive their property (fields, livestock, olive trees, etc.) as exposed to fire risk. The vast majority of respondents declare to know how to defend themselves in the case of a fire event, using water and hand tools. Residents mainly use fire for stubble burning and disposal of domestic waste. Their skill in using fire as a land management tool respectively comes from their fathers, grandfathers and mothers. Results show the necessity of making resident more aware of the risks that wildfires pose to them. A culture of risk needs to be developed within the territory to limit vulnerability and the likelihood of destructive fires.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Algeria, Fire Use, Mizrana Forest, Risk Perception, TEK, Wildland Urban Interface, Wildfire</p><p><i>iForest 11 (3): 367-373 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2546-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2546-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2546-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sahar O, Leone V, Limani H, Rabia N, Meddour R Research Articles 2018-05-04 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2546-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Outlook of the European forest-based sector: forest growth, harvest demand, wood-product markets, and forest carbon dynamics implications https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2636-011 <p><b>Jonsson R, Blujdea VN, Fiorese G, Pilli R, Rinaldi F, Baranzelli C, Camia A</b></p><p><b>OUTLOOK OF THE EUROPEAN FOREST-BASED SECTOR: FOREST GROWTH, HARVEST DEMAND, WOOD-PRODUCT MARKETS, AND FOREST CARBON DYNAMICS IMPLICATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A comprehensive assessment of European forest-based biomass harvest potentials, their future utilization and implications on international wood product markets and forest carbon dynamics requires the capability to model forest resource development as well as global markets for wood-based commodities with sufficient geographical and product detail and, most importantly, their interactions. To this aim, we apply a model framework fully integrating a European forest resource model and a global economic forest sector model. In a business-as-usual (BaU) scenario, European Union harvests increase seven percent by 2030 compared to past levels (485 million m3 on 2000-2012 average and 517 million m3 in 2030). The subsequent annual carbon stock change is a ten percent reduction by 2030 compared to 2000-2012 average (equal to 119.3 Tg C yr-1), corresponding to decreasing carbon-dioxide removal by the European forests. A second, high mobilization scenario (HM), characterized by the full utilization of the potential wood supply and a doubling of EU wood pellets consumption, was designed to explore potential impacts on forest carbon dynamics and international wood product markets under intensive exploitation of biomass resources. In the HM scenario, harvest increases by 55% (754 million m3 in 2030) compared to the BaU scenario. Fuelwood accounts for this increase in harvest levels as overall competition effects from increased wood pellets consumption outweighs synergies for material uses of wood, resulting in slightly reduced harvests of industrial roundwood. As expected, this increasing harvest level would significantly impair carbon-dioxide forest sequestration from the atmosphere in the medium term (-83% in 2030, compared to 2000-2012 average).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass, Carbon Stock Change, Forest, Fuelwood, Harvest, Wood-based Products</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 315-328 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2636-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2636-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2636-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jonsson R, Blujdea VN, Fiorese G, Pilli R, Rinaldi F, Baranzelli C, Camia A Research Articles 2018-04-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2636-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Richness and abundance of granivorous vertebrates determine acorn removal patterns in a human modified oak forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2216-011 <p><b>Barragán F, Badano EI, Douterlungne D, Flores J</b></p><p><b>RICHNESS AND ABUNDANCE OF GRANIVOROUS VERTEBRATES DETERMINE ACORN REMOVAL PATTERNS IN A HUMAN MODIFIED OAK FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Most forests of the Earth have been affected by human activities and this can alter the plant-animal interactions on which depend the functional integrity of these ecosystems. In this study, we assessed the relationships between acorn removal rates and the richness and abundance of granivorous vertebrates along a forest-edge-clearing gradient. We also evaluated whether removal rates differed among oak species with different acorn size. To this purpose, a field experiment was performed including acorns of five oak species, which were exposed to seed consumers in the three different habitats (forest interior, man-made clearings and the edge between these habitats). The experimental units consisted in five paper trays containing 50 acorns of each oak species located at different distances from the edge towards the forest and the man-made clearing (0, 20 and 50 m). Experimental sites were equipped with phototraps to record the identity of the visiting granivorous vertebrates. Richness and abundance of granivores increased from the edge towards the forest interior, while the converse patterns were observed in the man-made clearing. For most oak species, acorn removal patterns was positively correlated with richness and abundances of granivores, though in all habitats small-sized acorns were removed much faster and in larger proportions than big-sized acorns. Although these results are specific for the study site, they suggest that man-made clearings reduce the richness and abundance of granivores, thus negatively affecting the secondary dispersion of zoochoric tree species towards open habitats. Further, it also seems that large-seeded oak species face greater dispersal limitations than small-seeded oaks, because of the lack of animals able to scatter them from the forest to the clearings.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Acorn Size, Forest Gaps, Land Use Change, Man-made Clearing, Species Diversity</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 329-337 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2216-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2216-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2216-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Barragán F, Badano EI, Douterlungne D, Flores J Research Articles 2018-04-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2216-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Molecular evidence of bidirectional introgression between Quercus suber and Quercus ilex https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2570-011 <p><b>López De Heredia U, Sánchez H, Soto A</b></p><p><b>MOLECULAR EVIDENCE OF BIDIRECTIONAL INTROGRESSION BETWEEN QUERCUS SUBER AND QUERCUS ILEX</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Cork oak and holm oak share a large part of their natural range, and are known to hybridize in mixed stands. This hybridization is supposed to have played a relevant role in the past history of cork oak. Previous research has reported that F1 hybrids are produced with holm oak acting as pollen recipient, therefore carrying holm oak chloroplast. Additionally, F1 hybrids have been assumed to be pollinated mostly by cork oak. Continued backcrossing of F1 hybrids with cork oak (supported by flowering phenology) could have created the organellar introgression patterns observed nowadays in Eastern Spain and Southern France cork oak populations. On the contrary, no organellar introgression has been detected in holm oak and multiple generation backcross individuals to holm oak have not been reported so far. In this work, we examined whether hybrids preferentially backcross with cork oak or with holm oak. To reach this goal, we genotyped by using eight microsatellite loci the progeny of four cork and four holm oak trees (33 and 44 half-siblings, respectively), and of four hybrids (468 half-siblings) collected over three years from a natural mixed population. We used the STRUCTURE software to estimate the proportion of the genotype of each seedling inherited from cork oak (qs) or from holm oak (qi). The ratio of the offspring q value over the mother q value helped determine the source of pollen that originated each acorn. Our results show for the first time that hybrid trees can be effectively pollinated by both parental species. Additionally, each hybrid tree was predominantly pollinated by the most abundant oak species in its vicinity. These results confirm the occurrence of bidirectional introgression, previously suggested for adult hybrid trees in the field, and point out the pattern of introgression in the seedlings could be most affected by the abundance of the parental species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cork Oak, Holm Oak, Hybridization, Introgression, Microsatellites</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 338-343 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2570-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2570-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2570-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> López De Heredia U, Sánchez H, Soto A Research Articles 2018-04-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2570-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of traditional forest management on carbon storage in a Mediterranean holm oak (Quercus ilex L.) coppice https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2424-011 <p><b>Sferlazza S, Maetzke FG, Iovino M, Baiamonte G, Palmeri V, La Mela Veca DS</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF TRADITIONAL FOREST MANAGEMENT ON CARBON STORAGE IN A MEDITERRANEAN HOLM OAK (QUERCUS ILEX L.) COPPICE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the last decade, there has been increased interest in measuring and modeling storage in the five forest carbon pools: the aboveground and belowground biomass (living biomass), the deadwood and litter (dead biomass), and the soil (soil organic matter). In this paper, we examined carbon storage in a holm oak coppice stand in the Madonie Mountains in Sicily (Italy), which is a typical case of managed coppice stands. Today, traditional coppice practices are only applied to a small number of forested areas in Sicily, such as the selected site, because of the decline in demand for wood and charcoal. The dendrometric parameters of the stands were recorded, and silvicultural indices were calculated immediately after cutting as well as during and at the end of the rotation period; they showed the trends typical of coppices. The carbon stocks in the five carbon pools were quantified to investigate the effects of coppicing on carbon storage in this Mediterranean area. Results showed that the lowest living biomass values were observed in the first years following coppicing, except for litter carbon. Belowground biomass and the soil carbon stock did not vary significantly with coppicing. During the rotation period, the aboveground biomass was completely restored, and the balance of the carbon stocks indicates that coppicing is a sustainable forest management choice from the point of view of the carbon balance, given that the logged trees are generally used for bioenergy production.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Pool, Aboveground Carbon, Belowground Carbon, Dead Carbon, Litter Carbon, Soil Carbon, Coppicing</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 344-351 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2424-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2424-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2424-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sferlazza S, Maetzke FG, Iovino M, Baiamonte G, Palmeri V, La Mela Veca DS Research Articles 2018-04-18 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2424-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Patterns of genetic variation in bud flushing of Abies alba populations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2314-011 <p><b>Mihai G, Mirancea I, Birsan MV, Dumitrescu A</b></p><p><b>PATTERNS OF GENETIC VARIATION IN BUD FLUSHING OF ABIES ALBA POPULATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In the spring of 2007, 51 full-sib and six half-sib families of European silver fir were obtained through controlled and open pollinations from the same clones in a seed orchard. Genetic variation and parameters for bud flushing were determined in two progeny tests established in a nursery. The results indicate a high genetic control of bud flushing of European silver fir. Both the additive and the dominance genetic variances were major sources of genetic variation. The additive genetic variance was greater for open-pollinated than for full-sib progeny, representing 50-95% of phenotypic variance. Narrow-sense individual heritability estimates for control-pollinated progenies ranged from 0.14 to 0.64, while the full-sib family heritability ranged from 0.09 to 0.40. In the open-pollinated progenies, the values of individual and family heritability were higher than those in control-pollinated progeny and ranged from 0.50 to 0.95 for both. In both experiments, genetic parameters were higher for bud flushing at the beginning of the growing period than at later stages. The genetic correlations between bud phenology and growth traits were positive and significant in control-pollinated progeny but not significant in open-pollinated progeny. Positive significant correlations between control-pollinated and open-pollinated progeny showed a maternal effect. Bud flushing was negatively correlated with geographic and climatic parameters of the site of parents’ origin, accounting for 83-97% of the total variation of this adaptive trait.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bud Flushing, Climatic Parameters, Correlations, Genetic Parameters, Genetic Variation, Silver Fir</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 284-290 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2314-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2314-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2314-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Mihai G, Mirancea I, Birsan MV, Dumitrescu A Research Articles 2018-04-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2314-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Some refinements on species distribution models using tree-level National Forest Inventories for supporting forest management and marginal forest population detection https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2441-011 <p><b>Marchi M, Ducci F</b></p><p><b>SOME REFINEMENTS ON SPECIES DISTRIBUTION MODELS USING TREE-LEVEL NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORIES FOR SUPPORTING FOREST MANAGEMENT AND MARGINAL FOREST POPULATION DETECTION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Spatial modelling is a fundamental tool to support forest management strategies. National Forest Inventories (NFIs) provide extensive and detailed data for spatial analysis. In this study, the most recent Italian NFI (INFC2005) was used to evaluate possible refinements on species distribution model (SDM) techniques and to derive the future scenarios for two target species (Fagus sylvatica L. and Abies alba Mill.) sharing a similar ecological environment and geographic range. A weighted SDM and a provenance distribution model (PDM) were tested, based on tree-level selection of NFI plots using species basal area as a filter. Two climate projections were analysed for 2050s according to the IPCC 5th Assessment Report (AR5). The results were evaluated as possible guidelines for management of the Italian region of the EUFGIS network, where many marginal forest populations (MaPs) are currently included as genetic conservation units (GCUs). The uncertainty of coordinates of inventory points did not affect the results of SDM. No statistical differences were found when comparing the niche realization for the two model species (ANOVA p>0.05) mainly due to spatial autocorrelation between the environmental predictors. Based on the classic SDM evaluation method (True Skill Statistic - TSS) little improvements in predictions were observed when weighting each presence/absence records, possibly due to the lack of adequate ancillary data but also to the evaluation method. A higher accuracy of predictions (TSS>0.85) was obtained when different “provenances” were modelled separately, due to the reduction in the “background noise”. We showed that for classical SDM, the prevalence of certain ecological features of some locations may drive algorithms to produce coarse averaged predictions. Provenance distribution modelling may represent a valuable step forward in spatial analysis, particularly for the detection of marginal peripheral populations. The exact spatial co-ordinates of plots and additional information on site quality (e.g., stand age, site index, etc.) in NFI data could greatly help in better weighting presence/absence data and properly test the new evaluation methods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: INFC2005, European Beech, Silver Fir, Modelling Uncertainties, Provenance Modelling, Climate Change, Mediterranean Area</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 291-299 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2441-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2441-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2441-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marchi M, Ducci F Research Articles 2018-04-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2441-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani (A. Rich) in Tannourine Cedar Forest Reserve (Lebanon) affected by cedar web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis, Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae). https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2502-011 <p><b>Bassil S, Kattar S, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Navarrete Poyatos M&, Nemer N, Palacios Rodríguez G</b></p><p><b>STAND STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION OF CEDRUS LIBANI (A. RICH) IN TANNOURINE CEDAR FOREST RESERVE (LEBANON) AFFECTED BY CEDAR WEB-SPINNING SAWFLY (CEPHALCIA TANNOURINENSIS, HYMENOPTERA: PAMPHILIIDAE).</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The analysis of forest structure is a useful tool to understand stand biodiversity characterizing forest ecosystems, and could help in suggesting appropriate management plans. Cedar forests in Lebanon are remnant patches that survived past human activities but are still threatened by other different anthropogenic and natural disturbances. Among these threats, the cedar web-spinning sawfly (Cephalcia tannourinensis) discovered in Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve in 1997, which is able to cause the death of trees. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of this pest on the stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani in Tannourine Cedar Forest Nature Reserve located in North Lebanon. The dependence of stand structural attributes (diameter at breast height, total height and basal area) on the presence of infestation by the cedar web-spinning sawfly was identified using the Student’s t-test. The Ripley’s K(d) function was used to analyse the spatial pattern of cedar stands. In addition, the diameter, the vertical structure and the crown projection were characterized using the Weibull function and graphic representations. The results showed that stand structure and regeneration are significantly different between infested and non-infested stands. The cedar of Lebanon remains as the dominant species, with abundant young individuals and a good regeneration status (c = 1.0). The analysis of the spatial pattern showed a positive spatial relationship between mature Lebanese cedar trees as well as between mature and juvenile cedars, with a bigger aggregation in infested plots (6 to 10 meters) than in non-infested quadrates (2 to 7 meters), reflecting the impact of the cedar web-spinning sawfly on the stand structure and regeneration of Cedrus libani stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cedrus libani, Stand Dynamic, Pest Damage, Spatial Pattern, Vertical Structure, Cephalcia tannourinensis</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 300-307 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2502-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2502-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2502-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bassil S, Kattar S, Navarro-Cerrillo RM, Navarrete Poyatos M&, Nemer N, Palacios Rodríguez G Research Articles 2018-04-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2502-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Regeneration dynamics in the laurel forest: changes in species richness and composition https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2580-011 <p><b>Arévalo JR, De Nascimento L, Fernández-Lugo S, Méndez J, González-Delgado G, Balguerías E, Gomes Pereira Cabral E, Fernández-Palacios JM</b></p><p><b>REGENERATION DYNAMICS IN THE LAUREL FOREST: CHANGES IN SPECIES RICHNESS AND COMPOSITION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The recovery and survival of the Macaronesian laurel forest depends on its regeneration strategies. After years of long-term monitoring, both sexual and asexual regeneration appear to be equally important. However, the mechanisms for each are just beginning to be understood. In order to contribute to the understanding of the laurel forest sexual regeneration, we analyzed the species composition of the seedling bank every two weeks over three years in the laurel forest of Anaga (Tenerife, Canary Islands). We compared the species compositions of the seedling bank with the canopy, and analyzed changes in their diversity over this period in different forest stands. We found that species diversity (evenness) is different among plots regardless of the stand. In some cases, plot diversity remained constant over time, while others showed some variations, which were little related to climatic conditions (temperature and precipitation). We also found no relationship between the seedling bank and canopy composition, with shade-intolerant species being more abundant in the former. Although climatic conditions remained constant during the period and other environmental conditions did not vary either, some changes were found in the seedling bank species composition. These were related to the increased degree of conservation of the laurel forest of Anaga (by closing unpaved roads, limiting access, and the abandonment of agriculture) that had negatively affected the density of shade-intolerant species. We suggest that such conservation measures should be maintained and extended to other areas where agriculture has been recently abandoned to allow the potential establishment of laurel forest and late successional species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Conservation, Evenness, Regeneration, Seedling Bank, Species Composition</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 308-314 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2580-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2580-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2580-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Arévalo JR, De Nascimento L, Fernández-Lugo S, Méndez J, González-Delgado G, Balguerías E, Gomes Pereira Cabral E, Fernández-Palacios JM Research Articles 2018-04-13 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2580-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Contrasting holm oak provenances show different field performance but similar resilience to drought events eight years after planting in a Mediterranean environment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2573-011 <p><b>Andivia E, Natalini F, Fernández M, Alejano R, Vázquez-Piqué J</b></p><p><b>CONTRASTING HOLM OAK PROVENANCES SHOW DIFFERENT FIELD PERFORMANCE BUT SIMILAR RESILIENCE TO DROUGHT EVENTS EIGHT YEARS AFTER PLANTING IN A MEDITERRANEAN ENVIRONMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Diversification of genetic plant material in forest plantations is viewed as a promising strategy to promote forest adaptation and resilience to ongoing climate change. However, there is an intense debate about whether foreign populations might outperform local ones under new climatic conditions. Unfortunately, long-term experiments using contrasting provenances are scarce, especially in the Mediterranean region. In this context, the evaluation of the resistance and resilience of individuals from different provenances to drought can help to forecast their performance under different climate change scenarios, and therefore to establish guideline regarding plant material selection in reforestation projects. We evaluated the performance (survival and drought) and drought sensitivity of Quercus ilex saplings from two contrasting provenances growing during eight years in a common garden experiment. For this, we used a combination of dendroecological methods and water-relation measurements, such as leaf water potential (Ψpd), cuticular transpiration (Ec), relative water content at the point of stomatal closure (RWCc) and specific leaf area (SLA). We also compared the resilience and resistance, in terms of radial growth to the intense drought event of 2012 between saplings from both provenances. Our results suggest a lack of idiosyncratic physiological response and growth sensitivity to drought between provenances. However, saplings from the drier provenance showed a superior performance in terms of survival and growth. Survival was greater in saplings from the dry provenance (100 vs. 91 %). Mean annual basal area increment was also greater in saplings from the dry provenance (158.8 ± 13.5 vs. 96.2 ± 8.4 mm2), which resulted in greater diameter eight year after planting (47.5 ± 2.8 vs. 38.3 ± 2.3 mm). The lower values of Ψpd, Ec and SLA in the summer of the first two years after planting suggest that climatic conditions after planting rather than isolated drought events was the most critical period for the success of these saplings. In view of our results, the selection of plant material for forest plantation should be carefully evaluated in forest restoration projects, while priority should be given to those actions oriented to increase the early survival of local Q. ilex seedlings.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecotypes, Quercus ilex, Forest Restoration, Growth Stability, Water-relation, Phenotypic Plasticity, Local Adaptations</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 259-266 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2573-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2573-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2573-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Andivia E, Natalini F, Fernández M, Alejano R, Vázquez-Piqué J Research Articles 2018-03-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2573-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Growth-climate relations and the enhancement of drought signals in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) tree-ring chronology in Eastern Hungary https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2348-011 <p><b>Árvai M, Morgós A, Kern Z</b></p><p><b>GROWTH-CLIMATE RELATIONS AND THE ENHANCEMENT OF DROUGHT SIGNALS IN PEDUNCULATE OAK (QUERCUS ROBUR L.) TREE-RING CHRONOLOGY IN EASTERN HUNGARY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper presents an analysis of the climatic factors affecting tree-ring growth in pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), one of the most important species of Hungarian forests. A 221-year oak chronology was elaborated, covering the period 1789 to 2009 AD. The daily climate data for a ~110 year stretch offered a detailed insight into the climate-growth relations. The correlation function reached a maximum (r > 0.4) in the case of precipitation in May-August, providing evidence that water availability is the main factor driving the oak growth in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Although there was no significant linear relation with temperature in the long term, moving window correlation analysis revealed that temperature response changed substantially over the course of the 20th century. While positive correlation with winter temperature was characteristic in the first decades, later the response to summer temperature strengthened remarkably, reaching r = -0.569 by the end of the analysed period (years 1978-2007). While the vulnerability of oak to drought stress is common across Europe, in southern and central Europe high summer temperatures impair tree growth. The enhanced sensitivity of pedunculate oaks to the water balance in the eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain allows to surmise the presence of an evolving tendency towards drought risk and vulnerability in the case of these oak stands.