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iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry
vol. 10, pp. 353-354
Copyright © 2017 by the Italian Society of Silviculture and Forest Ecology
doi: 10.3832/ifor0078-010

Commentaries & Perspectives

Comments to Loewe et al. - Growth of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) European provenances in central Chile

Mariagrazia AgrimiCorresponding author

Introduction 

The article by Loewe Muñoz et al. ([6]), recently appeared as Short Communication in iForest, concerns the high interest in Italian stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) as an alternative forest tree crop for the Mediterranean zone of Chile. In that country the species is included in afforestation and rural development programs ([7]) with special reference to its role in agroforestry for pine nuts production (⇒ http:/­/­ www.­chilenut.­cl/­index.­php).

It is widely accepted that Italian stone pine is a relevant Mediterranean conifer for ecological characteristics and the high landscape values of forest stands ([5]). However, the attention paid to this forest species is even greater for edible seeds with increasingly added value ([8]). They are the world’s most expensive dried nuts, with very appreciated characteristics as gourmet and healthy food for excellent dietetic values compared to other nut pine seeds ([9], [11]). During last years, a decrease of pine nut yield and cone production has been observed throughout the Mediterranean countries, due to the spread of attacks of the western conifer seed bug (Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann - [1]) causing the so called Dry Cone Syndrome ([3]).

Considerations 

In their paper Loewe Muñoz et al. ([6]) reported the findings of a research carried out in central Chile, where growth and cone production of six European Stone pine provenances (two from Italy, three from Spain and one from Slovenia) were analyzed in a field trial experiment test.

The two Italian provenances considered refer to Tuscany and Lombardy, respectively, and the latter was used for the first time in a provenance trial. The literature concerning Italian stone pine does not give explicit information regarding this Lombardy provenance, although in the topological map of Pinus pinea L., published by EUFORGEN ([4]), a very small area could be geographically referred to Lombardy. However, that provenance is not included in the list of Italian seed forests, that can be currently retrieved by the Ricercaforestale.it website ([12]).

With regard to the Italian provenances generally used for other trials, we can find a Portuguese research where seed lots came from the sites of Cecina, Tomboli di Cecina and Duna Feniglia (Tuscany). Cecina e Duna Feniglia were signaled among the top five provenances of trial ([2]). Moreover, the main findings of another provenance test carried out in France and Spain ([10]), also indicated that the Italian provenance from Duna Feniglia (one of the certified Italian stone pine forest for seed production) achieved the highest growth along with those from inner Spain and France.

Conclusions 

It would be very interesting to know something more about the characteristics of Lombardy provenance that motivated the authors’ choice to use it in their trial (e.g., site quality, seed and cone production, tree features, historic background of stone pine plantations in that site).

Further details in this regard would be very appreciated, because Pinus pinea L. has been protagonist of an ancient, articulate and fascinating history - from forestry, economic and human point of view - which has not yet ended.

References

(1)
Bracalini M, Benedettelli S, Croci F, Terreni P, Tiberi R, Panzavolta T (2013). Cone and seed pests of Pinus pinea: assessment and characterization of damage. Journal of Economic Entomology 106: 229-34.
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Carrasquinho I, Gonçalvez E (2013). Mediterranean stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) genetic variability for growth traits in a Portuguese provenance trial. In: Proceedings of the “AGROPINE 2011 International Meeting on Mediterranean Stone Pine for Agroforestry” (Mutke S, Piqué M, Calama R eds). Valladolid (Spain) 17-19 Nov 2011. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A - Séminaires Méditerranéens 105: 59-66.
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Elvira-Recuenco M, Sánchez-Moreno J, Calama R, Pardos M, Mutke S, Gordo FJ, Pascual S, Raposo R (2016). Damage assessment in pine nuts from stone pine caused by Leptoglossus occidentalis and pathogenic agents. In: Proceedings of the EFIMED Conference “Wild Forest Products in Europe”. Barcelona (Spain) 13-14 Oct 2016, Poster session.
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Fady B, Fineschi S, Vendramin GG (2004). Pinus pinea - Technical Guidelines for genetic conservation and use for Italian stone pine. EUFORGEN, European Forest Genetic Resources Programme, Rome, Italy, pp. 1-6.
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Gasparella L, Tomao A, Agrimi M, Corona P, Portoghesi L, Barbati A (2016). Italian stone pine forests under Rome’s siege: learning from the past to protect their future. Landscape Research 42 (2): 211-222.
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Loewe MV, Delard RC (2012). Un nuevo cultivo para Chile, el pino pinonero (Pinus pinea L.) [A new crop for Chile, the Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.)]. Instituto Forestal, Santiago, Chile, pp. 364. [in Spanish]
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Loewe Muñoz V (2015). Oportunidades comerciales para el Piñón de pino piñonero (Pinus pinea L.) en Chile [Commercial opportunities for Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) in Chile]. Web presentation. [in Spanish]
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Mutke S, Gordo J, Khouja ML, Fady B (2013a). Low genetic and high environmental diversity at adaptive traits in Pinus pinea from provenance tests in France and Spain. In: Proceedings of the “AGROPINE 2011 International Meeting on Mediterranean Stone Pine for Agroforestry” (Mutke S, Piqué M, Calama R eds). Valladolid (Spain) 17-19 Nov 2011. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A - Séminaires Méditerranéens 105: 73-80.
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Mutke S, Pastor A, Picardo A (2013b). Toward a traceability of European pine nuts “from forest to fork”. In: Proceedings of the “AGROPINE 2011 International Meeting on Mediterranean Stone Pine for Agroforestry” (Mutke S, Piqué M, Calama R eds). Valladolid (Spain) 17-19 Nov 2011. Options Méditerranéennes: Série A - Séminaires Méditerranéens 105: 105-109.
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Ricercaforestale (2016). Ricercaforestale.it - Portale della ricerca scientifica e della pratica forestale [Ricercaforestale.it - Portal of scientific research and practical forestry]. CREA, Web site. [in Italian]
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Paper ID# ifor0078-010
Title Comments to Loewe et al. - Growth of Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.) European provenances in central Chile
Authors Agrimi M
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