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dendroclimatology, Pedunculate Oak, Tree-rings, Hungary, Drought Signal</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 267-274 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2348-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2348-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2348-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Árvai M, Morgós A, Kern Z Research Articles 2018-03-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2348-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Alternative methods of scaling Eucalyptus urophylla trees in forest stands: compatibility and accuracy of volume equations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2155-011 <p><b>Miguel EP, Péllico Netto S, Azevedo GBD, Azevedo GTDOS, Rezende AV, Pereira RS</b></p><p><b>ALTERNATIVE METHODS OF SCALING EUCALYPTUS UROPHYLLA TREES IN FOREST STANDS: COMPATIBILITY AND ACCURACY OF VOLUME EQUATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study developed and tested a procedure that aimed to reduce the cost of forest stand volume estimation. Using a typical 3 x 3 m Eucalyptus urophylla plantation, estimates based on a simplified approach were compared with those of precise but costly reference methods. The simplified approach required measuring the total height and bole diameters up to 2 m high. The volume of the lower part was estimated using Smalian’s formula, while the volume of the upper part was estimated using a simple solid as an approximation. Three typical solids were tested: paraboloid, cone, and neiloid. The approach proposed is non-destructive, because it does not require tree felling, while precise methods are destructive. The operational (traditional) method uses Smalian’s formula to measure bole diameter at short intervals over the whole bole, while the precise, more research-suited (reference) method records water displacement (using a xylometer) to accurately measure the volume of each bole section. The reference and traditional methods, as expected, produced very similar results. The approach proposed, using a paraboloid for the upper part, provided results that were not statistically different to the reference values. The volumes estimated by the proposed approach were used to calibrate the Schumacher-Hall function, and the performance of the model was evaluated using the values obtained by the xylometer.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Inventory, Rigorous Scaling, Dendrometric Prototype, Volume Equation, Modeling</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 275-283 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2155-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2155-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2155-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Miguel EP, Péllico Netto S, Azevedo GBD, Azevedo GTDOS, Rezende AV, Pereira RS Research Articles 2018-03-29 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2155-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Optimizing silviculture in mixed uneven-aged forests to increase the recruitment of browse-sensitive tree species without intervening in ungulate population https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2567-011 <p><b>Ficko A, Roessiger J, Bončina A</b></p><p><b>OPTIMIZING SILVICULTURE IN MIXED UNEVEN-AGED FORESTS TO INCREASE THE RECRUITMENT OF BROWSE-SENSITIVE TREE SPECIES WITHOUT INTERVENING IN UNGULATE POPULATION</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: An increase in ungulate abundance in Europe in recent decades has raised concerns for the survival of browse-sensitive tree species in its early life history stages. A possible strategy for mitigating the browsing-induced mortality of natural regeneration is to optimize silviculture. We used matrix population models parameterized for three types of Abies alba - Picea abies - Fagus sylvatica forests (3,183 permanent sample plots from three study areas in Slovenia, 39,717 ha), and a non-linear optimization to: (i) schedule optimal timing and intensity of logging in the next 100 years to increase the recruitment of Abies alba without intervening in the population of ungulates; and (ii) examine the influence of different natural recruitment rates on the potential for mitigating recruitment failure through silviculture optimization. The optimal management has required species-, growth- and diameter-specific logging, including intensive logging of large-diameter Abies alba in the first decades and strict conservation of recruits. The potential for mitigating recruitment failure through optimization increased progressively with natural recruitment rate and progressively at a decreasing rate with time. Optimizing silviculture was effective for maintaining Abies alba in stands exposed to low or moderate browsing pressures. Faced with chronic ungulate herbivory, forest managers should primarily focus on the reduction of herbivory and to a lesser extent on optimizing silviculture.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Continuous Cover Forestry, Optimization, Natural regeneration, Recruitment, Abies alba</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 227-236 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2567-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2567-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2567-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ficko A, Roessiger J, Bončina A Research Articles 2018-03-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2567-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Climate effects on growth differ according to height and diameter along the stem in Pinus pinaster Ait. https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2318-011 <p><b>Rubio-Cuadrado A, Bravo-Oviedo A, Mutke S, Del Río M</b></p><p><b>CLIMATE EFFECTS ON GROWTH DIFFER ACCORDING TO HEIGHT AND DIAMETER ALONG THE STEM IN PINUS PINASTER AIT.</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Climate-growth relationships in forest trees are increasingly the focus of research aimed at understanding and assessing responses to climate change. Many studies have been confined to annual radial growth at breast height as an easy-to-measure dendrological standard variable, although its validity as a proxy for overall annual growth patterns in trees has scarcely been addressed. In this study, we test this hypothesis by exploring additional information on climate-growth relationships as well as analyzing both the radial growth at different stem heights and the height increment. For this purpose, past annual radial growth and shoot elongation were measured in 10 dominant Pinus pinaster Ait. trees in a 130-year-old stand. Radial increments were measured on disks taken from five different trunk heights up to 15 meters. Height increments were obtained by measuring the distance between consecutive branch whorls, which appear as knots after sawing a longitudinal section of the stem. The relationships between climate and both radial growth and height increment were analyzed through Pearson’s correlations and the response to extreme climatic episodes was analyzed using resilience indices. Results revealed that the climatic variables affecting growth were different for height and stem diameter. Additionally, in the case of stem diameter, the climatic variables affecting growth also depended on the height at which the sample was taken. Precipitation prior to bud break, both in the year in which the studied shoot elongation takes place and in the previous year, has a positive effect on height increment. Radial growth in the upper part of the stem was mainly influenced by spring temperatures and precipitation, whereas in the case of basal radial growth it was the autumn and winter temperatures and precipitation of the previous year to growth which had the greatest influence. Similarly, severe droughts cause greater decline in height increment, while the decline in radial growth of the upper part of stem is smaller than that of radial growth at breast height. In conclusion, the analysis of height increment and upper radial growth provides important information to complement the dendroclimatology data for radial growth at breast height, thus improving our understanding of the impact of climate change on tree growth.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dendrochronology, Climate Growth Response, Growth Allocation, Stem Analysis, Climate Sensitivity, Resilience</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 237-242 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2318-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2318-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2318-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rubio-Cuadrado A, Bravo-Oviedo A, Mutke S, Del Río M Short Communications 2018-03-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2318-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Hydrological properties of litter layers in mixed forests in Mt. Qinling, China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2535-011 <p><b>Chen S, Cao T, Tanaka N, Gao T, Zhu L, Zou CB</b></p><p><b>HYDROLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF LITTER LAYERS IN MIXED FORESTS IN MT. QINLING, CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The litter layer is an important component of forest ecosystems, although little is known about the differences in litter characteristics and hydrological properties of unmanaged, overgrown broadleaved and coniferous mixed forests in the subtropical and temperate zones. This study was carried out in a naturally generated broadleaved and coniferous mixed forest at the Qinling National Forest Ecosystem Research Station, Shaanxi Province, China. We quantified the litter thickness, mass, and its hydrological properties in evergreen pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) stands and deciduous oak (Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata) stands through in situ surveys and laboratory immersion experiments. The thickness of the litter layer for P. tabulaeformis averaged 9.3 ± 2.8 cm, and it was not significantly different from that detected in the Q. aliena stand (8.3 ± 3.6 cm). The total mass of the litter layer for P. tabulaeformis, 27.94 ± 9.81 Mg ha-1, was significantly higher than the total mass of 16.04 ± 3.60 Mg ha-1 found for Q. aliena. The mass of the semi-decomposed, fermented litter (OF) layer was significantly higher than that of the non-decomposed litter (OL) layer, irrespective of species. The rate of water absorption by dry litter was the highest at the onset of the immersion experiment and decreased exponentially with time. The water-holding capacity (Wm) and water-interception capacity (Wi) of the OF layer were higher than the OL layer for both forest stands. The Wm and Wi for the P. tabulaeformis stand were higher than those for the Q. aliena stand at our study sites. The higher Wm and Wi for P. tabulaeformis may be more effective in ameliorating the splash impact from high-intensity storms to improve water quality, while relatively lower Wm and Wi for Q. aliena may be considered favorable for augmenting water yield. Forest resource managers should consider those differences along with the other components of the water budget when making management decisions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Water Conservation Forest, Hydrological Properties, Forest Succession</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 243-250 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2535-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2535-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2535-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Chen S, Cao T, Tanaka N, Gao T, Zhu L, Zou CB Research Articles 2018-03-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2535-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Can bark stripping cause red heartwood formation in beech stems? https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2147-011 <p><b>Račko V, Mišíková O, Hlaváč P, Deáková V</b></p><p><b>CAN BARK STRIPPING CAUSE RED HEARTWOOD FORMATION IN BEECH STEMS?</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Injuries to standing trees caused by logging and the subsequent changes in biochemical composition and anatomy of affected tissues lead to wood quality loss, thus lowering the commercial value of roundwood. In this study, we investigated the influence of various factors that could help mitigate or prevent the spread of infections in the stem caused by injuries. A total of 112 beech logs (tree age: 42-143 years) from ten forest stands at three different sites in central Slovakia were examined, and the extent of discolouration and decay zones in each stem was measured, along with cambial age, stem diameter, injury width, and injury closure period. The results showed that the width of physiologically active wet sapwood and the width of the inactive dehydrated zone in the stem are important factors influencing red heartwood formation. We found no significant differences in the extent of discolouration and decay among different stands and sites. Stem diameter and injury width did significantly affect the penetration of infection through sapwood, and red heartwood formation was significantly affected by cambial age and injury width, while stand age, site slope, beech proportion in the stand and injury closure did not show any significant effect. Binary logistic models were applied to assess the probability of pathogen penetration through sapwood into the stem dehydrated zone as a function of injury width and stem diameter, as well as the probability that this could lead to red heartwood formation based on injury width and cambial age of beech stems.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sapwood Width, Dehydrated Zone Width, Discoloration Depth, Decay Depth, Red Heartwood Formation</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 251-258 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2147-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2147-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2147-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Račko V, Mišíková O, Hlaváč P, Deáková V Research Articles 2018-03-12 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2147-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Multi-temporal influence of vegetation on soil respiration in a drought-affected forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2448-011 <p><b>Barba J, Lloret F, Poyatos R, Molowny-Horas R, Yuste JC</b></p><p><b>MULTI-TEMPORAL INFLUENCE OF VEGETATION ON SOIL RESPIRATION IN A DROUGHT-AFFECTED FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Aboveground plant activity influences fine roots and rhizosphere activity, which is reflected on soil respiration (SR). However, it is still unclear and poorly understood the nature of plant activity control over SR, especially under drought conditions. We studied the plant activity-SR relationship at different timescales in a water-limited mixed Mediterranean forest where Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) are undergoing drought-induced die-off and are being replaced by the more drought-resistant Holm oak (Quercus ilex L.). Half-hourly sap flow (SF), as a proxy of photosynthesis, coupled with measures of SR using solid-state CO2 sensors, were monitored during nine months in four different trees, representative of the diversity and health condition of the forest. SF was strongly associated with SR at both daily and seasonal timescales. At daily timescales, almost no lags were found between SF and SR, indicating a fast control of photosynthesis on SR. However, the association between SF and SR weakened during the summer drought. These temporal patterns were not constant across the trees representing the die-off and replacement processes. SR beneath living pines was highly controlled by SF at daily scale, whereas Holm oak seemed to be more controlled by SF at seasonal scale. The relationship between SF and SR measured beneath dead pine and Holm oak at the daily and seasonal scales was consistent with the colonization of soil gaps by holm oak roots following Scots pine death and suggests that surviving Scots pines are unable to expand their root system in these gaps. Our results collectively show how drought modulates the link between canopy photosynthesis and soil respiration, and increase our understanding on how belowground processes may be affected by the successional dynamics following drought-induced forest mortality.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Respiration, Sap Flow, Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris), Holm Oak (Quercus ilex), Drought, Die-off, Functional Colonization, Mediterranean Ecosystem</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 189-198 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2448-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2448-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2448-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Barba J, Lloret F, Poyatos R, Molowny-Horas R, Yuste JC Research Articles 2018-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2448-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of soil CO2 emissions between short-rotation coppice poplar stands and arable lands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2621-010 <p><b>Ferré C, Comolli R</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF SOIL CO2 EMISSIONS BETWEEN SHORT-ROTATION COPPICE POPLAR STANDS AND ARABLE LANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Bioenergy crops are considered to have the potential for climate mitigation and socio-economic benefits owing to their capacity to sequester C and partially replace the consumption of fossil fuels. In this study, the effects on soil respiration of a recent conversion of arable land to high (H) and very high (VH) density short-rotation coppices (SRCs), as well as of agronomic treatments (fertilization with or without irrigation) and lane/row location, were investigated in an alluvial area in Italy. A survey of soil variability was carried out by collecting soil cores (0-60 cm depth) at 67 points to characterize surface and subsurface spatial distributions of pH, organic carbon, nitrogen and carbonates and identify comparable points for monitoring soil respiration. Soil CO2 emissions were monitored over the period April 2010-November 2011 at 27 locations covering the whole study site. The influence of land use (H-SRC, VH-SRC, corn and alfalfa) or treatments on soil respiration was evaluated considering both factors as fixed effects in a linear mixed model. Our results showed that (i) the high variability of soil properties even at small spatial scale has to be considered when selecting points for monitoring soil respiration in the field; (ii) the cumulative soil respiration over the study period at the VH-SRC was lower (1299 ± 30 g C m-2) than in croplands (1600 ±145 g C m-2) and higher along the rows than in the lanes; (iii) no significant differences in soil respiration were found between the H-SRC and corn field; (iv) two years after VH-SRC establishment, agronomic treatments did not appear to influence soil respiration; (v) land-use change affected the vertical soil organic carbon distribution and soil surface temperature, as reflected in soil respiration differences.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Land-use Change, Soil Spatial Variability, Soil Respiration, Short-rotation Coppice, Cropland, Mixed Model</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 199-205 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2621-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2621-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2621-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ferré C, Comolli R Research Articles 2018-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2621-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Belowground biomass models for young oligotrophic Scots pine stands in Latvia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2553-010 <p><b>Kenina L, Bardulis A, Matisons R, Kapostins R, Jansons A</b></p><p><b>BELOWGROUND BIOMASS MODELS FOR YOUNG OLIGOTROPHIC SCOTS PINE STANDS IN LATVIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The increasing interest in carbon budget estimation and the growing use of woody biomass in bioenergy production raises the necessity for precise estimates of belowground biomass and soil carbon pools in forest ecosystems, particularly in terms of changes in the age structure of forests. The aim of this study was to estimate the belowground biomass of young (< 40 years) stands of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Latvia. The biomass of small roots (diameter 2-20 mm), coarse roots (diameter > 20 mm), and stumps of 39 trees from eight stands growing on dry, nutrient-poor mineral soils was measured and compared to the aboveground variables of sampled trees. The results revealed that stumps, small roots, and coarse roots comprised 43%, 35% and 22%, respectively, of the belowground biomass of young Scots pines. The proportion of belowground biomass over the total tree biomass was age-dependent, ranging from 33% to 17% for 8-year and 40-year old trees, respectively. Aboveground tree variables were significantly correlated with the belowground biomass, being stemwood volume and basal area the best predictors (R2 = 0.86-0.98, relative errors = 26-43%) of the belowground biomass components. Accordingly, the developed models produced more accurate estimates compared to previous models for the region, thus reducing the uncertainty in determining the carbon budget for belowground biomass. Still, an analysis of a more comprehensive dataset is needed to account for the effect of the social status of trees, as well as the within- and between-stand variation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hemiboreal Forests, Europe, Pinus sylvestris, Allometric Equation, Coarse Roots, Total Root Biomass</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 206-211 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2553-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2553-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2553-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kenina L, Bardulis A, Matisons R, Kapostins R, Jansons A Research Articles 2018-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2553-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of drought stress on some growth, morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of two different populations of Quercus brantii https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2496-010 <p><b>Jafarnia S, Akbarinia M, Hosseinpour B, Modarres Sanavi SAM, Salami SA</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON SOME GROWTH, MORPHOLOGICAL, PHYSIOLOGICAL, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF TWO DIFFERENT POPULATIONS OF QUERCUS BRANTII</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: In recent years, drought-induced tree mortality has occurred in the oak forests of the Zagros Mountains (western Iran). The impacts of climate change induced by drought stress have been most acutely experienced by two populations of Persian oaks (Quercus brantii Lindl) grown in the western provinces (Ilam and Lorestan) of the Zagros region. We surveyed growth, physiological, and biochemical responses of one-year-old Persian oak seedlings from Melasyah (Ilam) and Chegeni (Lorestan) provenances, which were subjected to three watering regimes (100%, 40%, and 20% of field capacity) in a greenhouse. The severe drought stress decreased the diameter and height growth, total biomass, net photosynthesis, gas exchange, xylem water potential, maximum Rubisco activity (Vcmax) as well as the maximum PSII photochemical efficiency of the oak seedlings in both populations, but the rate of decrease was greater in Chegeni seedlings as compared to Melasyah seedlings. Although proline and soluble sugar contents significantly increased in response to drought in both populations under stress, the rate of increase was higher in Melasyah seedlings as compared to Chegeni seedlings. In addition, the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and ascorbic peroxidase as well as that of phenylalanine ammonia lyase were promoted in both populations under drought stress. However, the incremental rate was higher in the Melasyah population than in the Chegeni population. Under severe drought stress, the MDA content, electrolyte leakage, the content of hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide radical significantly increased in both the populations. The rate of increase, however, was higher in the Chegeni population. Under drought stress, the total phenol and flavonoid contents of Melasyah seedlings were higher than those of Chegeni seedlings. The results showed that Chegeni seedlings are more sensitive than Melasyah seedlings when exposed to a water limitation stress. Our findings suggest that the climate conditions of the Persian oak stands should be considered by nursery managers while creating establishment and restoration programs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Drought Stress, Persian Oak, Zagros Mountain, Provenance, Drought Resistance</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 212-220 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2496-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2496-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2496-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jafarnia S, Akbarinia M, Hosseinpour B, Modarres Sanavi SAM, Salami SA Research Articles 2018-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2496-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: The effect of calcium on the growth of native species in a tropical forest hotspot https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2074-010 <p><b>Gonçalves Bizuti DT, Casagrande JC, Soares MR, Sartorio SD, Brugnaro C, Gomes César R</b></p><p><b>THE EFFECT OF CALCIUM ON THE GROWTH OF NATIVE SPECIES IN A TROPICAL FOREST HOTSPOT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Recovering of degraded areas depends not only on the choice of native species to be planted, but also on the requirements of planted seedling species in terms of soil fertility, mainly in tropical areas. This study aims to assess the effects of calcium (Ca) and soil base saturation (V%) on the growth of seedlings of eight tree species native to the Atlantic Forest biome and commonly used in restoration plantings in the study region. Seedlings were grown in a greenhouse over a period of four months in Haplic Arenosol dystric soil with low calcium content and high aluminum saturation, and were subjected to four different treatments: (i) control; (ii) lime addition until V%=40 (V40); (iii) lime addition until V%=70 (V70); (iv) addition of calcium chloride and magnesium until V%=70 (VMg70). On average, seedlings treated only with lime (V40 and V70) gave similar results, showing an increase in both shoot and root dry plant biomass. Different absorption by species belonging to different successional groups were observed. Pioneer and early secondary species showed similar behavior regarding nutrient use efficiency. Seedling fertilization increases the chances of success of restoration plantings in degraded areas by favoring seedling biomass gain and nutrient absorption, and increasing overall V% through lime fertilization. The patterns for pioneer and secondary species found in this study could contribute to decision making in restoration projects and to native seedling production of white-sand forest native species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Tree Species, Plant Nutrition, Liming, Nutrient Absorption Efficiency, Ecological Restoration</p><p><i>iForest 11 (2): 221-226 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2074-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2074-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2074-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Gonçalves Bizuti DT, Casagrande JC, Soares MR, Sartorio SD, Brugnaro C, Gomes César R Research Articles 2018-03-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2074-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Monitoring of changes in woodlots outside forests by multi-temporal Landsat imagery https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2021-010 <p><b>Rahman MM, Islam MS, Pramanik MAT</b></p><p><b>MONITORING OF CHANGES IN WOODLOTS OUTSIDE FORESTS BY MULTI-TEMPORAL LANDSAT IMAGERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Woodlots outside forests play a significant role in diversifying household income, reducing poverty, supplying timber and fuel-wood, and regulating the local environment in many countries with low forest cover. This study aimed to develop a method for delineating the spatial footprint of woodlots outside forests and assessing their changes over time. The test site was located in the Jhalokati District of south-western Bangladesh, one of the world’s most densely populated regions. Landsat images from 2010 were classified using a supervised method. Woodlots were extracted, converted to vector layers, and manually edited. The overall accuracy of the 2010 land cover map was 87%-89%. A change vector layer was generated by further updating of the vector layer by overlaying a 1989 Landsat image. The total coverage of woodlots in the district increased between 1989 and 2010, from 19.638 ha (27%) to 27.836 ha (39%). The study identified two primary reasons for changes in woodlot coverage: (i) woodlot expansion associated with the population growth and establishment of new households; and (ii) conversion of cropland to orchards because of economic reasons. The results will improve understanding of the spatial distribution of woodlot coverage in the study area and their dynamics over time.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Woodlot, Trees Outside Forests (TOF), Landsat, Change, Mapping</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 162-170 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2021-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2021-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2021-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rahman MM, Islam MS, Pramanik MAT Research Articles 2018-02-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2021-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A Decision Support System for trade-off analysis and dynamic evaluation of forest ecosystem services https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2416-010 <p><b>Sacchelli S</b></p><p><b>A DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR TRADE-OFF ANALYSIS AND DYNAMIC EVALUATION OF FOREST ECOSYSTEM SERVICES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This paper presents an open-source Decision Support System (DSS) able to quantify the economic value of forest ecosystem services and their dynamic trade-offs. Provisioning, regulation and support services, as well as cultural services, can be evaluated by the model. Best management forestry practices can be identified by optimizing specific objective functions, e.g., maximizing the economic value or identifying the ideal rotation period. The model was applied to a silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) stand in central Italy as a case study. Results show the importance of economic parameters (e.g., discount rate) and management practices (e.g., presence/absence of silvicultural thinning) in defining forest values. The main strengths and weaknesses of the DSS are discussed in light of its potential for application in the sector of Payment for Ecosystem Services.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ecosystem Services Planning, Complex Systems Analysis, Systemic Rotation Period, Nonlinear Programming</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 171-180 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2416-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2416-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2416-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sacchelli S Research Articles 2018-02-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2416-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Determining basic forest stand characteristics using airborne laser scanning in mixed forest stands of Central Europe https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2520-010 <p><b>Smreček R, Michnová Z, Sačkov I, Danihelová Z, Levická M, Tuček J</b></p><p><b>DETERMINING BASIC FOREST STAND CHARACTERISTICS USING AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING IN MIXED FOREST STANDS OF CENTRAL EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study focused on the derivation of basic stand characteristics from airborne laser scanning (ALS) data, aiming to elucidate which characteristics (mean height and diameter, dominant height and diameter) are best approximated by the variables obtained using ALS data. The height of trees of different species in four permanent plots located in the Slovak Republic was derived from the normalised digital surface model (nDSM) representing the canopy surface, using an automatic approach to identify local maxima (individual treetops). Tree identification was carried out using four different spatial resolutions of the nDSM (0.5 m, 1.0 m, 1.5 m, and 2.0 m) and the number of trees identified was compared with reference data obtained from field measurements. The highest percentage of tree detection (69-75%) was observed at the spatial resolutions of 1.0 and 1.5 m. Absolute differences of tree height between reference and ALS datasets ranged from 0 to 36% at all spatial resolutions. The smallest difference in mean height was obtained using the higher spatial resolution (0.5 m), while the smallest difference in the dominant height of the relative number of thickest trees (h10% and h20%) was observed using the lower spatial resolution (2 m). The same trends also apply to diameters. The average errors at resolution of 1.0 and 1.5 m was 8.7%, 5.9% and 9.7% for mean height, h20% and h10%, respectively. ALS-derived diameters (obtained using regression models from reference data and ALS-derived individual height as predictor) showed absolute errors in the range 0-48% at all spatial resolutions. The deviation in mean diameter at a resolution of 0.5 m ranged from -12.1% to 15.3%.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forestry, Airborne Laser Scanning, Mixed Forest, Height of Forest Stand, Diameter of Forest Stand</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 181-188 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2520-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2520-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2520-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Smreček R, Michnová Z, Sačkov I, Danihelová Z, Levická M, Tuček J Research Articles 2018-02-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2520-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Revisiting the Heat Field Deformation (HFD) method for measuring sap flow https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2381-011 <p><b>Nadezhdina N</b></p><p><b>REVISITING THE HEAT FIELD DEFORMATION (HFD) METHOD FOR MEASURING SAP FLOW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The Heat Field Deformation (HFD) technique is a thermodynamic method for measuring sap flow. Based on continuous heating the HFD method allows for high time resolution measurements which are highly important when studying plant responses to abrupt environmental changes. This work provides a succinct review of previously described features of the HFD methodology. Analyzing symmetrical and asymmetrical temperature differences around a measured linear heater (dTsym and dTas) relative to their ratio dTsym/dTas (so called a K-diagram) is at the heart of this methodology. This key concept, however, has to date only been generally described in previous works on the HFD technique. My objective here is to provide a comprehensive overview describing different types of K-diagrams, their interpretation and application for determining K-values or dTas for a zero flow condition. The K-value is a measured parameter which is particularly important for objectively characterizing heat conducting properties at the sensor insertion point under specific local measurement conditions. Correctly determining the K-value is critical for accurately calculating sap flow based on recorded temperature measurements. I have included in this review several examples demonstrating how the K-value is dependent upon changes to the environment and its important role in sap flow estimation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: K-diagram, K/R-diagram, K-value, Sap Flow per Section, Sap Flux Density, Sensor</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 118-130 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2381-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2381-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2381-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Nadezhdina N Review Papers 2018-02-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2381-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Kinetic analysis of poplar wood properties by thermal modification in conventional oven https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2422-010 <p><b>Marcon B, Goli G, Matsuo-Ueda M, Denaud L, Umemura K, Gril J, Kawai S</b></p><p><b>KINETIC ANALYSIS OF POPLAR WOOD PROPERTIES BY THERMAL MODIFICATION IN CONVENTIONAL OVEN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The kinetics of several poplar (Populus alba L.) wood properties during thermal modification conducted in conventional oven with air recirculation were analysed and modelled in this paper. A wide range of properties was assessed, such as: equilibrium moisture content, sorption diagram, shrinkage coefficients, specific shrinkage coefficients, mass loss, modulus of elasticity, strength and colour. The tests were executed at different temperatures ranging from 90 °C to 180 °C and with different durations. The time-temperature equivalency was checked and property modifications over time analysed through master curves in order to obtain a general model connecting together properties, treatment temperature and duration. Different activation energies arising from each property evolution with treatment temperature and duration are provided showing that every modification could occur with different kinetics.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Poplar Wood Modification, Heat Treatment, Time-temperature Equivalency, Energy of Activation, Kinetic Analysis, Mechanical Properties, Hygroscopicity, Wood Colour</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 131-139 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2422-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2422-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2422-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marcon B, Goli G, Matsuo-Ueda M, Denaud L, Umemura K, Gril J, Kawai S Research Articles 2018-02-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2422-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Microclimate regulating functions of urban forests in Changchun City (north-east China) and their associations with different factors https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2466-010 <p><b>Wang W, Wang H, Xiao L, He X, Zhou W, Wang Q, Wei C</b></p><p><b>MICROCLIMATE REGULATING FUNCTIONS OF URBAN FORESTS IN CHANGCHUN CITY (NORTH-EAST CHINA) AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH DIFFERENT FACTORS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Microclimate regulating functions of urban trees and their associations with environmental factors and tree-growth characteristics are important for management and ecological evaluations. In this study, a total of 637 trees distributed in the Changchun urban region (ca. 400 km2, northeastern China) were sampled in four different types of urban forests (AF: affiliated forests; RF: roadside forests; LF: landscape and relaxation forests; EF: ecological welfare forests). Tree growth-related parameters and environmental factors (inside and outside the forest) were simultaneously measured, and location-dependent differences in shading, cooling and humidifying effects were assessed, along with their associations with the measured variables. We found that urban forests in Changchun reduced the incident sunlight by 74-86% and increased air relative humidity by 3-7%, on average. Air, soil, and upper-canopy temperatures were decreased approximately by 3 °C, <1 °C and 1 °C, respectively, showing a 3-dimensional cooling effect of urban forests on both air and soil. Shading, cooling and humidifying effects significantly differed among the four forest types, with AF stands showing the highest comprehensive scores for all the microclimate regulation functions. Regression analyses and redundancy analysis revealed that urban forests had much stronger effect in terms of microclimate regulation at sunny days with high temperature, and low air humidity. In general, stands with larger trees showed the higher regulating functions, regardless of the stand structure and composition. The results of this study may help urban forest management and planning aimed at maximizing their ecological services.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Urban Forest Types, Shading Effect, Cooling Effect, Humidifying Effect</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 140-147 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2466-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2466-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2466-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wang W, Wang H, Xiao L, He X, Zhou W, Wang Q, Wei C Research Articles 2018-02-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2466-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimating machine impact on strip roads via close-range photogrammetry and soil parameters: a case study in central Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2590-010 <p><b>Cambi M, Giannetti F, Bottalico F, Travaglini D, Nordfjell T, Chirici G, Marchi E</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATING MACHINE IMPACT ON STRIP ROADS VIA CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND SOIL PARAMETERS: A CASE STUDY IN CENTRAL ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Several studies have been carried out to investigate soil compaction and rutting after logging vehicle traffic, based on time consuming and punctual field measurements. The objective of this study was to measure soil disturbances with two methods: (i) a new, image-based models derived by a structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry approach; and (ii) a traditional soil sampling (bulk density and shear strength). Two trails were selected in a logging area (central Italy), one trafficked by a forwarder (FT) and one trafficked by a skidder (ST). Data collection was conducted before, during and after timber extraction. Image-based models derived by SfM photogrammetry was used to highlight the differences in the shape and distribution of the disturbances along ST and FT. Results showed that the physical parameters of soil significantly changed due to both FT and ST traffic. Machine passes increased bulk density (111% and 31% for FT and ST, respectively), penetration resistance (29% and 24% for FT and ST, respectively) and shear resistance (14% and 6% for FT and ST, respectively), whereas porosity decreased (46% and 9% for FT and ST, respectively). Significant differences between FT and ST were found when comparing ruts removal and bulges with SfM photogrammetry. After logging, FT clearly showed ruts and bulges, whereas in ST ruts and bulges were not visible, but soil displacement in the direction of extraction was evident and measurable. Nevertheless, although our result shows a larger soil disturbance caused by forwarders than skidders, it is not possible to draw any general conclusions about differences between the two machines. Data about the machine passes, or the wood volumes transported over each trial area were not available; therefore, any general conclusion is misleading. SfM photogrammetry give information not available via traditional methods, thus improving impact assessment.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Operation, Soil Impacts, Soil Displacement, Close Range Photogrammetry, Digital Terrain Model</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 148-154 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2590-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2590-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2590-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cambi M, Giannetti F, Bottalico F, Travaglini D, Nordfjell T, Chirici G, Marchi E Research Articles 2018-02-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2590-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Energy and environmental profile comparison of TMT production from two different companies - a Spanish/Portuguese case study https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2339-010 <p><b>Ferreira J, Herrera R, Labidi J, Esteves B, Domingos I</b></p><p><b>ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE COMPARISON OF TMT PRODUCTION FROM TWO DIFFERENT COMPANIES - A SPANISH/PORTUGUESE CASE STUDY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects and potential impacts associated with a product and has been increasingly used to identify processes or stages in the wood chain with a high environmental impact or to highlight areas where environmental information is unknown. The main aim of this study was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts and the energy used for the production of one cubic meter of Thermally Modified Timber (TMT) by two different companies, one in Spain and the other in Portugal, using the LCA methodology. The LCA study was developed based on ISO 14040/44 standards. The inventory analysis and, subsequently, the impact analysis were performed using the LCA software SimaPro8.1.0.60. The method chosen for the environmental impact assessment was ReCiPe, and for energy use the Cumulative Energy Demand method was chosen. The results show that to produce 1 m3 of thermally modified pine timber the Portuguese company used 14.38 GJ of cumulative energy demand, of which 1.92 GJ was nonrenewable and 12.46 GJ renewable, and the Spanish company used a total of 17.55 GJ, of which 2.52 GJ was nonrenewable and 15.03 GJ renewable. The thermally modified pine timber produced by the Spanish company presented the best environmental results for 13 impact categories in comparison to the 5 best environmental results presented by the Portuguese company. From the weighting triangle, we can conclude that the Portuguese pine boards have a lower environmental impact than Spanish pine boards if a high weight (> 40%) is given to resources, while a weight of <80% is given to human health; otherwise the opposite is true. Regardless of the company, the energy used in the thermal treatment process was identified as the main factor responsible for climate change, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidant formation, metal depletion and fossil depletion. This has to be expected as the treatment is based on heat production and no chemicals are added during the heat treatment process. The round wood production was identified as the leading process responsible for ozone depletion and also presented remarkable contributions to eutrophication and photochemical oxidant formation.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Energy, Life Cycle Assessment, Thermally Treated Timber</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 155-161 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2339-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2339-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2339-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ferreira J, Herrera R, Labidi J, Esteves B, Domingos I Research Articles 2018-02-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2339-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Forest functions and space: a geohistorical perspective of European forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2316-010 <p><b>Pilli R, Pase A</b></p><p><b>FOREST FUNCTIONS AND SPACE: A GEOHISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF EUROPEAN FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The history of man has been linked to the history of wood since prehistoric times and because the forest is the main place where this resource is available, forest spaces are also directly linked to the evolution of human society. The objective of this paper is to analyze the historical evolution of the functions assigned by humans to forests, highlighting how they affect the production of space from a diachronic perspective. Focusing our attention on some European countries, we highlight that although historically, wood production was the most important function provided by wooded lands, other functions were also attributed to forests. The awareness of these functions emerged when an overexploitation of forest resources produced a lack of a specific service. When these services corresponded to a societal demand, they produced welfare benefits for the society, which were recognized as forest functions. Thus even the functions evolved in time according to the evolution of societal needs. Evaluating when and how each societal demand emerged, and consequently the moment each function was recognized, is an essential prerequisite even for a more accurate interpretation of current forest management practices. Not only is the temporal dimension of forest functions relevant, so is the spatial scale, which may differ considerably between them, ranging from the specific forest area and its owner for the productive function; to the catchment area and its inhabitants for the protective function; to a potentially larger area for the cultural and biodiversity function; and to the entire globe for the carbon-retention function. The strict, and sometimes competing, interactions between these functions may also be recognized in the production of space, which evolved in time according to the evolution of the corresponding societal needs. A forest parcel assigned to a productive function is a material space, marked in the field by colored signs, but it may also be virtually represented by a forest model or be part of some protected area. But this picture would change if, instead of looking at the present, we consider the past and the different sensations and representations concerned with forests. These complex interactions, between different functions and spatial dimensions, justify the need to balance a segregative management system with a wider, multi-functional integrated approach. What has emerged from our study is that to reach this difficult equilibrium, it is useful to consider the production processes of these forest spaces. Through this analytical approach, we can understand the interactions occurring over time between the evolution of the demands expressed by society and the main changes occurred on the forest landscape.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Functions, Services, Production of Space, History, Sustainable Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 79-89 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2316-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2316-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2316-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pilli R, Pase A Review Papers 2018-01-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2316-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Leaf morphology of progenies in Q. suber, Q. ilex, and their hybrids using multivariate and geometric morphometric analysis https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2577-010 <p><b>López De Heredia U, Duro-García MJ, Soto A</b></p><p><b>LEAF MORPHOLOGY OF PROGENIES IN Q. SUBER, Q. ILEX, AND THEIR HYBRIDS USING MULTIVARIATE AND GEOMETRIC MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The genus Quercus is known for the occurrence of frequent hybridization events between species. Although this phenomenon is not common among holm oak (Q. ilex) and cork oak (Q. suber), these species can hybridize when they coexist in mixed stands. The result of hybridization is a viable hybrid progeny with very heterogeneous leaf morphology. Literature concerning the leaf morphology of suber-ilex hybrid seedlings is scarce, and non-existent from a quantitative point of view. In the case of the leaf morphology of hybrids and their progeny, it has been observed a high frequency of leaves with fluctuating asymmetry or developmental abnormalities, which can have a marked effect on fitness. In this work, we have characterized seedlings’ leaf morphology corresponding to two- and four-year-old half-sib progenies of holm oak, cork oak and their hybrids. For this purpose, three to ten leaves of each individual were collected, and two methodologies were used for analysis. Firstly, we used a classic morphological analysis of twelve variables that were reduced using multivariate techniques. On the other hand, shape of the leaves was thoroughly analyzed by geometric morphometric analysis methods. The extent of fluctuating asymmetry and the presence of developmental abnormalities of seedlings were analyzed calculating an asymmetry index. The results indicate that thickness is the most discriminating trait between species, and that the hybrid progenies do not show a third different phenotype compared to the parental species. However, half-siblings tend to show similar leaf morphology between them, depending on the genetic adscription of the parents. While fluctuating asymmetry was found in half-sib progenies of the parental species and the hybrids, a significant proportion of hybrid half-sibs showed strong leaf asymmetry, probably due to modifications of the epigenetic systems that control leaf development at the shoot apical meristems and leaf primordia.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hybridization, Fluctuating Asymmetry, Leaf Morphology, Procrustes Analysis</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 90-98 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2577-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2577-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2577-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> López De Heredia U, Duro-García MJ, Soto A Research Articles 2018-01-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2577-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: SimHyb: a simulation software for the study of the evolution of hybridizing populations. Application to Quercus ilex and Q. suber suggests hybridization could be underestimated https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2569-011 <p><b>Soto A, Rodríguez-Martínez D, López De Heredia U</b></p><p><b>SIMHYB: A SIMULATION SOFTWARE FOR THE STUDY OF THE EVOLUTION OF HYBRIDIZING POPULATIONS. APPLICATION TO QUERCUS ILEX AND Q. SUBER SUGGESTS HYBRIDIZATION COULD BE UNDERESTIMATED</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We present SimHyb, a Java-based software for the simulation of mixed hybridizing populations. The software incorporates user-defined initial parameters and input files to account for the initial census size of two species in a closed population, the number of intermediate specific classes, the directional fertility among specific classes, the fitness coefficients for each specific class, the inheritance of fitness, and the degree of ageing and self-incompatibility of the individuals. All these demographic and adaptive parameters can be modified by the user to analyze their effect on the evolution of the mixed population. SimHyb allows the traceability of each individual, whose pedigree is also recorded. For each simulated generation the software yields an output file that is easily convertible to an input for Structure, one of the most popular softwares for the Bayesian analysis of populations. Application of SimHyb to simulate Quercus ilex and Q. suber hybridizing populations, and further analysis with Structure, reveals that advanced introgressed individuals are very often misclassified with the currently available set of nuclear microsatellite markers, so that introgression between these two species could have been underestimated in previous studies. However, we provide a simple parameter based on Structure results to identify the directionality of pollination in the progeny of a known mother tree.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hybridization, Introgression, Simulations, Molecular Markers, Quercus suber, Quercus ilex</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 99-103 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2569-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2569-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2569-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Soto A, Rodríguez-Martínez D, López De Heredia U Research Articles 2018-01-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2569-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Genetic diversity of core vs. peripheral Norway spruce native populations at a local scale in Slovenia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2444-011 <p><b>Westergren M, Bozic G, Kraigher H</b></p><p><b>GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CORE VS. PERIPHERAL NORWAY SPRUCE NATIVE POPULATIONS AT A LOCAL SCALE IN SLOVENIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We investigated the levels of genetic diversity and population differentiation among core and peripheral populations of Norway spruce along an altitudinal gradient (from inversions to upper tree line) using isoenzymes (ISO) and nuclear simple-sequence repeats (SSR) markers on overlapping set of populations. Twenty-seven to seventy trees from 11 and 7 populations were genotyped with isoenzymes and SSRs, respectively. The results partially conform to the expectations of the central-peripheral hypothesis (CPH) and are consistent for both marker sets. Genetic differentiation among peripheral populations was low but significantly different from zero (FST-ISO = 0.013, FST-SSR = 0.009) and higher than that among core populations (FST-ISO = 0.007, FST-SSR = 0.005), conforming to central peripheral hypothesis. Contrastingly, levels of genetic diversity assessed by both richness and equitability measures did not significantly differ between peripheral and core populations (AR-ISO = 2.20 vs. 2.14, AR-SSR = 17.16 vs. 17.68, HE-ISO = 0.183 vs. 0.185, and HE-SSR = 0.935 vs. 0.935 for peripheral and core populations, respectively).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Central Peripheral Hypothesis, Picea abies (L.) Karst., Genetic Diversity, Genetic Differentiation, Upper Tree Line, Inversion</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 104-110 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2444-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2444-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2444-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Westergren M, Bozic G, Kraigher H Research Articles 2018-01-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2444-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Feasibility study of near infrared spectroscopy to detect yellow stain on cork granulate https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2563-010 <p><b>Pérez-Terrazas D, González-Adrados JR, Sánchez-González M</b></p><p><b>FEASIBILITY STUDY OF NEAR INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY TO DETECT YELLOW STAIN ON CORK GRANULATE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to detect the anomaly known as yellow stain on cork granulate. Detecting this anomaly is crucial to the cork granulate stopper industry, since it is associated with the presence of 2.4,6-Trichloroanisole (TCA), this compound having been identified as the main agent responsible for cork off-flavours. Samples for the NIRS spectra were prepared by mixing in different proportions cork granulate with high visual quality and cork granulate with yellow stain, obtaining 120 samples with 8 different percentages of yellow stain (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, 35, 50 and 100%). Two spectra per sample were collected using a Bruker MPA spectrophotometer and the partial least squares (PLS) method was used to obtain numerous equations. The best equation was obtained by utilizing the standard normal variate (SNV) spectral preprocessing, making use of only one specific part of the near infrared spectral range: 9400-4250 cm-1. This equation shows a coefficient of determination (R²) of 99.42%, a root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.34%, and a residual prediction deviation (RPD) of 13.10. The critical level and the limit of detection are 3.8% and 7.6%, respectively. The calculated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves show great discrimination capacity and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) is higher than 0.93 in any case. This study demonstrates that NIRS provides a viable technique for detecting yellow stain in cork granulate.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cork, Granulate, Yellow Stain, 2, 4, 6-Trichloroanisole, TCA, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, NIRS</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 111-117 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2563-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2563-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2563-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pérez-Terrazas D, González-Adrados JR, Sánchez-González M Research Articles 2018-01-31 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2563-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Soil seed banks of pioneer tree species in European temperate forests: a review https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2400-011 <p><b>Tiebel K, Huth F, Wagner S</b></p><p><b>SOIL SEED BANKS OF PIONEER TREE SPECIES IN EUROPEAN TEMPERATE FORESTS: A REVIEW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The ability of short-lived tree species such as birch, alder, willow, poplar and rowan to form even a short-term soil seed bank is discussed controversially in the literature. Soil seed banks are an important component of succession and regeneration in ecosystems. Following disturbance, buried viable seeds germinate and the seedlings that establish cover the disturbed, exposed soil surfaces. The objective of this study was to undertake a literature review of soil seed bank research carried out in central and north-west European temperate forests to provide an overview of the ability of pioneer tree species to form a viable seed bank. The review of 33 publications revealed that birch is the only pioneer tree species of temperate forests with longer-lived seeds, persisting in the soil for 1 - 5 years. Birch seeds remain viable in deeper soil layers (5 - 10 cm), so birch may be assigned to the short-term persistent soil seed bank type. The seeds of alder, willow and poplar would appear to be short-lived. Maximum seed densities of all tree species were found in the upper soil layers. With increasing soil depth, seed density declined. Viable seeds of rowan were not detected in any of the soil seed bank studies, although seed trees were present. We found that in spite of the capacity for long seed dispersal distances, high densities of birch, alder and willow seeds were only observed in close proximity to seed trees. The higher the numbers of seed trees, the higher the seed densities in soils. Maximum seed densities were recorded during and shortly after seed rains had occurred. Our results reveal that a birch seed bank may compensate for years with lower levels of seed production. However, as the seed bank is only short-term persistent, it must be supplemented by fresh seeds from surrounding seed trees as often as possible to guarantee a continuous capacity for regeneration.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Betula, Buried Seeds, Propagule Bank, Seed Density, Viable Seeds, Germination</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 48-57 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2400-011<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2400-011" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2400-011</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tiebel K, Huth F, Wagner S Review Papers 2018-01-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2400-011 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Bird composition and diversity in oak stands under variable coppice management in Northwestern Turkey https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2489-010 <p><b>Beskardes V, Keten A, Kumbasli M, Pekin B, Yilmaz E, Makineci E, Ozdemir E, Zengin H</b></p><p><b>BIRD COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN OAK STANDS UNDER VARIABLE COPPICE MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWESTERN TURKEY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coppice management results in profound differences in forest structure and composition, which in turn can modify habitat value for bird species. We measured bird species richness and composition at 50 sample plots in pure oak forest stands in northwestern Turkey, which differed in age, cover and height in association with coppice management. We recorded a total of 38 bird species and 699 individuals across all stands. Regression-based multimodel inference showed that structural features of forest stands strongly affect bird diversity and abundance. While canopy cover and tree height affect bird diversity positively, elevation of sampling plots, tree density and tree diameter at breast height (DBH) had a negative effect. In addition, constrained ordination analyses revealed that canopy cover was the most important factor influencing bird species composition. Forest stands that have 42-85% canopy cover, i.e., a few (2009-2580 oak trees) large tall (13.36-15.78 m) trees, were the most preferred habitat by bird species. However, we also found that different bird species favor different stand structural features. Thus, variation in stand structure from maintaining some coppice management across the landscape may be beneficial for rare or endangered species and result in greater landscape level biodiversity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Avian Fauna, Canopy Height, Vegetation Seral Stage, Canopy Cover, Multi-model Inference, Thrace</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 58-63 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2489-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2489-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2489-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Beskardes V, Keten A, Kumbasli M, Pekin B, Yilmaz E, Makineci E, Ozdemir E, Zengin H Research Articles 2018-01-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2489-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Windstorm disturbance triggers multiple species invasion in an urban Mediterranean forest https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2374-010 <p><b>Bonanomi G, Incerti G, Abd El-Gawad AM, Sarker TC, Stinca A, Motti R, Cesarano G, Teobaldelli M, Saulino L, Cona F, Chirico GB, Mazzoleni S, Saracino A</b></p><p><b>WINDSTORM DISTURBANCE TRIGGERS MULTIPLE SPECIES INVASION IN AN URBAN MEDITERRANEAN FOREST</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plant invasion in forest ecosystems is a serious ecological and economic issue, deserving attention by researchers, managers and policy-makers worldwide. Many invasive plants have been reported as early successional species able to colonize disturbed areas following abrupt changes in microhabitat and resource availability. We investigated disturbance effects of a severe windstorm generated by a wet microburst (hail and rain at 160 mm h-1) remarkably affecting the canopy cover of an old-growth Quercus ilex urban forest in Southern Italy. This stand-replacing disturbance produced a mosaic of 103 gaps, 5.6 to 1632 m2 in size, over an area of 1.53 ha, uprooting 76% of the trees and decreasing thereby 85% of the standing above-ground dry biomass into the gaps. By intensive monitoring we compared above- and below-ground microclimate, soil moisture and mineral N availability in paired disturbed and control areas of the study forest. Within newly formed gaps we observed a seasonally consistent 70% higher content of nitrate nitrogen, 29% and 47% decreases of ammonia nitrogen in summer and autumn, respectively, and a higher moisture in topsoil, in addition to different above- and below-ground microclimatic conditions, with canopy cover mitigating extreme temperatures. One year after the windstorm, the microhabitat shift promoted the establishment in gaps of 15 native and 10 alien taxa previously absent in both disturbed and control plots. In such conditions, the rarefaction of the dominant Q. ilex canopy cover and the occurrence of empty niches prone to invasion could dramatically affect the local community structure and diversity. Our data indicate that stand-replacing windstorm can transiently transform the studied urban evergreen forest to an early allogenic successional community dominated, in the medium and large gaps, by annual and perennial non-native species. This is particularly relevant under a perspective of possible increasing frequency of windstorm events in the Mediterranean region in the near future.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Invasive Plants, Microburst, Mediterranean Evergreen Woodland, Quercus ilex, Resources Fluctuation, Empty Niche</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 64-71 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2374-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2374-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2374-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bonanomi G, Incerti G, Abd El-Gawad AM, Sarker TC, Stinca A, Motti R, Cesarano G, Teobaldelli M, Saulino L, Cona F, Chirico GB, Mazzoleni S, Saracino A Research Articles 2018-01-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2374-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Analysis of growth of recruits of natural regeneration of Sorbus torminalis (L.) Crantz - a rare European forest tree species https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2347-010 <p><b>Bednorz L, Nowinska R</b></p><p><b>ANALYSIS OF GROWTH OF RECRUITS OF NATURAL REGENERATION OF SORBUS TORMINALIS (L.) CRANTZ - A RARE EUROPEAN FOREST TREE SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We compared growth and survival of wild service tree (Sorbus torminalis [L.] Crantz) recruits of different origin (generative: seedlings; vegetative: root suckers) established in a fenced plot at the Forest District of Krzyz (north-western Poland). Total height, annual growth of the dominant shoot, stem diameter at root collar, number of first-order branches, and mortality were measured every year over the period 2011-2015 (5 years). In 2011, a total of 382 multi-age recruits originated both from seeds (212) and root suckers (170) were recorded. Five-year mortality was higher in the generative progeny (12.3% - only youngest seedlings) as compared with vegetative recruits (2.9%). The growth rate of individuals markedly increased with height as absolute values, but slightly decreased in terms of relative growth. Statistical analysis revealed that the effect of the recruit origin on growth was noticeably weaker than that of age, defined in terms of development (height) classes. The origin of recruits had a major effect on the annual growth of the dominant shoots and a minor (though significant) effect on stem diameter and the number of first-order branches. Overall, the analysis of growth rate showed that generative recruits grow faster than the vegetative ones. Our results highlight the importance of stimulating the generative regeneration and protecting seedlings as a conservation strategy for Sorbus torminalis.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Sorbus torminalis, Regeneration, Growth, Mortality, Seedlings, Root Suckers</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 72-78 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2347-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2347-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2347-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Bednorz L, Nowinska R Research Articles 2018-01-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2347-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Voluntary carbon credits from improved forest management: policy guidelines and case study https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2431-010 <p><b>Vacchiano G, Berretti R, Romano R, Motta R</b></p><p><b>VOLUNTARY CARBON CREDITS FROM IMPROVED FOREST MANAGEMENT: POLICY GUIDELINES AND CASE STUDY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Human activities have the potential to enhance carbon sequestration by the world’s forests and contribute to climate change mitigation. Voluntary carbon trading is currently the only option to pursue and reward carbon sequestration by forestry activities. Carbon credits for enhanced sequestration can be sold to partners wishing to offset their own emissions. Here we illustrate the steps taken to design guidelines for the generation of voluntary carbon credits by improved forest management in Piemonte, Italy. The guidelines have been developed in a joint effort by academia, regional administrations, forest owners and professional consultants. In particular, we show how to compute the baseline and the additionality of credit-generating forest management activities, and how to reconcile the generation of forest carbon credits with law requirements, technical limitations, and the provision of other ecosystem services. To illustrate the profitability of carbon credit generation, we simulated the application of carbon credit guidelines to two forest-rich mountain watersheds in the southern part of the Piemonte region. The two dominating tree species are beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.). We computed current forest carbon stock and carbon credits generated in 20 years under business as usual and an alternative biomass retention scenario. The IFM resulted in an avoided harvest of 39.362 m3 for a net total of 64.014 MgCO2e after subtracting harvest emissions, or 38 Mg ha-1 throughout the permanence period of 20 years. These steps can be replicated in other mountain regions where there is interest in promoting this ecosystem service as an alternative or an addition to production-oriented forest management.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Stocks, Carbon Credits, Biomass, Coppice, Ecosystem Services, Forest Management Plan, Climate Change Mitigation, Retention Forestry</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 1-10 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2431-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2431-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2431-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vacchiano G, Berretti R, Romano R, Motta R Research Articles 2018-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2431-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of traits of non-colonized and colonized decaying logs by vascular plant species https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2107-010 <p><b>Chmura D, Zarnowiec J, Staniaszek-Kik M</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF TRAITS OF NON-COLONIZED AND COLONIZED DECAYING LOGS BY VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The main goal of this study was to check whether the process of the colonization of coarse woody debris (CWD) is random or is determined by the wood traits and the environment. The study was conducted in the Karkonosze Mts., a part of Sudeten Mts. (Poland). We recorded the CWD traits and site conditions for 453 logs of spruce (Picea abies) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), which were either colonized or not colonized by vascular plants. Principal Components Analysis (PCA), a statistical comparison of two categories of logs using the Wilcoxon’s sum rank test and Generalized Linear Model (GLM) were applied. P. abies logs were colonized significantly more frequently than F. sylvatica logs. PCA demonstrated that the groups of colonized and non-colonized logs significantly differed overall in both species. The colonization status of a given log was significantly associated with CWD traits and site conditions. Decomposition class, the log diameter and the cover of bryophytes in F. sylvatica and P. abies, as well as altitude in the latter species, were significant factors that increased the probability of dead wood colonization by vascular plants. The results supported the hypothesis that vascular plants do not colonize all of the available logs and that the process of establishment is not random.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Dead Wood, Fallen Trees, Succession, Norway Spruce, Beechwood, Montane Forest</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 11-16 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2107-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2107-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2107-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Chmura D, Zarnowiec J, Staniaszek-Kik M Research Articles 2018-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2107-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seasonal development of lesions caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus on young Fraxinus excelsior trees in Latvia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2283-010 <p><b>Matisone I, Matisons R, Kenigsvalde K, Gaitnieks T, Burneviča N</b></p><p><b>SEASONAL DEVELOPMENT OF LESIONS CAUSED BY HYMENOSCYPHUS FRAXINEUS ON YOUNG FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR TREES IN LATVIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The spread of the ascomycete Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, causing dieback of common ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Europe, is rapid and the damage is pronounced, as young ashes can perish over the course of only a few months following infection. The objective of this study was to investigate the rate and extent of lesion formation on young (5-8-year-old) ashes during a vegetation season in the hemiboreal zone in Latvia. Continuous surveys (with monthly intervals) of the health condition of 30 young ash and measurements of lesion area in three stands were performed during the vegetation season of 2015. From June to September of that year, the number of observed lesions gradually rose from 58 to 87. New lesions emerged on branches (55%, 0.5 per tree), top shoots (28%, 0.3 per tree), and stems (17%, 0.2 per tree), mostly appearing at the beginning of the observation period (45%, 52%, and 3% in June, July, and August, respectively). During the vegetation season, 20% of the existing and 28% of the newly-emerged lesions on branches, as well as 20% and 25% of top shoot lesions, respectively, reached the main stem. Some (< 20% of cases) transitions of lesions from the tops and branches to the stems were observed. The extension of lesions was significant until August, and ceased afterwards in a similar fashion in all stands. The mean extension of area significantly differed between the previously-existing and newly-emerged lesions. During the vegetation season, the new lesions expanded by 25.1 ± 4.8 cm2, whereas the existing ones grew by only 7.3 ± 1.1 cm2. The extension of the new lesions varied according to their location on a tree. The spread of emerging lesions on stems was considerably slower than on branches or top shoots (1.9 ± 0.7, 7.3 ± 1.5, and 14.5 ± 4.1 cm2 per lesion per month, respectively). During the studied vegetation season (summer), the overall health score of trees decreased twice, yet the relationship between heath status and development of lesions lacked significance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Common Ash, Ash Dieback, Lesion Length, Sapling Wilting</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 17-23 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2283-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2283-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2283-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Matisone I, Matisons R, Kenigsvalde K, Gaitnieks T, Burneviča N Research Articles 2018-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2283-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Adaptive variation in physiological traits of beech provenances in Central Europe https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2291-010 <p><b>Kučerová J, Konôpková A, Pšidová E, Kurjak D, Jamnická G, Slugenová K, Gömöry D, Ditmarová L</b></p><p><b>ADAPTIVE VARIATION IN PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF BEECH PROVENANCES IN CENTRAL EUROPE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Current climate changes can led to a decline of local beech populations fully adapted to previous climate conditions. In this context, the issue of variation in adaptive traits becomes important. A field experiment with 18-year-old trees of Fagus sylvatica L. was conducted on provenance plot located in Tále (Central Slovakia), where physiological responses of five beech provenances originating from contrasting sites along an altitudinal gradient from 55 to 1100 m a.s.l. across the range of the natural beech distribution were studied. Stomatal characteristics, parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were determined. Overall, we observed a significant increase in physiological performance at the leaf level with increasing altitude of origin. Provenances from the higher altitudes showed higher CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal density, potential conductance indices and photochemical efficiency, and lower capability for dissipation of energy by heat. A similar pattern of response was recorded in relation to the precipitation regime of sites of origin. Moreover, in the context of the temperature regime, several negative trends were observed.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Adaptation, Provenance Trial, Fagus sylvatica L., Chlorophyll a Fluorescence, Stomatal Traits, Gas Exchange</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 24-31 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2291-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2291-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2291-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kučerová J, Konôpková A, Pšidová E, Kurjak D, Jamnická G, Slugenová K, Gömöry D, Ditmarová L Research Articles 2018-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2291-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effects of nitrogen loading under low and high phosphorus conditions on above- and below-ground growth of hybrid larch F1 seedlings https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2395-010 <p><b>Fujita S, Wang X, Kita K, Koike T</b></p><p><b>EFFECTS OF NITROGEN LOADING UNDER LOW AND HIGH PHOSPHORUS CONDITIONS ON ABOVE- AND BELOW-GROUND GROWTH OF HYBRID LARCH F1 SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Under present environmental conditions, hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) is a promising afforestation species as it has a high growth rate and tolerance against grazing damage, disease and cold. However, the input of nitrogen (N) to forests due to the increase of anthropogenic N is causing imbalances of N compared to other nutrients, especially phosphorus (P), thus affecting the root growth of healthy seedlings. However, knowledge on how different N and P conditions affect F1 root growth is still limited. In this study, various N (3 levels) and P (no addition and addition) conditions were imposed to investigate the effect of N loading on larch F1 seedlings under different P conditions. Needle N: P ratio, aboveground growth, belowground growth as well as fine root production were measured. The results showed that needle N: P ratio was higher under low P loading, and aboveground growth of seedlings increased with N loading at both low and high P conditions. Relative fine root production was decreased by N loading. On the other hand, fine root to total dry proportion was increased by N loading at no P addition, suggesting that limited P availability could increase fine root production. Total root proportion to total dry mass was decreased by N loading at both P conditions. We concluded that N loading has different effects on above- and below-ground growth of larch F1 and its effects may also differ according to P conditions, indicating that both N and P conditions should be carefully considered when planting hybrid larch F1.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Nitrogen Deposition, Phosphorus, Fine Root Production, N: P Ratio, Hybrid Larch F1</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 32-40 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2395-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2395-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2395-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fujita S, Wang X, Kita K, Koike T Research Articles 2018-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2395-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Predicting phenology of European beech in forest habitats https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1820-010 <p><b>Vilhar U, De Groot M, Zust A, Skudnik M, Simončič P</b></p><p><b>PREDICTING PHENOLOGY OF EUROPEAN BEECH IN FOREST HABITATS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Reliable phenological observations are important for studying the response of trees to climate and climate change. National phenological networks were not specifically established to monitor tree phenology within forests, yet they are often used to generalise tree phenological phases at national or regional scales. Our objective was to investigate whether a phenological monitoring network using trees in open areas can accurately predict phenology of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) located within forests by using two models: one with correlates of environmental variables and one with interpolated monthly air temperature and sun hours. The first leaf unfolding, general leaf colouring and leaf fall dates from 2004 through 2010 were modelled using data from 47 Slovene National Phenology Network (NPN) stations in open areas and tested on phenological observations within forests using data from the UNECE CRLTAP ICP Forests network. Good agreement was found between predicted and observed first leaf unfolding in the forest, while slightly lower agreement was detected for general leaf colouring and leaf fall. Suggestions for the improvement of national phenological network are discussed in order to better predict beech phenology in forest habitats.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Leaf Unfolding, Leaf Colouring, Leaf Fall, Modelling, Fagus sylvatica, Slovene National Phenology Network, ICP Forests</p><p><i>iForest 11 (1): 41-47 (2018)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1820-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1820-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1820-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Vilhar U, De Groot M, Zust A, Skudnik M, Simončič P Research Articles 2018-01-09 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1820-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Historical and contemporary forest ecosystem changes in the Beskid Mountains (southern Poland) between 1848 and 2014 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2418-010 <p><b>Sobala M, Rahmonov O, Myga-Piatek U</b></p><p><b>HISTORICAL AND CONTEMPORARY FOREST ECOSYSTEM CHANGES IN THE BESKID MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN POLAND) BETWEEN 1848 AND 2014</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Landscape changes in the Carpathians are related to centuries of human activity, which can be regarded as the key component of global change. Changes in mountainous regions are mainly caused by agriculture, urbanization, forest cutting for production and land abandonment. This paper aimed to assess the impact of natural and historical-cultural factors on forest ecosystem transformations occurred in the period 1848-2014 in two small areas (about 45 km2) on the Beskid Mountains (southern Poland). The comparison of historical and current maps, along with the application of GIS and field verification, allowed a full interpretation of changes in land use in the studied areas. A decrease of 58.0% in non-forest areas was observed in the considered period, while the forested area grew systematically by 28.3% and the forest-field boundary lowered in altitude. Current forest ecosystems are distributed as a mosaic and mainly consist of Dentario glandulosae-Fagetum, Luzulo nemorosae-Fagetum, Abieti-Piceetum montanum, with logged sites taking up large areas. Forest ecosystems include valuable semi-natural meadows such as Gladiolo-Agrostietum, Hieracio-Nardetum, Arrhenatheretum medioeuropaeum, Cirsietum rivularis or Juncetum effusi, whose extension is reducing and fragmentation increasing due to the recolonization of forest tree species after abandonment. We concluded that trends in land use in the Carpathians were mainly determined by non-environmental factors related to the development of farming-pasturing and forest management. The applied approach could be extended to other regions in the Carpathians which were subject to analogous historical-cultural influences. Moreover, our results allow for a comparison with other regions which are subject to similar impacts of natural processes, but to different impact of historical and cultural processes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Landscape Research, Forest Transformation, Land Use Changes, Historical Maps, Poland, Beskid Mountains, Carpathians</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 939-947 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2418-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2418-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2418-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sobala M, Rahmonov O, Myga-Piatek U Research Articles 2017-12-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2418-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Testing common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) acetylated with the Accoya method under industrial conditions https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2359-010 <p><b>Fodor F, Lankveld C, Németh R</b></p><p><b>TESTING COMMON HORNBEAM (CARPINUS BETULUS L.) ACETYLATED WITH THE ACCOYA METHOD UNDER INDUSTRIAL CONDITIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Hornbeam is known for its high density, hardness, toughness, and wear resistance, but due to its low durability (Class 5 according to EN 350), limited wood quality, and rather small sawmill yield it is mainly utilized as firewood today. The potential for hornbeam to be used as solid, high-quality wood material exists if its durability and dimensional stability can be increased. Hornbeam boards were acetylated under industrial conditions and tests were carried out to evaluate the treatability of this wood species by acetylation. In this study, the examination of physical, mechanical, and durability properties of acetylated hornbeam are described and compared to untreated hornbeam and to acetylated beech, which has a similar anatomical structure to hornbeam. Acetylated hornbeam was also compared to acetylated radiata pine, which is the main product of Accsys Technologies. These comparisons include the determination of the equilibrium moisture content, density, dimensional stability, accelerated checking, color change, water uptake, decay resistance, compression strength, modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), impact bending strength, Janka hardness, Brinell hardness, and impact bending strength. The aim of this project is the creation of a new product thereby widening the usage of this species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Hornbeam, Acetylation, Accoya, Physical Properties, Mechanical Properties, Durability, Color</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 948-954 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2359-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2359-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2359-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fodor F, Lankveld C, Németh R Research Articles 2017-12-19 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2359-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Patterns of genetic diversity in European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) at the eastern margins of its distribution range https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2446-010 <p><b>Ciocîrlan E, Sofletea N, Ducci F, Curtu AL</b></p><p><b>PATTERNS OF GENETIC DIVERSITY IN EUROPEAN BEECH (FAGUS SYLVATICA L.) AT THE EASTERN MARGINS OF ITS DISTRIBUTION RANGE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Populations located at the periphery of the species’ distribution range may play an important role in the context of climate change. These peripheral populations may contain specific adaptations as a result of extreme environmental conditions. The aim of this paper was to assess within population genetic diversity and among population differentiation in one of the most important forest tree species in Europe, European beech (Fagus sylvatica), at the eastern margins of its natural range. We analysed four peripheral, isolated populations and five core populations from the continuous natural range along the Carpathian Mountains using a set of microsatellite markers. Higher levels of genetic diversity as measured by allelic richness (7.34 vs. 6.50) and observed heterozygosity (0.71 vs. 0.59) were detected in core populations than in peripheral ones. Population differentiation was slightly higher among peripheral populations than among core, Carpathian populations. There was strong evidence of bottleneck effects in two out of the four peripheral, isolated populations. Both core, Carpathian populations and peripheral, lowlands populations share the same chloroplast haplotype suggesting a common geographical origin from the putative Moravian refuge area. Past long distance founding events with material from the Carpathian mountain chain might explain the occurrence of small, isolated beech populations towards the steppe in the south-east of Romania. Our genetic data may contribute to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of the remnants of beech scattered occurrences at the eastern margins of species’ distribution range.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fagus sylvatica, Genetic Diversity, Peripheral Populations, Bottleneck Effect</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 916-922 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2446-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2446-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2446-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ciocîrlan E, Sofletea N, Ducci F, Curtu AL Research Articles 2017-12-10 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2446-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Identifying priority conservation areas for above-ground carbon sequestration in Central Mexico https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1980-010 <p><b>Cruz-Huerta C, González-Guillén MDJ, Martínez-Trinidad T, Escalona-Maurice M</b></p><p><b>IDENTIFYING PRIORITY CONSERVATION AREAS FOR ABOVE-GROUND CARBON SEQUESTRATION IN CENTRAL MEXICO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Identifying forest ecosystems with significant ecological, social, and/or economic values is an important first-step in conserving landscape function. Here, we identify priority conservation areas in the municipalities of Chignahuapan and Zacatlan, Puebla (Mexico), based on: (i) their capacity to sequester atmospheric CO2; and (ii) risk of future deforestation. We also explore management strategies for priority-lands conservation in the Mexican context. Above-ground C sequestration was estimated using wood density and biomass expansion-factor data available from local forestry sources. Deforestation risk was estimated by a probabilistic model of land use change using socioeconomic and biophysical variables. Carbon sequestration estimates ranged from 14 to 531 Mg ha-1 for Chignahuapan and Zacatlan, respectively. An estimated 11.746 and 4.406 ha of forest was determined to be at risk of deforestation in each municipality. Of these at-risk lands, 2.421 and 1.798 ha were determined to be at high risk. In combination, we determined that 10.687 and 4.319 ha, respectively, are priority lands for carbon sequestration in Chignahuapan and Zacatlan, of which 628 and 310 ha were determined to have high conservation priority. Identifying priority conservation areas through the integrated assessment of carbon sequestration and deforestation risk can enhance efforts to target land management strategies to mitigate climate change impacts. This approach can serve as a model for other forested regions in Mexico and other countries.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Carbon Sinks, REDD, Climate Change, Deforestation Risk, Priority Conservation, Probabilistic Model, Land Use, Development</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 923-929 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1980-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1980-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1980-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cruz-Huerta C, González-Guillén MDJ, Martínez-Trinidad T, Escalona-Maurice M Research Articles 2017-12-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1980-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Comparison of timber-house technologies and initiatives supporting use of timber in Slovenia and in Sweden - the state of the art https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2397-010 <p><b>Kitek Kuzman M, Sandberg D</b></p><p><b>COMPARISON OF TIMBER-HOUSE TECHNOLOGIES AND INITIATIVES SUPPORTING USE OF TIMBER IN SLOVENIA AND IN SWEDEN - THE STATE OF THE ART</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Historically, Slovenia and Sweden have equivalent uses of timber in construction and a long tradition of timber engineering and architecture. Nevertheless, in spite of these similarities, the development path to reach a modern and industrialized use of timber in construction which allows a diversity of architectural expression and design possibilities has differed considerably between these two countries, after the function-based building regulations that were introduced in Europe nearly three decades ago. This paper gives an overview of some characteristic modern timber buildings in Slovenia and Sweden, and the different construction techniques that are used in these two countries. Successful initiatives supporting the use of timber in construction are also presented. The opportunities for the further development of sustainable timber constructions in Slovenia and Sweden lie in new production methods, high prefabrication, and energy-efficient and climate-effective architecture, besides partnership and increased responsibilities for planning, improved and systematic feedback of experience and team cooperation, as well as knowing users identity, values and life style.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Architecture, Timber Construction, Technologies, Promotion Initiatives</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 930-938 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2397-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2397-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2397-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kitek Kuzman M, Sandberg D Research Articles 2017-12-07 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2397-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Wood modification technologies - a review https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2380-010 <p><b>Sandberg D, Kutnar A, Mantanis G</b></p><p><b>WOOD MODIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES - A REVIEW</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The market for new durable products of modified wood has increased substantially during the last few years, especially in Europe. This increased interest depends partly on the restricted use of toxic preservatives due to increased environmental concern, as well as the need for reduced maintenance for wood products that are mainly for exterior use. Furthermore, as sustainability becomes a greater concern, the environmental impact of construction and interior materials should be included in planning by considering the entire life cycle and embodied energy of the materials used. As a result, wood modification has been implemented to improve the intrinsic properties of wood, widen the range of sawn timber applications, and acquire the form and functionality desired by engineers, without bringing environmental friendliness into question. The different wood modification processes are at various stages of development, and the challenges that must be overcome to expand to industrial applications differ amongst them. In this paper, three groups of wood modification processes are discussed and exemplified with modified wood products that have been newly introduced to the market: (i) chemical processing (acetylation, furfurylation, resin impregnation etc.); (ii) thermo-hydro processing (thermal treatment); and (iii) thermo-hydro-mechanical processing (surface densification). Building on these examples, the paper will discuss the environmental impact assessment of modification processes and further development needs.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Chemical Treatments, Thermo-hydro-mechanical, LCA, Acetylation, Furfurylation, Resin Impregnation, Environmental Impacts, Densification</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 895-908 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2380-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2380-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2380-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sandberg D, Kutnar A, Mantanis G Review Papers 2017-12-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2380-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Density management diagram for teak plantations in Tabasco, Mexico https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2247-010 <p><b>Minoche D, Risio-Allione L, Herrero De Aza C, Martínez-Zurimendi P</b></p><p><b>DENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAM FOR TEAK PLANTATIONS IN TABASCO, MEXICO</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Density management diagrams are valuable tools for managing specific forest species. The aim of this study was to obtain a density management diagram for teak (Tectona grandis L.) plantations in the State of Tabasco in Mexico. To achieve this objective, a set of 10 plantations were studied, in which 42 plots were established. Two equations were fitted simultaneously, including one related to the quadratic mean diameter, stand density and dominant height and the other which related the total stand volume to the quadratic mean diameter, stand density and dominant height. The results showed that the diagram had an acceptable predictability, thus indicating its usefulness and accuracy in planning silvicultural interventions. This diagram is a very powerful tool that can enable stakeholders to manage teak plantations in the State of Tabasco.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Silvicultural Interventions, Stand Density Diagram, Quadratic Mean Diameter, Tectona grandis</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 909-915 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2247-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2247-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2247-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Minoche D, Risio-Allione L, Herrero De Aza C, Martínez-Zurimendi P Research Articles 2017-12-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2247-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Density management diagrams for sweet chestnut high-forest stands in Portugal https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2411-010 <p><b>Patrício MS, Nunes L</b></p><p><b>DENSITY MANAGEMENT DIAGRAMS FOR SWEET CHESTNUT HIGH-FOREST STANDS IN PORTUGAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study aims to develop stand density management diagrams (SDMDs) for pure even-aged high-forest stands of sweet chestnut in Portugal, defining the appropriate upper and lower limits of growing stock while considering the biological, technological and economic objectives that are expected for these stands. The SDMDs were developed with data collected from high-forest stands in northern Portugal, which is the main representative area of these stands in the country. Data were collected from 23 pure even-aged permanent plots with re-measurement intervals of 4-10 years, 43 semi-permanent plots and 18 even-aged temporary plots; all plots were established in chestnut high-forest stands with a broad range of ages. SDMDs were constructed by simultaneously fitting four nonlinear equations relating stand variables using the full information likelihood technique. SDMDs for the estimation of stand total volume, stand stem biomass, stand total aboveground biomass, and carbon content in aboveground biomass are presented as bivariate graphs with dominant height on the x-axis and the number of trees per hectare on the y-axis (using logarithmic scale). A tool is made available to define an optimal range of stand density for a silviculture oriented to single-stem selection on a tree-by-tree basis, focusing management on the most valuable trees. This tool is aimed to support forest managers in the decision-making process, enabling them to schedule thinnings on the basis of the dominant height growth of the trees with the greatest potential (frame trees), maintaining an adequate growing stock and assessing the corresponding aboveground wood volume, biomass, carbon, and mean diameter breast height.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Castanea sativa Mill., Stand Density, Thinning, Biomass, Site Index, Dominant Height, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 865-870 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2411-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2411-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2411-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Patrício MS, Nunes L Research Articles 2017-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2411-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Evaluating the impact of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus in Trentino (Alps, Northern Italy): first investigations https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2486-010 <p><b>Giongo S, Oliveira Longa CM, Dal Maso E, Montecchio L, Maresi G</b></p><p><b>EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF HYMENOSCYPHUS FRAXINEUS IN TRENTINO (ALPS, NORTHERN ITALY): FIRST INVESTIGATIONS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The spread of Hymenoscyphus fraxineus has been causing great concern regarding the survival of European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) throughout Europe since the 1990s. The disease was first recorded in Trentino (southern Alps, Italy) in 2012 and has spread throughout the mountain landscape, where ash trees are scattered in small and isolated stands in different valleys. The status of the disease was checked by monitoring the damage to natural regeneration and adult trees in 90 sites spread over the whole region. The survey confirmed the complete colonization by the pathogen of the whole investigated area, with high levels of damage to both young and adult ash trees. Regeneration (both seedlings and saplings) was observed to be affected by the fungus in 88 plots out of 90. Out of 4486 examined young European ashes, 2261 (50.4%) were affected and 789 (17.6%) were already dead. Ten of the 384 assayed flowering ashes (Fraxinus ornus) showed symptoms on branches and apical stems, similar to those observed for European ash. Isolation and molecular analysis proved the presence of the fungus on both symptomatic European and flowering ashes. The examined 386 adult trees showed different levels of damage, sometimes reaching more than 75% of the crown. Some individual trees (42) growing close to severely damaged trees appeared fully healthy, which suggests the possible existence of some resistant/tolerant individuals in the examined populations.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ash Dieback, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus ornus, Natural Regeneration, Forest Management</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 871-878 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2486-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2486-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2486-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Giongo S, Oliveira Longa CM, Dal Maso E, Montecchio L, Maresi G Research Articles 2017-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2486-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Examining the evolution and convergence of wood modification and environmental impact assessment in research https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2390-010 <p><b>Burnard M, Posavčević M, Kegel E</b></p><p><b>EXAMINING THE EVOLUTION AND CONVERGENCE OF WOOD MODIFICATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT IN RESEARCH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We performed a bibliometric analysis of peer-reviewed publications on wood modification and environmental impact assessment of wood retrieved from the Scopus® database. We used data mining and network analysis tools to investigate the development of the field over time. We explore both wood modification and environmental impact assessment separately, and investigate where the publication record overlaps. Our research revealed that in recent years both topics have produced sharp increases in the number of publications, and have diversified greatly in recent years. Additionally, there were differences in the author collaboration patterns between each field. Fewer authors have contributed over a longer period of time in the wood modification publication record, whereas more authors have contributed over a shorter period of time to the environmental impact assessment of wood record, but they tend to collaborate less frequently. These methods allow researchers and industry members to quickly explore trends in research topics, the number of publications, where research is being conducted, and the growing network of researchers publishing together.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bibliometrics, Data Mining, Network Analysis, Wood Modification, Environmental Impact Assessment, COST Action FP1407, Wood</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 879-885 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2390-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2390-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2390-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Burnard M, Posavčević M, Kegel E Research Articles 2017-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2390-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessment of timber extraction distance and skid road network in steep karst terrain https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2471-010 <p><b>Duka A, Grigolato S, Papa I, Pentek T, Poršinsky T</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF TIMBER EXTRACTION DISTANCE AND SKID ROAD NETWORK IN STEEP KARST TERRAIN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study aims to define a simple and effective method to calculate skidding distances on steep karst terrain, rich in ground obstacles (stoniness and rockiness) to support decision planning of secondary and primary forest infrastructure network for timber extraction in productive selective cut forests. Variations between geometrical extraction distances and actual distances were highlighted on the operational planning level (i.e., compartment level) through GIS-related calculation models, focusing on cable skidder timber extraction. Automation in defining geometrical and real extraction distances, as well as relative forest openness were achieved by geo-processing workflows in GIS environment. Due to variation of extraction correction factors at the compartment level from a minimum of 1.19 to a maximum of 5.05 in the same management unit, it can be concluded that planning harvesting operations (timber extraction) at operational level should not include the use of correction factors previously obtained for entire terrain (topographical) categories, sub-categories or even management units.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Real Extraction Distance, Steep Terrain, Skid Road Network, GIS Environment, Karst Terrain</p><p><i>iForest 10 (6): 886-894 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2471-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2471-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2471-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Duka A, Grigolato S, Papa I, Pentek T, Poršinsky T Research Articles 2017-11-06 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2471-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Understory vegetation dynamics and tree regeneration as affected by deer herbivory in temperate hardwood forests https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2186-010 <p><b>Laurent L, Mårell A, Balandier P, Holveck H, Saïd S</b></p><p><b>UNDERSTORY VEGETATION DYNAMICS AND TREE REGENERATION AS AFFECTED BY DEER HERBIVORY IN TEMPERATE HARDWOOD FORESTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Plant competition and deer browsing are two main factors which limit tree recruitment. We examined natural tree-recruitment processes under continuous-tree-cover management. Changes in plant communities and tree regeneration were monitored over an eight-year period at two different sites in a temperate hardwood forest in the North-East of France. We used paired control plot (unfenced areas, free access to deer) and exclosures (fenced areas, excluding deer) at both sites. Shade-tolerant browsing-tolerant opportunistic species (beech, Fagus sylvatica at site 1 and bramble, Rubus spp. at site 2) were present in low numbers at the beginning of the study. We found that these species used a sit-and-wait strategy, waiting for opportunities to proliferate (thinning and deer exclusion). In the exclosure at site 1, beech proliferate slowly. In the exclosure at site 2, bramble proliferated enough during the first two growing seasons to prevent tree recruitment. Thus, fencing encouraged beech sapling or bramble growth, and this growth in turn was detrimental to the richness and diversity of the plant community. The two study cases presented show that both plant competition and deer browsing can be problematic for tree recruitment. Our results further suggest that excluding deer is not sufficient to enhance the growth of browse-sensitive and moderately shade-tolerant tree species such as oaks (Quercus petraea and Q. robur).</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Understory Vegetation, Plant Interaction, Competition, Browsing, Forest Regeneration, Exclosure</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 837-844 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2186-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2186-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2186-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Laurent L, Mårell A, Balandier P, Holveck H, Saïd S Research Articles 2017-10-26 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2186-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Contrasting multi-taxa diversity patterns between abandoned and non-intensively managed forests in the southern Dolomites https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2181-010 <p><b>Sitzia T, Campagnaro T, Dainese M, Cassol M, Dal Cortivo M, Gatti E, Padovan F, Sommacal M, Nascimbene J</b></p><p><b>CONTRASTING MULTI-TAXA DIVERSITY PATTERNS BETWEEN ABANDONED AND NON-INTENSIVELY MANAGED FORESTS IN THE SOUTHERN DOLOMITES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The abandonment of silvicultural activities can lead to changes in species richness and composition of biological communities, when compared to those found in managed forests. The aim of this study was to compare the multi-taxonomical diversity of two mature silver fir-beech-spruce forests in the southern Dolomites (Italy), corresponding to the European Union habitat type 9130. The two sites share similar ecological and structural characteristics, but differ in their recent management histories. In the last 50 years, one site underwent non-intensive management, while the other was left unmanaged and was included in a forest reserve. The species richness and composition of eight taxa were surveyed in the two sites between 2009 and 2011. The difference in mean species richness between the two forest management types was tested through permutation tests, while differences in species composition were tested by principal coordinates analysis and the permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Mean species richness of soil macrofungi, deadwood lichens, bark beetles, and longhorn beetles were significantly higher in the abandoned than in the non-intensively managed forests. Deadwood fungi and epiphytic lichens did not differ in mean species richness between the two study sites, while mean species richness of ground beetles and birds were higher in the non-intensively managed than in the abandoned forest. Significant differences in species composition between the two sites were found for all the taxa, except for longhorn beetles. These results indicate that improving forest landscape heterogeneity through the creation of a mosaic of abandoned and extensively managed forests should better fulfill the requirements of ecologically different taxa.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Asperulo-Fagetum, Forestry Abandonment, Biodiversity Conservation, Selection Cutting, Natura 2000, Silver Fir</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 845-850 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2181-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2181-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2181-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Sitzia T, Campagnaro T, Dainese M, Cassol M, Dal Cortivo M, Gatti E, Padovan F, Sommacal M, Nascimbene J Research Articles 2017-10-26 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2181-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Salinity strongly drives the survival, growth, leaf demography, and nutrient partitioning in seedlings of Xylocarpus granatum J. König https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2382-010 <p><b>Siddique MRH, Saha S, Salekin S, Mahmood H</b></p><p><b>SALINITY STRONGLY DRIVES THE SURVIVAL, GROWTH, LEAF DEMOGRAPHY, AND NUTRIENT PARTITIONING IN SEEDLINGS OF XYLOCARPUS GRANATUM J. KöNIG</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Salinity is increasing in the Sundarbans (Bangladesh) due to sea-level rise and the reduction of fresh water flow. Xylocarpus granatum is one of the most valuable mangrove tree species of the Sundarbans. We conducted a six-month long study to investigate the effect of salinity on the survival, growth, leaf demography, and nutrient partitioning in parts of X. granatum seedlings. Our results showed that most of the seedlings (90%) survived at 0 to 5 PSU salinity, and this survival percentage was found to decrease at higher saline conditions. Salinity of more than 25 PSU was lethal to the plants as no seedlings survived under these conditions. In this salinity (25 PSU), accelerated leaf fall coupled with a reduction in the new leaves caused loss of leaves. The relative growth rate (RGR) was higher at 0 to 5 PSU salinity, and conversely, a lower growth rate was observed with increased salinity. Higher saline conditions created stress, which inhibited nutrient (N, P and K) accumulation in different parts (leaf, stem, bark and root) of the seedlings. We concluded that salinity is a critical factor for the growth and survival of X. granatum either by inhibiting plant nutrient uptake or due to salinity related toxicity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mangroves, Climate Change, Leaf Demography, Salinity, Sundarbans, Xylocarpus granatum</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 851-856 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2382-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2382-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2382-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Siddique MRH, Saha S, Salekin S, Mahmood H Research Articles 2017-10-26 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2382-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Pre-treatment with sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, ionic liquids or methacrylate resin to reduce the set-recovery and increase the hardness of surface-densified Scots pine https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2385-010 <p><b>Neyses B, Rautkari L, Yamamoto A, Sandberg D</b></p><p><b>PRE-TREATMENT WITH SODIUM SILICATE, SODIUM HYDROXIDE, IONIC LIQUIDS OR METHACRYLATE RESIN TO REDUCE THE SET-RECOVERY AND INCREASE THE HARDNESS OF SURFACE-DENSIFIED SCOTS PINE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The hardness of the outer regions of solid wood can be improved by surface densification, and this opens up new fields of application for low-density species. So far, surface densification relies on time- and energy-consuming batch processes, and this means that the potential advantages over more expensive hardwood species or non-renewable materials are reduced. Using fossil-based plastics or applying wood densification processes with a high energy consumption has adverse effects on the environment. In a previous study, it was shown that the surface of wood can be densified by a continuous high-speed process, adopting a roller pressing approach. The desired density profiles could be obtained at process speeds of up to 80 m min-1, but an equally simple and fast method to eliminate the moisture-induced set-recovery of the densified wood cells is still required. For this reason, the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect on the set-recovery and hardness of surface-densified Scots pine after a fast pre-treatment with solutions of sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide, methacrylate resin, and ionic liquids. The Scots pine specimens were pre-treated by applying the chemical treatment and impregnation agents to the wood surface with a paper towel, before the specimens were densified. For each type of treatment, 15 specimens were densified in a hot press. The set-recovery was measured after two wet-dry cycles, and 30 Brinell hardness measurements were carried out on each group of specimens. In general, the effect of the treatments on the set-recovery was rather low. Ionic liquid solutions appear to work as a strong plasticiser and the treatment led to a reduction in set-recovery by 25%. The treatments with sodium silicate, ionic liquids and methacrylate resin led to a greater hardness than in untreated and densified specimens. Further experiments are needed to improve the depth of penetration of the treatment solutions into the wood surface, as this was identified as one of the main causes of the rather weak effects.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Water Glass, Compression, Wood Modification, Surface Treatment, Ionic Liquid, Sodium Hydroxide, Methacrylate Resin, Sodium Silicate</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 857-864 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2385-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2385-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2385-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Neyses B, Rautkari L, Yamamoto A, Sandberg D Research Articles 2017-10-26 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2385-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Drought-induced oak decline in the western Mediterranean region: an overview on current evidences, mechanisms and management options to improve forest resilience https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2317-010 <p><b>Gentilesca T, Camarero JJ, Colangelo M, Nolè A, Ripullone F</b></p><p><b>DROUGHT-INDUCED OAK DECLINE IN THE WESTERN MEDITERRANEAN REGION: AN OVERVIEW ON CURRENT EVIDENCES, MECHANISMS AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS TO IMPROVE FOREST RESILIENCE</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Increased forest vulnerability is being reflected as more widespread and severe drought-induced decline episodes. In particular, the Mediterranean area is revealing a high susceptibility to phenomena of loss in tree vitality across species. Within tree species, oaks (Quercus spp.) are experiencing extensive decline in many countries. However, in the wake of the so-called “oak decline phenomenon”, the attention on these species has generally been limited. In this paper, we review the current available literature on oak-decline cases reported within the Mediterranean Basin, with particular remark for those occurred in Italy and Spain. More specifically our main aims were to: (i) provide an update on the patterns and mechanisms of decline by focusing on tree-ring and wood-anatomical variables; (ii) provide some hints for improving the resistance and resilience of oak stands experiencing decline. Our review reveals that drought is reported as the main driver triggering oak decline within the Mediterranean Basin, although other causes (i.e., increasing temperature, pathogens attack or excessive stand density) could exacerbate decline. In most reported cases, drought induced a substantial reduction of growth and changes in some wood anatomical properties. Indeed, growth decline prior death is also indicated as an early-warning signal of impending death. In ring-porous oak species, declining trees were often characterized by a very low production of latewood and a decrease in lumen area of the widest earlywood vessels, suggesting a potential reduction of hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, hydraulic dysfunction is reported as the main cause of decline. Finally, regarding management actions that should be considered for improving the resilience of declining stands and preserve the species-specific stand composition, it could be useful to shorten the rotation period of coppice stands or promoting their gradual conversion towards high forests, and favoring more drought-resistant species should also be considered. In addition, regeneration prior to regeneration cuts should be improved by anticipating seed dispersal or by planting oak seedlings obtained from local germoplasm.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Growth, Adaptive Forest Management, Quercus, Resilience, Forest Dieback</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 796-806 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2317-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2317-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2317-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Gentilesca T, Camarero JJ, Colangelo M, Nolè A, Ripullone F Review Papers 2017-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2317-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Life cycle assessment of tannin extraction from spruce bark https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2342-010 <p><b>Ding T, Bianchi S, Ganne-Chédeville C, Kilpeläinen P, Haapala A, Räty T</b></p><p><b>LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF TANNIN EXTRACTION FROM SPRUCE BARK</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tannins have shown antifungal effects and have been considered a potential natural compound for wood preservation. Extracts produced from softwood bark contain both tannins and non-tannin compounds, which may reduce the effectiveness of tannin used as a wood preservative. The purpose of this research is to study the environmental impact of hot water extraction, identify the hot spots within the tannin cradle-to-gate life cycle and give suggestions to optimize its environmental profile. Different extraction and post-extraction scenarios of tannin production are compared using the life-cycle assessment method. Experiments were designed to study the tannin yield under different extraction scenarios; the post-extraction scenario analysis was based on literature review. The results show that the extract drying process is the primary contributor to the environmental impact of tannin production. Both preliminary cold water extraction and ultrafiltration after extraction are beneficial as they have fewer non-tannin compounds in the final products; however, preliminary cold water extraction had a considerably lower environmental performance. Successive extractions using fresh water at each cycle increased the total tannin yield, but increased the environmental burden. Using only evaporation to obtain a desired tannin concentration is not environmentally efficient. This paper provides a quantified environmental analysis for the development of tannin-treated wood products and discusses the different tannin extraction scenarios from an environmental point of view.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: LCA, Tannin, Spruce Bark, Hot Water Extraction, Evaporation, Spray Drying, Ultrafiltration, Preservative</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 807-814 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2342-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2342-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2342-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ding T, Bianchi S, Ganne-Chédeville C, Kilpeläinen P, Haapala A, Räty T Research Articles 2017-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2342-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Review Papers: Comparative assessment for biogenic carbon accounting methods in carbon footprint of products: a review study for construction materials based on forest products https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2386-010 <p><b>Tellnes LG, Ganne-Chedeville C, Dias A, Dolezal F, Hill C, Zea Escamilla E</b></p><p><b>COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT FOR BIOGENIC CARBON ACCOUNTING METHODS IN CARBON FOOTPRINT OF PRODUCTS: A REVIEW STUDY FOR CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS BASED ON FOREST PRODUCTS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The forest and building sector is of major importance in climate change mitigation and therefore construction materials based on forest products are of great interest. While energy efficiency has had a large focus in climate change mitigation in the building sector, the carbon footprint of the construction material is gaining relevance. The carbon footprint of construction materials can vary greatly from one type to another, the building sector is consequently demanding documentation of the carbon footprint of the materials used. Using an environmental product declaration (EPD) is an objective and standardised solution for communicating the environmental impacts of construction products and especially their carbon footprint. Nevertheless, it is challenging to include the features of forest products as pools of carbon dioxide. There is currently a focus on research into methods for the accounting of sequestered atmospheric carbon dioxide and also implementation of these methods into technical standards. This paper reviews the recent research and technical standards in this field to promote a common understanding and to propose requirements for additional information to be included in EPDs of forest-based products. The main findings show the need for reporting the contribution of biogenic carbon to the total on greenhouse gas emissions and removals over the product’s lifecycle. In order to facilitate the implementation of more advanced methods from research, the EPD should also include more detailed information of the wood used, in particular species and origin.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Climate Change, Forest Based Construction Materials, Environmental Product Declaration (EPD), Carbon Footprint, Global Warming, Delayed Emissions, Carbon Storage, Biogenic Carbon</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 815-823 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2386-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2386-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2386-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tellnes LG, Ganne-Chedeville C, Dias A, Dolezal F, Hill C, Zea Escamilla E Review Papers 2017-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2386-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Compositions of compounds extracted from thermo-treated wood using solvents of different polarities https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2360-010 <p><b>Lovaglio T, D’Auria M, Rita A, Todaro L</b></p><p><b>COMPOSITIONS OF COMPOUNDS EXTRACTED FROM THERMO-TREATED WOOD USING SOLVENTS OF DIFFERENT POLARITIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: How well modified wood products perform may be influenced by their chemical compositions. Wood extractives are nonstructural constituents, many with specific biological properties, which affect the color, fragrance, hygroscopicity, durability, and acoustic properties and the drying and adhesion processes of wood. However, incomplete information is available on the extraction techniques and potential use of extractives as value-added chemical products. The main goal of this research was to explore the effects of thermo-vacuum treatment of Deodar cedar (Cedrus deodara Roxb.) and Italian alder (Alnus cordata Desf.) woods on the content and composition of extractives. Solvents with different polarities were used, including water, hexane, dichloromethane, methanol, and a benzene/ethanol mixture. Component groups in extracts were determined by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Regardless of the treatment and solvent, the most representative extracts to be obtained from alder were acids/esters, whereas hydrocarbons were most frequently obtained from cedar. Our results revealed an interesting differential species-specific effect of solvents on the composition of extracts. Aside from benzene/ethanol, greater amounts of extracts were obtained from treated than from untreated alder, whereas the opposite was true for cedar, aside from methanol.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Alder, Cedar, Thermo-vacuum Treatment, Extraction, GC-MS</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 824-828 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2360-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2360-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2360-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Lovaglio T, D’Auria M, Rita A, Todaro L Research Articles 2017-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2360-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A silvicultural stand density model to control understory in maritime pine stands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2173-010 <p><b>Fonseca TF, Duarte JC</b></p><p><b>A SILVICULTURAL STAND DENSITY MODEL TO CONTROL UNDERSTORY IN MARITIME PINE STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The aim of this study was to provide optimal silvicultural guidelines for the maintenance of low understory vegetation cover in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) stands in Mediterranean areas prone to the occurrence of forest fires. An extensive data set from maritime pine stands of northern Portugal was used to assess the effect of stand density on the understory cover. A statistically significant relationship between the spacing-top height factor (Fw) and the understory cover was found. An ecologically-based density regulation model was developed based on Fw = 0.21, which provided the optimal stand density and canopy cover to prevent the understory growth and proliferation, thereby reducing the vulnerability to forest fire and ensuring at the same time the highest values of stand yield. The developed model represents a supporting tool for density regulation of maritime pine stands in areas prone to forest fires. The representativeness of the supporting data set (in terms of number of sample plots and variability of the stands characteristics) provides confidence in the generalization of our results to different maritime pine stands in the Mediterranean area. This study suggests that managing stand density may be an effective adaptive management procedure which can help reducing the forest fire hazard.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Silviculture, Density Regulation, Understory Reduction, Pinus pinaster</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 829-836 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2173-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2173-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2173-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fonseca TF, Duarte JC Research Articles 2017-09-25 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2173-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Predicted occurrence of ancient coppice woodlands in the Czech Republic https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2295-010 <p><b>Madera P, Machala M, Slach T, Friedl M, Cernušáková L, Volarík D, Buček A</b></p><p><b>PREDICTED OCCURRENCE OF ANCIENT COPPICE WOODLANDS IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coppicing started in the Neolithic period and has been practiced throughout European history. This traditional silvicultural system was abandoned in many European countries during the 20th century. The Czech Republic now has a very low proportion of coppice woods (CW), as more than 1000 km2 CW were converted into high forests after World War II. Nevertheless, many CW were maintained as stored coppices, which could be the last remainders of ancient coppice woods (ACW) in the Czech Republic. Knowledge of area and distribution of stored coppices is currently missing in the Czech Republic, because they are recorded as high forests in forest management plans. Many stored forests are currently approaching the maturity age, with a high risk that these last ACW remainders will be lost; therefore, an inventory of ancient coppice woods is necessary. In our study, we develop an index of likelihood of coppice occurrence (COP) based on the distribution of habitats favourable for coppices, as well as on past and current occurrence of CW in the Czech Republic from historical maps. COP index values were then used to generate a map showing the relative likelihoods of occurrence of ACW, which can serve as a baseline to support the compilation of an ACW inventory and their mapping in the field. Our results can help prioritize forest areas to be inventoried based on their higher probabilities of ACW occurrence.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Ancient Coppice Woodlands, Inventory, Coppice Occurrence, Cultural heritage</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 788-795 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2295-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2295-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2295-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Madera P, Machala M, Slach T, Friedl M, Cernušáková L, Volarík D, Buček A Research Articles 2017-09-16 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2295-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: A comparative study of growth and leaf trait variation in twenty Cornus wilsoniana W. families in southeastern China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2288-010 <p><b>Cheng X, Xie H, Zhang L, Wang M, Li C, Yu M, He Z</b></p><p><b>A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF GROWTH AND LEAF TRAIT VARIATION IN TWENTY CORNUS WILSONIANA W. FAMILIES IN SOUTHEASTERN CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: To investigate the genotypic differences associated with the growth potential and leaf traits of Cornus wilsoniana W., we planted twenty C. wilsoniana families in southeastern China and analyzed nineteen leaf morphological and physiological traits that have potential relationships with growth. Seedling growth and leaf traits exhibited high variability among the C. wilsoniana families. The phenotypic coefficients of variation (CVs) of these traits varied from 5.33% (leaf length/leaf width, LL/LW) to 23.17% (stomatal conductance, gs), and their heritabilities (H2) ranged from 0.17 (chlorophyll a/chlorophyll b, Chla/Chlb) to 0.75 (stem height, H and Chla). There was greater genetic variation in the physiological traits than in the morphological traits. H was significantly positively correlated with instantaneous water use efficiency (WUE), Chla, Chlb and total Chl, and diameter (D) was significantly positively correlated with net photosynthetic rate (Pn), gs, WUE, Chla, Chlb and total Chl and was negatively correlated with leaf phosphorus (LP). Based on cluster analysis, three families were selected as superior families for the study area due to their seedling growth and leaf traits. These results indicate that Pn, Chla, Chlb and total Chl are good indicators to use for selecting superior families of C. wilsoniana with better growth performance; additionally, high WUE and low LP are also critical leaf traits for cultivar selection because plant adaptation to environmental conditions is important for growth performance.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Growth, Leaf Traits, Intraspecific Variation, Genetic Heritability</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 759-765 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2288-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2288-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2288-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Cheng X, Xie H, Zhang L, Wang M, Li C, Yu M, He Z Research Articles 2017-09-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2288-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Relevance of terpenoids on flammability of Mediterranean species: an experimental approach at a low radiant heat flux https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2327-010 <p><b>Della Rocca G, Madrigal J, Marchi E, Michelozzi M, Moya B, Danti R</b></p><p><b>RELEVANCE OF TERPENOIDS ON FLAMMABILITY OF MEDITERRANEAN SPECIES: AN EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH AT A LOW RADIANT HEAT FLUX</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: One of the major factors influencing forest fuel combustion are terpenoids, a fraction of flammable Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) produced and stored by most Mediterranean species. The qualitative and quantitative effect of terpenoids on flammability has been only partially explained. In this study several major terpenoid-storing Mediterranean species (common cypress and three pines) were considered and compared to Holm oak as a reference non-storing species. The terpenoids were quantified via gas chromatography (GC-MS) analysis from both live fine fuel (LFF) and litter samples, and the relations between flammability and the terpenoids content were investigated by categories (Monoterpenoids, oxygenated Monoterpenoids, Sesquiterpenoids). The effect of fuel moisture content and species on ignition probability of LFF was also explored. A very different ignition probability was observed at the same fuel moisture content for the different species (Pinus spp. > C. sempervirens > Q. ilex). The stored terpenoids explained 19% to 50% of the whole flammability of both LFF and litter. Fuel moisture content (FMC) did not substantially change the relative effect of terpenoids on flammability, except in C. sempervirens. Monoterpenoids do not seem to significantly affect flammability, while sesquiterpenoids greatly influenced most flammability components, though their relative effect varied among species. A relation between storing structure of terpenoids and flammability was suggested. The results of this study indicate that isoprenoids should be included in physical models of the prediction and propagation of wildfire in Mediterranean vegetation as significant factors in driving flammability.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Fuel Moisture Content, Ignition, Live Fine Fuel, Terpene-storing Species, Terpenoids Content, Sesquiterpenoids, Litter</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 766-775 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2327-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2327-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2327-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Della Rocca G, Madrigal J, Marchi E, Michelozzi M, Moya B, Danti R Research Articles 2017-09-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2327-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Use of alternative containers for promoting deep rooting of native forest species used for dryland restoration: the case of Acacia caven https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2101-010 <p><b>De La Fuente LM, Ovalle JF, Arellano EC, Ginocchio R</b></p><p><b>USE OF ALTERNATIVE CONTAINERS FOR PROMOTING DEEP ROOTING OF NATIVE FOREST SPECIES USED FOR DRYLAND RESTORATION: THE CASE OF ACACIA CAVEN</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The size of a container determines the development and quality of root systems. In the case of taprooted forest species used for dryland reforestation, deeper containers may favour early root development and, consequently, better soil profile colonization after outplanting. Although research on container design for worldwide tree species has been developed in the last decades, technical solutions for containerized forest species with a taproot system have been poorly documented. We present a case study using Acacia caven (Mol.) Mol., which has fast-growing taproots and long lateral and superficial roots. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of different containers on rooting volume in the early morphological development of A. caven seedlings. Ten day-old seedlings were cultivated in five different PVC container types varying in volume, width and length (T440-Short, T440-Long, T880-Short, T880-Long, and T440-C), in a completely randomized design for one growing season. At the end of the study, whole seedling samples were destroyed to assess taproot length, lateral root biomass, and total root/shoot dry biomass. To evaluate the potential plant capacity for developing new roots, a subsequent experiment using the root growth potential test was performed successfully. Results showed that change in root volume distribution (short vs. elongated containers) had the greatest influence on seedling quality, whereas the size of container (small volume vs. large) was of minor importance. Elongated containers (35 cm to 40 cm in length) with self-pruning basal roots produced seedlings with smaller shoot/root ratios, longer root systems, and a greater ability to restart new root growth in deeper container strata. Elongated containers also prevented taproot deformation. The present study suggests that it would be appropriate to rethink container design for seedlings of deep-rooted xerophytic species destined for water-limited transplanting conditions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Native Tree Domestication, Root Growth Potential, Root Morphology, Seedling Quality</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 776-782 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2101-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2101-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2101-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> De La Fuente LM, Ovalle JF, Arellano EC, Ginocchio R Research Articles 2017-09-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2101-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Short Communications: Vertical pit-mounds distribution of uprooted Norway spruce (Picea abies L.): field evidence in the upper mountain belt https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1959-010 <p><b>Zadrozny P, Halecki W, Gasiorek M, Nicia P, Lamorski T</b></p><p><b>VERTICAL PIT-MOUNDS DISTRIBUTION OF UPROOTED NORWAY SPRUCE (PICEA ABIES L.): FIELD EVIDENCE IN THE UPPER MOUNTAIN BELT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Tree uprooting causes significant changes in forest habitat functioning and soil formation. In this paper soil uplifted by tree throws was compared among 15 study plots from heterogeneous Norway spruce stands of the upper mountain belt in southern Poland. Pit-mound microtopography parameters such as length, width, depth of tree-throw pits, height of the root plate, and height of mineral and organic mounds, were measured at each uprooting site. Sites were grouped in 3 age groups based on the time elapsed since uprooting. Results showed significant differences between the studied parameters among age groups. Differences were most pronounced in mean pit depth (0.52, 0.65 and 0.95 m for 5-year, 3-year, and 1-year-old pits, respectively). No significant interaction between age group and root plate height was detected by ANOVA. Regression analysis showed that pit depth decreases as root plate height increases. Redundancy analysis using pit-mound parameters as dependent variables revealed that root plate height along with slope steepness are good predictors of the volume of dislocated soil at tree-throw sites. Overall, our results suggest that the erosion expected at uprooting sites in mountain Norway spruce stands could be conveniently estimated by measuring their root plates. This may help estimate the impact of windthrow on soil microtopography and quantify its effects on soil disturbance in Norway spruce stands of the upper mountain belt.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bioturbation, Mountain Landscapes, Microtopography, Soil Disturbance, Tree Uprooting</p><p><i>iForest 10 (5): 783-787 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1959-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1959-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1959-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zadrozny P, Halecki W, Gasiorek M, Nicia P, Lamorski T Short Communications 2017-09-02 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1959-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Tissue carbon concentration of 175 Mexican forest species https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2421-010 <p><b>Pompa-García M, Sigala-Rodríguez JA, Jurado E, Flores J</b></p><p><b>TISSUE CARBON CONCENTRATION OF 175 MEXICAN FOREST SPECIES</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Reliable calculations of carbon stocks in forest ecosystems are crucial for proper implementation of global warming mitigation policies. Accurate estimations depend upon applying the correct factor of carbon (C) concentration for different forest species and tissues instead of the often assumed 50% carbon content. Despite the high forest species richness in Mexico and the increasing CO2 emissions, data on carbon concentrations in forest plant tissues are scarce. In this study, we determined variation in C concentration of different tissues for 175 plant species common in Mexican forests. C contents were estimated and contrasted for plant distribution, taxa, and plant structure (main stems, branches, twigs, bark, leaves, buds, fruits, roots and root cuticles). The mean C concentration across species was 44.7%. Species significantly differed in C concentration by tissue, environment and taxa. These multi-species data contribute to improve precision on estimates of C balance in terrestrial ecosystems, reducing the uncertainty in C inventories in Mexico and elsewhere.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Carbon Sink, Plant Tissue C, Multi-species C, Global Warming</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 754-758 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2421-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2421-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2421-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Pompa-García M, Sigala-Rodríguez JA, Jurado E, Flores J Research Articles 2017-08-05 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2421-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Temporal changes of forest species composition studied by compositional data approach https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2187-010 <p><b>Kobal M, Kastelec D, Eler K</b></p><p><b>TEMPORAL CHANGES OF FOREST SPECIES COMPOSITION STUDIED BY COMPOSITIONAL DATA APPROACH</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Many ecological data are compositional and different quantitative techniques have been used to analyze such data, albeit some of them being methodologically wrong. The aim of this contribution is to apply the compositional data approach to forestry data and demonstrate the strengths of this method for percentage or relative data with infrequent zero values. Basal areas of three dominant tree species (Abies alba, Picea abies, Fagus sylvatica) in 119 forest compartments in some of the Omphalodo-Fagetum forests in Slovenia in 1954 and 2004 were used to investigate the dynamics of forest species composition over a 50-year period. For the investigated period some additional data about geomorphology and harvesting rates within the compartments were used as explanatory variables of compositional change. The species composition of each forest compartment was subjected to several methods within a compositional analysis framework: descriptive, ternary diagram-based graphical presentations, significance of compositional differences between management classes, significance of perturbation differences (the indicator of forest compositional change) and relation of the compositional change with the explanatory variables by means of compositional linear model. Results indicated that the silver fir was the dominant species in both years, but a clear reduction in silver fir proportion was observed after 50 years. The perturbation differences indicated comparatively large relative increase in the proportion of Norway spruce between 1954 and 2004. Subsequently, the perturbation differences were subjected to isometric log-transformation (ilr) and two derived ilr coordinates were further used as dependent variables in the multivariate linear model. The initial stand structure correlated well with the perturbation differences. These were also significantly correlations with salvage cutting, a consequence of silver fir decline in the 1954-2004 period. This study demonstrated that the compositional data approach can be successfully used to study forest dynamics yielding some insights into data which are not possible or even not valid using some alternative methods.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Percentage Data, Data Transformation, Compositional Change, Compositional Linear Model, Forest Dynamics, Vegetation Shift, Omphalodo-Fagetum</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 729-738 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2187-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2187-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2187-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Kobal M, Kastelec D, Eler K Research Articles 2017-08-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2187-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Sampling strategies for high quality time-series of climatic variables in forest resource assessment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2427-010 <p><b>Ferrara C, Marchi M, Fares S, Salvati L</b></p><p><b>SAMPLING STRATEGIES FOR HIGH QUALITY TIME-SERIES OF CLIMATIC VARIABLES IN FOREST RESOURCE ASSESSMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Many ecological studies require long-term time series of high quality. Missing data may represent a serious problem since they can affect the reliability of measured variables in specific locations. To which extent and according to which methodology a gap in time series should be filled is a major research challenge. In this study, the time-series of meteorological data relative to 13 monitoring sites from the ICP-Forest network in Italy were analysed with the aim to define the minimum number of site-specific observations, which can be considered adequate for further analysis on forest resource management. Three main climatic variables were taken into account in the analysis: air temperature, relative humidity and total precipitation. By using an increasing proportion of available data, descriptive and inferential statistic methods were applied to evaluate the amount of variability along the period of analysis (1998-2013) and associated error of estimation at seasonal level. The relative importance of each factor accounted in our analysis (season, year, variable, plot, sampling proportion) was investigated fitting a Random Forest model on the results of the bootstrapping procedure. Air temperature was the variable with a marked seasonal profile and the easiest to be represented at monthly level on a specific time period. Humidity and precipitation were more stable across the analysed time period. Trends in precipitation showed that a high amount of variability could be detected only when > 80% of valid observations were available. Humidity showed an intermediate pattern, with an exponential increase in the amount of explained variability when using an increased proportion of sampled observations. Random Forest Regression models indicated sampling proportion (i.e., number of available observations) as an important factor for trend analysis of relative air humidity and precipitation. We conclude that monthly or seasonal statistics can be proficiently estimated for both air temperature and relative humidity with a proportion of missing values higher than 50%. Conversely, a reliable analysis of intra-seasonal or intra-monthly precipitation variability requires a much higher amount of observations. In the latter case gap filling represents the only feasible solution.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: ICP-Forests, Sampling Representativeness, Missing Data, Forest Monitoring, Climate</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 739-745 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2427-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2427-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2427-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Ferrara C, Marchi M, Fares S, Salvati L Research Articles 2017-08-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2427-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Nearest neighbour relationships in Pinus yunnanensis var. tenuifolia forests along the Nanpan River, China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2405-010 <p><b>Li Y, Hui G, Yu S, Luo Y, Yao X, Ye S</b></p><p><b>NEAREST NEIGHBOUR RELATIONSHIPS IN PINUS YUNNANENSIS VAR. TENUIFOLIA FORESTS ALONG THE NANPAN RIVER, CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Forest stand structural diversity can be examined at different scales. Small-scale structural changes are the basis of forest structural diversity and habitat heterogeneity, and play a key role in biodiversity conservation. Most research on forest structure has focused mainly at stand level and above, with little attention paid to fine-scale structure and correlations among different forest stand attributes. We set up four permanent plots within a secondary forest community of Pinus yunnanensis var. tenuifolia mixed forests along the Nanpan River in southern China. We analyzed their nearest-neighbor relationships using a bivariate distribution of stand spatial structural parameters (SSSP) with the aim of understanding the processes that drive structural diversity in the development of a secondary forest community. Our results revealed that communities with different disturbance histories and species compositions differed in the level of species mixture. Large, small, and medium-sized trees were well mixed within the community, both conspecific and heterospecificindividual with varying densities. All plots exhibited a uniform size differentiation pattern. Trees with different dominance levels or mixture levels were randomly distributed within the plots, and only few of these displayed clumped or regular distribution. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed that distribution patterns may be related to species composition and diameter differentiation, though their relationship was very weak. The results of this study are relevant to optimize forest management activities in the studied stands, and promote tree growth, regeneration and habitat diversity at the fine scale.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bivariate Distribution, Nearest Neighbour Trees, Pinus yunnanensis, Secondary Forest, Structure Diversity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 746-753 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2405-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2405-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2405-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Li Y, Hui G, Yu S, Luo Y, Yao X, Ye S Research Articles 2017-08-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2405-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Variability of ant community composition in cork oak woodlands across the Mediterranean region: implications for forest management https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2321-010 <p><b>Verdinelli M, Yakhlef SEB, Cossu CS, Pilia O, Mannu R</b></p><p><b>VARIABILITY OF ANT COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN CORK OAK WOODLANDS ACROSS THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION: IMPLICATIONS FOR FOREST MANAGEMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: We evaluated the potential use of ants as a powerful tool for environmental monitoring, together with the applicability of the functional group approach as an alternative method for studying ant communities in cork oak woodlands. Variations in ant community composition, diversity and functional groups were studied in two cork oak forested sites across the Mediterranean region. Ants were sampled using pitfall traps placed along linear transects at 12 sites located in the main cork districts of Italy and Morocco (Gallura in Sardinia, and Maâmora, east of Rabat). A total of 13.501 specimens were collected, belonging to 38 species (five shared species). A distinct separation in the NMDS plots between Gallura and Maâmora ant assemblages was clearly visible. Ant species composition was widely different between the two districts and significant differences were detected within the Gallura district at the species level. Opportunist species were well represented in Gallura (about 27% of average Bray-Curtis similarity) as well as cryptic species (over 23%). In the Maâmora forest, generalized Myrmicinae, hot climate specialists and opportunists contributed equally to the average similarity (together about 53%). Multi-scale ant diversity showed that the true turnover was higher in Gallura than in Maâmora. These findings support the idea that the functional group approach, rather than species diversity per se, could be considered as a valuable tool to detect the response of the ant community to environmental changes in Mediterranean cork oak woodlands. Using ants as bioindicators could help not only in detecting early warning signs of habitat disturbance, but also in defining a useful management strategy to increase the resilience of agroforestry systems under future global change scenarios.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cork Oak, Forest Management, Ants, Bioindicators</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 707-714 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2321-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2321-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2321-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Verdinelli M, Yakhlef SEB, Cossu CS, Pilia O, Mannu R Research Articles 2017-07-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2321-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Chitosan oligosaccharide addition affects current-year shoot of post-transplant Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings under contrasting photoperiods https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2302-010 <p><b>Wang Z, Zhao Y, Wei H</b></p><p><b>CHITOSAN OLIGOSACCHARIDE ADDITION AFFECTS CURRENT-YEAR SHOOT OF POST-TRANSPLANT BUDDHIST PINE (PODOCARPUS MACROPHYLLUS) SEEDLINGS UNDER CONTRASTING PHOTOPERIODS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) have been used as modifiers to promote growth and mineral nutrient utilization in crop plants, but its over-year effect on current-year shoot (CYS) of juvenile trees is still unclear. In this study, Buddhist pine (Podocarpus macrophyllus) seedlings were cultured under natural and extended photoperiods with or without COS addition for one year. In the following spring, parameters of leaf length, biomass accumulation, and N content in CYS were found to be increased by COS addition under the extended photoperiod. P concentration of COS-treated seedlings was lower under longer photoperiod, but both N and P concentrations were negatively correlated with leaf length and biomass accumulation, suggesting the utilization of N and P for growth demand of CYS. The sole addition of COS mainly resulted in whole-plant P accumulation. However, when combined with the extended photoperiod, COS addition showed over-year effect on biomass accumulation and N content in CYS of transplanted Buddhist pine seedlings. Further studies are needed to confirm these results on other tree species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Photoperiodism, Urban Afforestation, Yew Plum Pine, Marine Oligosaccharide, Fine Root</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 715-721 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2302-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2302-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2302-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Wang Z, Zhao Y, Wei H Research Articles 2017-07-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2302-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Effect of soil-applied lead on mineral contents and biomass in Acer cappadocicum, Fraxinus excelsior and Platycladus orientalis seedlings https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2251-010 <p><b>Abbasi H, Pourmajidian MR, Hodjati SM, Fallah A, Nath S</b></p><p><b>EFFECT OF SOIL-APPLIED LEAD ON MINERAL CONTENTS AND BIOMASS IN ACER CAPPADOCICUM, FRAXINUS EXCELSIOR AND PLATYCLADUS ORIENTALIS SEEDLINGS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Phytoremediation is an effective and affordable approach to extract or remove lead from contaminated soil. An understanding of the physiological responses of different species subjected to heavy metal contamination is necessary before considering their use for environmental clean-up. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of lead (Pb) on growth and nutrient uptake in three forest species native to Iran: Cappadocian maple (Acer cappadocicum), European ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and Oriental aborvitae (Platycladus orientalis). The capability of lead uptake in different organs was studied in one-year-old potted seedlings grown in contaminated soils with Pb concentration ranging from 100 to 500 mg kg-1 for six months in a nursery. Several phytoextraction parameters such as translocation factor (TF), tolerance index (TI) and bioconcentration factor (BCF) were assessed to investigate the phytoremediation potential of these species. Increasing Pb application in the soil caused a gradual decrease in dry weight of leaf and shoot of all species, while the dry weight of root remains unaffected. However, such inhibition was less marked in the conifer (P. orientalis) compared to the two broad-leaf species. Phosphorus uptake of all species slightly declined in contaminated soils. Contrastingly, Pb application did not hinder nitrogen and potassium uptake in seedlings. Atomic absorption thermo electron analysis of Pb-treated plants showed an increasing Pb accumulation in all plant compartments, although the result was more evident in the tissues of P. orientalis. This species also showed the highest values for TF, TI and BCF, indicating this conifer species as a potential candidate for phytoremediation of lead-polluted soils in Iran.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Phytoremediation, Seedling Stage, Growth, Nutrient Uptake, Lead Accumulation, Cappadocian Maple, European Ash, Oriental Arborvitae</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 722-728 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2251-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2251-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2251-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Abbasi H, Pourmajidian MR, Hodjati SM, Fallah A, Nath S Research Articles 2017-07-27 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2251-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Acid atmospheric deposition in a forested mountain catchment https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2319-010 <p><b>Krecek J, Palán L, Stuchlík E</b></p><p><b>ACID ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION IN A FORESTED MOUNTAIN CATCHMENT</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Acid atmospheric deposition is harmful to both forest and aquatic ecosystems. In mountain catchments, acidification also leads to difficulties in water resource management. In 2010-2012, acid atmospheric deposition was analysed in a small forest catchment located in the upper plain of the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Patch observations included monitoring of the canopy interception in two mature stands of Norway spruce (Picea abies) at elevations of 745 and 975 metres a.s.l., and twelve passive fog collectors situated along an elevation gradient between 862 and 994 metres a.s.l. In the studied area, fog (and low cloud) precipitation starts to affect the interception loss of the spruce canopy at elevations above 700 metres. However, fog drip was found to also rise with the canopy area. At the catchment scale, methods of spatial interpolation (ArcGIS 10.2) were used to approximate the aerial atmospheric deposition of water and acidic substances (sulphate, nitrate and ammonia). In the watersheds of two adjacent drinking water reservoirs, Josefuv Dul and Souš, the mean annual fog drip from the canopy was between 88 and 106 mm (i.e., 7-8% of the mean annual gross precipitation, or 10-12% of the mean annual runoff). Simultaneously, this load also deposited 658 kg km-2 of sulphur and 216 kg km-2 of nitrogen (i.e., 55% and 48% of the “open field” bulk amounts). Therefore, in headwater catchments stressed by acidification, the additional precipitation (measured under the canopy) can increase the water yield, but can also contribute to a decline in water quality, particularly in environments of low buffering capacity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Mountain Watershed, Spruce Forests, Acid Atmospheric Deposition, Water Resources Recharge</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 680-686 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2319-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2319-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2319-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Krecek J, Palán L, Stuchlík E Research Articles 2017-07-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2319-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Predicting total and component biomass of Chinese fir using a forecast combination method https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2243-010 <p><b>Zhang X, Cao QV, Xiang C, Duan A, Zhang J</b></p><p><b>PREDICTING TOTAL AND COMPONENT BIOMASS OF CHINESE FIR USING A FORECAST COMBINATION METHOD</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accurate estimates of tree biomass are critical for forest managers to assess carbon stock. Biomass of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata [Lamb.] Hook.) in southern China was assessed by three alternative methods. In the Separate model approach, total and component tree biomass was directly predicted from a regression equation as a function of tree diameter and height. In the Additive model approach, total biomass was predicted as the sum of predictions from all component biomass equations. The Forecast Combination method involved combining predictions from the total biomass equation with the sum of predictions from component biomass equations. Results indicated that the Separate model method outperformed the Additive model method in predicting total and component biomass. The drawback of the Separate model method is that the total is not equal to the sum of its components. The Forecast Combination method provided the overall best prediction for total and component biomass, and still ensured additivity of component biomass predictions.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Additivity, Biomass Predictions, Cunninghamia lanceolata, Even-aged Plantations, Tree Allometry</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 687-691 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2243-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2243-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2243-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Zhang X, Cao QV, Xiang C, Duan A, Zhang J Research Articles 2017-07-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2243-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Use of overburden waste for London plane (Platanus × acerifolia) growth: the role of plant growth promoting microbial consortia https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2135-010 <p><b>Karličić V, Radić D, Jovičić-Petrović J, Lalević B, Morina F, Curguz VG, Raičević V</b></p><p><b>USE OF OVERBURDEN WASTE FOR LONDON PLANE (PLATANUS × ACERIFOLIA) GROWTH: THE ROLE OF PLANT GROWTH PROMOTING MICROBIAL CONSORTIA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Overburden waste dumps represent a huge threat to environmental quality. The reduction of their negative impact can be achieved by vegetation cover establishment. Usually, this action is complicated due to site-specific characteristics, such as nutrient deficiency, elevated metal concentration, low pH value, lack of moisture and lack of organic matter. Establishment of vegetation can be facilitated by inoculation with plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) which improve the physicochemical and biological properties of degraded substrates and make them more hospitable for plants. In this study we selected several strains based on the ability to produce ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores and lytic enzymes, and to solubilize inorganic phosphates. This selection resulted in microbial consortia consisting of Serratia liquefaciens Z-I ARV, Ensifer adhaerens 10_ ARV, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D5 ARV and Pseudomonas putida P1 ARV. The effects of PGPB consortia on one-year-old London plane (Platanus × acerifolia [Aiton] Willd.) seedlings replanted into overburden waste from Kolubara Mine Basin were examined. After seven months, inoculated seedlings were 32% higher with 45% wider root collar diameter and over 80% higher total dry biomass compared to uninoculated seedlings grown in Kolubara’s overburden. Inoculation resulted in higher amounts of total soluble proteins, higher chlorophyll and epidermal flavonoids content and higher total antioxidative capacity in the leaves. This study represents a successful search for effective PGPB strains and shows that microbial consortia have an important role in enhancing the growth of seedlings in nutrient deficient and degraded substrates such as overburden waste from open-pit coal mines. Positive response of London plane seedlings suggest that inoculation may help widening the opus of species for reforestation of post mining areas and speed up natural succession processes and recovery of degraded landscapes.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria, London Plane, Overburden Waste, Revegetation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 692-699 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2135-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2135-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2135-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Karličić V, Radić D, Jovičić-Petrović J, Lalević B, Morina F, Curguz VG, Raičević V Research Articles 2017-07-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2135-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Acoustic evaluation of wood quality with a non-destructive method in standing trees: a first survey in Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2065-010 <p><b>Proto AR, Macrì G, Bernardini V, Russo D, Zimbalatti G</b></p><p><b>ACOUSTIC EVALUATION OF WOOD QUALITY WITH A NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD IN STANDING TREES: A FIRST SURVEY IN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Research and development efforts are currently underway worldwide to examine the potential use of a wide range of non-destructive technologies (NDT) for evaluating wood and wood-based materials, from the assessment of standing trees to in-place structures. For this purpose, acoustic velocity by the Fakopp time of flight (TOF) tool was used to estimate the influence of four thinning treatments performed in Southern Italy. The objective of the study was to determine if the effects of silvicultural practices on wood quality can be identified using acoustic measurement to assess the MOEd of standing trees with non-destructive method in Calabrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subsp. calabrica). Four hundred and fifty standing trees from four sites were non-destructively tested using a time-of-flight acoustic wave technique. The thinning trials were conducted on 60-year-old plantations of Calabrian pine in four plots under different treatments: Control (T), light thinning (A), intermediate thinning (B) and heavy thinning (C). Statistical analysis demonstrated significant stress wave time differences between the stands with moderate thinning (A and B) and those with heavy thinning (C). The results showed that tree diameter has significant influence on acoustic wave measurements and a valid relationship exists between diameter at breast height and tree velocity. The results of these studies proved that the stress wave technique can be successfully applied on standing trees.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Modulus of Elasticity, Wood Density, Thinning, Calabrian Pine</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 700-706 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2065-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2065-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2065-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Proto AR, Macrì G, Bernardini V, Russo D, Zimbalatti G Research Articles 2017-07-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2065-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Sensitivity analysis of RapidEye spectral bands and derived vegetation indices for insect defoliation detection in pure Scots pine stands https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1727-010 <p><b>Marx A, Kleinschmit B</b></p><p><b>SENSITIVITY ANALYSIS OF RAPIDEYE SPECTRAL BANDS AND DERIVED VEGETATION INDICES FOR INSECT DEFOLIATION DETECTION IN PURE SCOTS PINE STANDS</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: This study investigated the statistical relationship between defoliation in pine forests infested by nun moths (Lymantria monacha) and the spectral bands of the RapidEye sensor, including the derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the normalized difference red-edge index (NDRE). The strength of the relationship between the spectral variables and the ground reference samples of percent remaining foliage (PRF) was assessed over three test years by the Spearman’s ρ correlation coefficient, revealing the following ranking order (from high to low ρ): NDRE, NDVI, red, NIR, green, blue, and red-edge. A special focus was directed at the vegetation indices. In both discriminant analyses and decision tree classification, the NDRE yielded higher classification accuracy in the defoliation classes containing none to moderate levels of defoliation, whereas the NDVI yielded higher classification accuracy in the defoliation classes representing severe or complete defoliation. We concluded that the NDRE and the NDVI respond very similarly to changes in the amount of foliage, but exhibit particular strengths at different defoliation levels. Combining the NDRE and the NDVI in one discriminant function, the average gain of overall accuracy amounted to 7.8 percentage points compared to the NDRE only, and 7.4 percentage points compared to the NDVI only. Using both vegetation indices in a machine-learning-based decision tree classifier, the overall accuracy further improved and reached 81% for the test year 2012, 71% for 2013, and 79% for the test year 2014.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Forest Health, Discriminant Analysis, Pine Defoliation, Normalized Difference Red-edge Index, Decision Tree Classification</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 659-668 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1727-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1727-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1727-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Marx A, Kleinschmit B Research Articles 2017-07-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1727-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of Pinus sylvestris wood at five sites in Portugal https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2254-010 <p><b>Fernandes C, Gaspar MJ, Pires J, Alves A, Simões R, Rodrigues JC, Silva ME, Carvalho A, Brito JE, Lousada JL</b></p><p><b>PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PINUS SYLVESTRIS WOOD AT FIVE SITES IN PORTUGAL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: The reduction of resinous species in Portuguese forest areas has caused constraints to wood industry supplies. Portugal represents the extreme southwest of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) natural distribution and large gaps exist in the knowledge of its wood-quality characteristics. Understanding the relationship between these traits is important for recognizing which combination of wood properties is the most suitable for specific uses. To address these questions, we assessed wood-quality traits, namely, wood-density components (microdensitometric analysis), chemical composition (NIR spectrometry) and mechanical properties (bending tests) of wood samples collected at five representative forest sites in Portugal. Our results showed that Portuguese Pinus sylvestris has good radial growth and denser wood, higher extractive content and higher stiffness and strength than northern European provenances. The lignin content was within the range attributed to softwoods. Among the Portuguese stands, trees growing at lower-altitude sites exhibited denser wood and higher mechanical properties, while trees from high-elevations showed higher amounts of lignin. Ring density was more strongly correlated with earlywood than latewood density. A negative, non-significant correlation was found between ring density and width, supporting the assumption that the higher radial growth (ring width) does not negatively affect wood quality (density). In general, chemical properties had a weak relationship with physical and mechanical properties (MOE and MOR). Both mechanical traits were positively correlated with density and growth components, supporting the assumption that trees with high radial growth do not exhibit poorer mechanical performances.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Bending Tests, Correlations, Mechanical Traits, NIR Spectrometry, Scots Pine, Wood-Density Components, Wood Quality, X-ray Microdensitometry</p><p><i>iForest 10 (4): 669-679 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2254-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2254-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2254-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Fernandes C, Gaspar MJ, Pires J, Alves A, Simões R, Rodrigues JC, Silva ME, Carvalho A, Brito JE, Lousada JL Research Articles 2017-07-11 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2254-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Short-time effect of harvesting methods on soil respiration dynamics in a beech forest in southern Mediterranean Italy https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2032-010 <p><b>Coletta V, Pellicone G, Bernardini V, De Cinti B, Froio R, Marziliano PA, Matteucci G, Ricca N, Turco R, Veltri A</b></p><p><b>SHORT-TIME EFFECT OF HARVESTING METHODS ON SOIL RESPIRATION DYNAMICS IN A BEECH FOREST IN SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN ITALY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: CO2 fluxes from soil, together with soil water content and temperature have been measured over one solar year in an even-aged beech forest (Fagus Sylvatica L.) in southern Italy. We investigated the effects of three different harvested biomass removal treatments (traditional, innovative, unharvested control) on soil respiration (Rs) in three plots from May 2014 to April 2015, with the aim to evaluate the effects of such silvicultural practices on the CO2 respired from the forest floor. The influence of soil temperature and soil moisture on soil respiration was also analysed. Rs showed large variations among the treatments, with the innovative treatment resulting in significantly higher soil respiration than control and traditional treatments. There were no significant differences in soil temperature between the treatments, whereas soil water content was statistically different only in the innovative treatment. The study showed that the mean soil respiration increased with thinning intensity, confirming that after harvesting, residues remaining on the forest floor and decomposing roots may contribute to raise soil respiration, due to the higher microbial activity.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Soil Respiration, CO2, Forest Management, Beech Forest</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 645-651 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2032-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2032-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2032-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Coletta V, Pellicone G, Bernardini V, De Cinti B, Froio R, Marziliano PA, Matteucci G, Ricca N, Turco R, Veltri A Research Articles 2017-06-20 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2032-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Long-term effects of single-tree selection cutting management on coarse woody debris in natural mixed beech stands in the Caspian forest (Iran) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2091-010 <p><b>Tavankar F, Nikooy M, Picchio R, Venanzi R, Lo Monaco A</b></p><p><b>LONG-TERM EFFECTS OF SINGLE-TREE SELECTION CUTTING MANAGEMENT ON COARSE WOODY DEBRIS IN NATURAL MIXED BEECH STANDS IN THE CASPIAN FOREST (IRAN)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Coarse woody debris (CWD) has a wide range of ecological and conservation values such as maintaining biodiversity in forest ecosystems. Each forest management method can have a detrimental effect on stand structure and CWD. We analyzed the volume and density of live trees and CWD (snags and downed logs) over a long-term (30 years) selection-logging managed compartment (harvested), and compared these with values obtained from an unlogged compartment (control) in the Iranian Caspian forests. Results showed that the volume and density of live trees and CWD in the harvested area was significantly lower than in the control area, especially large size trees and CWD, very decayed CWD, and rare tree species. The ratio of snags volume to total standing volume (RSS) was significantly higher in the control (7.9%) than in the harvested area (5.2%), and the ratio of downed logs volume to trees volume (RDT) in the control area (6.3%) was significantly higher than in the harvested area (4.6%), while the ratio of downed logs volume to snags volume (RDS) was significantly higher in the harvested area (83.6%) than in the control (74%). Based on the obtained results, we recommend selection cutting forests to be managed based on CWD management plans, including appropriate cutting cycles (15-30 years) and retention of large-diameter (DBH > 75 cm) and cavity trees as a suitable habitat for many wildlife species.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Coarse Woody Debris, Snag, Biodiversity, Selective Logging, Caspian Forest</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 652-658 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2091-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2091-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2091-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Tavankar F, Nikooy M, Picchio R, Venanzi R, Lo Monaco A Research Articles 2017-06-20 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2091-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Seeing trees from space: above-ground biomass estimates of intact and degraded montane rainforests from high-resolution optical imagery https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2204-010 <p><b>Phua MH, Ling ZY, Coomes DA, Wong W, Korom A, Tsuyuki S, Ioki K, Hirata Y, Saito H, Takao G</b></p><p><b>SEEING TREES FROM SPACE: ABOVE-GROUND BIOMASS ESTIMATES OF INTACT AND DEGRADED MONTANE RAINFORESTS FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION OPTICAL IMAGERY</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Accurately quantifying the above-ground carbon stock of tropical rainforest trees is the core component of “Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation-plus” (REDD+) projects and is important for evaluating the effects of anthropogenic global change. We used high-resolution optical imagery (IKONOS-2) to identify individual tree crowns in intact and degraded rainforests in the mountains of Northern Borneo, comparing our results with 50 ground-based plots dispersed in intact and degraded forests, within which all stems > 10 cm in diameter were measured and identified to species or genus. We used the dimensions of tree crowns detected in the imagery to estimate above-ground biomasses (AGBs) of individual trees and plots. To this purpose, preprocessed IKONOS imagery was segmented using a watershed algorithm; stem diameter values were then estimated from the cross-sectional crown areas of these trees using regression relationships obtained from ground-based measurements. Finally, we calculated the biomass of each tree (AGBT, in kg), and the AGB of plots by summation (AGBP, in Mg ha-1). Remotely sensed estimates of mean AGBT were similar to ground-based estimates in intact and degraded forests, even though small trees could not be detected from space-borne sensors. The intact and degraded forests not only had different AGB but were also dissimilar in biodiversity. A tree-centric approach to carbon mapping based on high-resolution optical imagery, could be a cheap alternative to airborne laser-scanning.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Estimation, Crown Area, IKONOS-2, Tree Community Similarity, Sabah</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 625-634 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2204-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2204-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2204-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Phua MH, Ling ZY, Coomes DA, Wong W, Korom A, Tsuyuki S, Ioki K, Hirata Y, Saito H, Takao G Research Articles 2017-06-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2204-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Assessment of cadmium tolerance and phytoextraction ability in young Populus deltoides L. and Populus × euramericana plants through morpho-anatomical and physiological responses to growth in cadmium enriched soil https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2165-010 <p><b>Nikolić N, Zorić L, Cvetković I, Pajević S, Borišev M, Orlović S, Pilipović A</b></p><p><b>ASSESSMENT OF CADMIUM TOLERANCE AND PHYTOEXTRACTION ABILITY IN YOUNG POPULUS DELTOIDES L. AND POPULUS × EURAMERICANA PLANTS THROUGH MORPHO-ANATOMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO GROWTH IN CADMIUM ENRICHED SOIL</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Fast growing woody plants represent effective tools for cadmium (Cd) extraction during remediation of low to medium Cd contaminated soils. Poplars are good candidates for this task because of their rapid growth rate, high biomass yield, and adaptability, as well as the availability of well-characterized clones/ genotypes with various anatomical and physiological traits. The present study evaluates the potential of Populus deltoides (clone B-81) and Populus × euramericana (clone Pannonia) for phytoremediation of Cd contamination in soil. Poplar clones were analyzed for (1) plant growth response to Cd contamination, (2) Cd accumulation, translocation, and partitioning between plant organs, and (3) morphological, anatomical and physiological responses to Cd stress as a function of biomass production. Plants were cultivated in soil moderately contaminated with Cd (8.14 mg kg-1 soil) under semi-controlled conditions for six weeks. Our results suggest that P. × euramericana and P. deltoides clones respond differently to Cd contamination. Biomass production and morphological characteristics were more negatively affected in P. × euramericana than in P. deltoides plants. However, most examined leaf structural parameters were not significantly affected by Cd. In most cases, photosynthetic characteristics and gas exchange parameters were affected by Cd treatment, but the levels and patterns of changes depended on the clone. High tolerance to applied Cd levels, as estimated by the tolerance index, was observed in both clones, but was higher in P. deltoides than P. × euramericana (82.2 vs. 66.5, respectively). We suspect that the higher tolerance to Cd toxicity observed in P. deltoides could be related to unchanged proline content and undisturbed nitrogen metabolism. Following treatment, 58.0 and 46.7% of the total Cd content was accumulated in the roots of P. × euramericana and P. deltoides, respectively, with the remainder in the stems (18.2 and 39.9%) and leaves (23.8 and 13.4%). In summary, P. deltoides displayed better phytoextraction performance under Cd exposure than P. × euramericana, suggesting its potential not only for Cd phytostabilization, but also phytoextraction projects.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Cadmium, Phytoextraction, Poplars, Tolerance, Toxicity</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 635-644 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2165-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2165-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2165-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Nikolić N, Zorić L, Cvetković I, Pajević S, Borišev M, Orlović S, Pilipović A Research Articles 2017-06-01 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2165-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Canopy temperature variability in a tropical rainforest, subtropical evergreen forest, and savanna forest in Southwest China https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2223-010 <p><b>Song Q-H, Zhang Y-P, Sha L-Q, Deng X-B, Deng Y, Wu C-S, Lu Z-Y, Chen A-G, Zhang S-B, Li P-G, Zhou W-J, Liu Y-T</b></p><p><b>CANOPY TEMPERATURE VARIABILITY IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST, SUBTROPICAL EVERGREEN FOREST, AND SAVANNA FOREST IN SOUTHWEST CHINA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Canopy temperature (Tc) measurements with infrared thermometry have been widely used to assess plant water status. Here, we evaluated Tc and its controlling factors in a primary tropical rainforest (TRF), subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest (STF) and valley savanna forest (SAF) in southwestern China. We found differences between Tc and air temperature (Ta) of as much as 2.2 °C between the dry and wet seasons in the TRF. However, the canopy-to-air temperature difference (Tc-Ta) was only 0.3 °C between the dry and wet seasons in the STF. Solar radiation (SR) was the dominant factor in Tc-Ta variations during the dry and wet seasons at the three sites. The increased heating in the canopy leaves was likely the result of low stomatal conductance leading to low transpiration cooling. Changes in Tc-Ta in the TRF were highly sensitive to the degree of stomatal closure. The change in Tc-Ta was controlled by the climate, but inherent plant traits, such as stomatal conductance, also played an important controlling role.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Canopy Temperature, Drought Stress, Microclimate, Transpiration, Leaf Energy Balance</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 611-617 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2223-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2223-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2223-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Song Q-H, Zhang Y-P, Sha L-Q, Deng X-B, Deng Y, Wu C-S, Lu Z-Y, Chen A-G, Zhang S-B, Li P-G, Zhou W-J, Liu Y-T Research Articles 2017-05-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2223-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Adjustment of photosynthetic carbon assimilation to higher growth irradiance in three-year-old seedlings of two Tunisian provenances of Cork Oak (Quercus suber L.) https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2105-010 <p><b>Rzigui T, Cherif J, Zorrig W, Khaldi A, Nasr Z</b></p><p><b>ADJUSTMENT OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON ASSIMILATION TO HIGHER GROWTH IRRADIANCE IN THREE-YEAR-OLD SEEDLINGS OF TWO TUNISIAN PROVENANCES OF CORK OAK (QUERCUS SUBER L.)</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Three-year-old seedlings of two Tunisian provenances of cork oak (Quercus suber L.) differing in climatic conditions at their geographical origin were subjected to increasing light intensities. Ga’four was the provenance from the driest site and Feija from the wettest site. Low-light adapted seedlings from both provenances were exposed to two light treatments: full sunlight (HL) and low light (LL, 15% sunlight) for 40 days. The CO2-response curve of leaf net photosynthesis (An-Ci curve) established under saturated photon flux density was used to compare photosynthetic parameters between leaves subjected to continuous low light (LL leaves) and leaves transferred from low to high light (HL leaves). Transfer from low to high light significantly increased net photosynthesis (An) and dark respiration (Rd) in Ga’four provenance but not in Feija. After transfer to high irradiance, specific leaf area (SLA) did not change in either provenance. This suggested that the increase in photosynthetic capacity on a leaf area basis in HL leaves of Ga’four provenance was not due to increased leaf thickness. Only the seedlings from the Ga’four provenance were able to acclimate to high light by increasing Vcmax and Jmax.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Quercus suber, Photosynthesis, Vcmax, Jmax, Stomatal Limitation</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 618-624 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor2105-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2105-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2105-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Rzigui T, Cherif J, Zorrig W, Khaldi A, Nasr Z Research Articles 2017-05-17 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2105-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Research Articles: Estimation of aboveground forest biomass in Galicia (NW Spain) by the combined use of LiDAR, LANDSAT ETM+ and National Forest Inventory data https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1989-010 <p><b>Jiménez E, Vega JA, Fernández-Alonso JM, Vega-Nieva D, Ortiz L, López-Serrano PM, López-Sánchez CA</b></p><p><b>ESTIMATION OF ABOVEGROUND FOREST BIOMASS IN GALICIA (NW SPAIN) BY THE COMBINED USE OF LIDAR, LANDSAT ETM+ AND NATIONAL FOREST INVENTORY DATA</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: Assessing biomass is critical for accounting bioenergy potentials and monitoring forest ecosystem responses to global change and disturbances. Remote sensing, especially Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data combined with field data, is being increasingly used for forest inventory purposes. We evaluated the feasibility of the combined use of freely available data, both remote sensing (LiDAR data provided by the Spanish National Plan for Aerial Ortophotography - PNOA - and Landsat vegetation spectral indices) and field data (from the National Forest Inventory) to estimate stand dendrometric and aboveground biomass variables of the most productive tree species in a pilot area in Galicia (northwestern Spain). The results suggest that the models can accurately predict dendrometric and biomass variables at plot level with an R2 ranging from 0.49 to 0.65 for basal area, from 0.65 to 0.95 for dominant height, from 0.48 to 0.68 for crown biomass and from 0.55 to 0.82 for stem biomass. Our results support the use of this approach to reduce the cost of forest inventories and provide a useful tool for stakeholders to map forest stand variables and biomass stocks.</p><p><b>Keywords</b>: Biomass Maps, Forest Inventory, LiDAR, Landsat Vegetation Indices</p><p><i>iForest 10 (3): 590-596 (2017)</i> - doi: 10.3832/ifor1989-010<br/><a href="https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1989-010" target="_blank">https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1989-010</a></p><hr size="1"/> Jiménez E, Vega JA, Fernández-Alonso JM, Vega-Nieva D, Ortiz L, López-Serrano PM, López-Sánchez CA Research Articles 2017-05-15 https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor1989-010 Copyright (c) 2021, Italian Society of Silviculture an Forest Ecology. All rights reserved Technical Reports: Canopy Chamber: a useful tool to monitor the CO2 exchange dynamics of shrubland https://iforest.sisef.org/contents/?id=ifor2209-010 <p><b>Guidolotti G, De Dato G, Liberati D, De Angelis P</b></p><p><b>CANOPY CHAMBER: A USEFUL TOOL TO MONITOR THE CO2 EXCHANGE DYNAMICS OF SHRUBLAND</b></p><p><b>Abstract</b>: A transient state canopy-chamber was developed to monitor CO2 exch